Craig M. Divis
2011-2012 Distinguished Fulbright Teacher – South Africa
Why focus on the anti-apartheid
• Nelson Mandela:
–“one of the
victories of
[the 20th]
Why focus on the anti-apartheid
• Connie Field, producer/director of
the documentary Have You Heard
From Johannesburg?:
– “the most globalized
human rights
campaign there was”
– “historically [it] was
the most successful
liberation movement
to engage the rest of
the world”
Why focus on the
anti-apartheid movement?
• Teaching how to create change
empowers learners
teaches critical-thinking skills
• Stressing resistance over oppression
more positive, forward-looking approach
Why focus on the
anti-apartheid movement?
• In South Africa…
–the importance and diversity of the antiapartheid movement is often overlooked
–All South Africans were active in the
• A way for all South Africans to be proud of
the part they played in bringing about
–View democracy differently
–Learners understand how they can
create change
Why focus on the
anti-apartheid movement?
• In World History…
–Global human rights campaign
–Similar strategies and tactics that have
been used throughout history
–Connected to broader events around
the world
• the U.S. Civil Rights Movement, the Cold
War, etc.
How to teach it creatively?
• 1) Focus on the resistance and dissent
– who resisted and how they resisted
Beyers Naudé
Yusuf Dadoo
Imam Abdullah
Ruth First
Joe Slovo
How to teach it creatively?
• 2) Connect it to other events in world history
and to current events
– Historical Events:
• French Revolution
• Gandhi and India’s independence
• U.S. Civil Rights Movement
– Current Events:
• Arab Spring
• Palestinian resistance
• South African miners’ strikes
How to teach it creatively?
• 3) Integrate multimedia
– ex. Pictures, political cartoons, music, audio and
video clips, etc.
– More exciting and engaging
– Leads to deeper levels of understanding
– Can reach students from various learning abilities
– Builds skills:
• Analyzing and interpreting
• Critical thinking
How to teach it creatively?
• 4) Explore different methodologies
– Use music
• ex. Give each student a set of lyrics from different
protest songs
– Use visuals
• ex. Provide a picture to each student that represents a
specific type of protest or resistance
• Students then have to try to convince the class why
theirs makes the most sense
– Provide students with “How Would You Resist?”
cards and have them act as that person
• Have them exchange card with other students to look
at different perspectives
• Letta Mbulu
“Carry On” (1974)
• There's a man by my side walking
There's a voice within me talking
There's a word that needs saying
Carry on, carry on
• They will tell their lying stories
send their dogs to bite our
they will lock us in their prisons
carry on , carry on
• All their dogs will lie their rotting
all their lies will be forgotten
all their prison walls will crumble
carry on, carry on
“How Would You Resist?” cards
How to teach it creatively?
• 5) Activities and assignments should focus
on skills
– Put students in the role of decision-maker
– Focus on creativity, writing and technology skills
• ex. Use programs like Microsoft Publisher,
Windows Movie Maker, Prezi, and Google Sketchup
• ex. Speech, advertisement, persuasive essay,
obituary, recipe, editorial, interview, business
letter, song lyrics, etc.
How to teach it creatively?
– ex. Write and give a speech as if you were Steve Biko,
Helen Suzman, or Bram Fischer
– ex. “What would you do?” assignments
• Would you participate in the Defiance Campaign?
• How would you continue to resist after Sharpeville?
– ex. Create a music video as if you were Mzwakhe Mbuli
or Johannes Kerkerroel, or write your own protest song
– ex. Create a Public Service Announcement encouraging
people to join the Alexandra Bus Boycott
– ex. Debate the turn to the armed struggle or whether
sanctions would help or harm the Struggle
– ex. Build your own wing of a museum focusing on
different types of resistance used
How to teach it creatively?
• 6) Ask the right questions
– Open-ended
– Encourage critical thinking
– Lead to discussion
– ex. Is one form of resistance more effective than another?
What risks do people take when they resist?
Why is music an ideal vehicle for social criticism and political
How can a book or newspaper influence reform and change as
much as acts of sabotage or boycotts?
Does a religious leader have a responsibility to speak out and
act in times of social and political injustice?
What are the pros and cons of supporting a cultural or
consumer boycott?
What power do workers have in a country?
What is the difference between a freedom fighter and a
• E-mail: [email protected]
• Blog:
• Fulbright info:
SPONSORED BY: U.S. Department of State
Bureau of Educational & Cultural Affairs
Institute of International Education (IIE)

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