Apostling - Gordon College Faculty

Report
Matthew’s Gospel
Matthew’s Story: Matt. is
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M ethodical: Intertextual cf. Mk/Lk/James
A postling (Discipleship)
T heology of Christ
T ime: past/present/future
H ebrew orientation
E xtensive (non-Jewish aspect)
W itness
S tyle
Matthew’s story:
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How does Matthew differ from Mark?
How does Matthew differ from Luke?
Point is: unique material indicates his take
on Jesus
Methodical Matthew and Mark
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Develops brief statements of Mark
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Preaching of the kingdom: Mk 1:14f but
Matt. develops it in SoM for 3 chapters;
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Temptation Mk 1:12-13 –-> Mat 4:1-11
Why would Matthew develop it? Jesus=new Israel
Jesus = new Moses
Why would Matthew do more with Jesus’
words and Mark with Jesus works?
Audience: Mark Roman, Matthew Jewish
Jesus as the New Moses:
5 Teaching Discourses
Sermon on
the Mount
Mt 5-7
Sending
of the 12
Mt 10
Parables of
the kingdom
Mt 13
Matthew
Community
Instructions
Mt 18
Olivet
Discourse:
End times
Mt 24-25
“When Jesus finished”
(7:28; 11:1; 13:53; 19:1
26:1)
Methodical: Mat/Mark
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Condenses Mark’s Miracles
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Gerasene demoniac—Mat 8/Mk 5
326 words in Mark, --1 demoniac
134 in Mat. –2 demoniacs
Jesus Walking on water:
Mk 6:45-52; 139 words,
Mat. 14:22ff 101 adds Peter walking on
water and instructional lesson for Peter—
falls in; little faith
Methodical: compare Mat/Luke
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Mat. gathers what Luke scatters (SoM)
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Mt 5:13
Mt 5:15
Mt 6:22
Mt. 7:7
Salt of world
Candle covered
light body is eye
ask –receive
Lk 14:34
Lk 8:16
Lk 11:34
Lk 11:9
What does that say about the narrative
and chronology?
Mat. Topical – Luke more chronological
Matthew compared with James
(Porter, BSac 2005)
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James 1:12 Blessed is a man who perseveres
under trial
Mat 5:10f. Blessed are those who have been
persecuted for the sake of righteousness
Matthew compared with James
(Porter, BSac 2005)
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James 1:23: For if anyone is a hearer of the
word and not a doer, he is like a man who looks
at his natural face in the mirror..
Mat. 7:26 Everyone who hears these words of
mine and does not act on them, will be like a
foolish man who built his house on sand.
James and Matthew
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James 5:12 But above all, my brethren, do
not swear, either by heaven or by earth or
with any other oath; but your yes is to be
yes, and your no, no, so that you may not
fall under judgment
Mat 5:34ff: But I say to you, make no oath
at all….but let your statement be “Yes,
yes” or “No, no”;
Matthew’s story: Apostling
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Apostling (sent one): Discipleship theme
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How does one begin to be an disciple of
Jesus?
Peter the consummate disciple:
Why so many unique stories of Peter:
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Walking on water—little faith 14:28ff
Peter-Rock—representative disciple,
Get behind me Satan—16:21
Temple tax– 17:24ff
3x Denial –26:69ff
Peter as Consummate Disciple
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The Call/Vocation
Rabbi’s: students sought teachers out,
not = Jesus, he goes to them
Ordinary people in the midst of life Mat
4:18f casting nets, not super-stars, leave
fishing and follow Jesus—contrast Rich
Young Ruler – Matt. 19 // Mk 10:21
Matthew’s story: Apostling
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What are the key qualities of a true
disciple of Christ?
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[CCOURT]=
Call,
Cost,
Obedience
Understanding,
Righteousness,
True/false disciples
Apostling: Obedience
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Obedience: Chs. 1-2, 28 –Importance –El ladder
 Who is the focus in ch. 1? Joseph or Mary? –
Joseph instructed  obedient 1:24
 Magi—why the magi? not elsewhere (Gentiles;
Abrahamic covenant fulfilled; Gen. 12)
 Joseph—going to Egypt instructions—
Jesus=new Israel
 Herod?– fulfills Scripture (even he)—2:16ff
Great commission: inclusio-Nations (Gen. 12)
Apostling: obedience
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Student like teacher: Mt 10:24f imitatio
Orthodoxy/orthoproxy:
Mat 23:3-5 obey what they say, do not do what
they do
Brotherhood not hierarchy (Mat 23:8f)— all
brothers, humility not= power, etc, flat
organizational structure, not hierarchy, servant
leadership –upside down kingdom
What separated the wise and foolish man
(house on rock/sand) Mat 7:24f
--Everyone who hears these words of mine and
does not put them into practice is like a foolish
man who built his house on the sand.
Apostoling --Obedience
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Who are my family  disciples? Mat
12:49—Then he pointed to his disciples
and said, “These are my mother and
brothers. Anyone who does the will of my
Father in heaven is my brother and sister
and mother.
Apostling: Righteousness
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How does “righteousness” play into discipleship
(two big convergent themes in Matthew)?
How do we prove that? 3 following examples
Question: What is the difference between these
next two verses?—Lk. 12:31 and Mat. 6:33
Righteousness
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1) Luke 12:31: But seek his kingdom, and
these things will be added to you as well.
Compare Mat 6:33: But seek first his
kingdom and his righteousness and all
these things will be given to you as well.
Note the linking of righteousness and the
kingdom
Apostling: Righteousness
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2) Luke 6:22: Blessed are you when men
hate you, when they exclude you and
insult you …because of the Son of Man
Compare Mat 5:10: Blessed are those
who are persecuted because of
righteousness.
Righteousness
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3) Luke 6:21 Blessed are you who hunger
now, for you will be satisfied
Compare Mat 5:6: Blessed are those who
hunger and thirst for righteousness, for
they will be filled.
How do you account for the differences?
Apostling: Righteousness
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Better righteousness  head to heart
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Mat 5:27f: adultery  look
Mat 5:21f: murder  anger
Mat 12:36 accountable at judgment for every
word
Better righteousness: mouth hands:
do what they say not as they do (Mat
23:3ff)
Core righteousness:
love God / love neighbor
Apostling: Understanding
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Understanding: Parables, Walking on water, leaven
Mk 4:13 Then Jesus said to them, “Don’t you
understand this parable?”--rebuke
Compare Mat 13:16f: But blessed are your eyes
because they see, and your ears because they
hear. Many prophets …wanted but couldn’t see
what you see
Note: Mark rebukes the disciples for not
understanding; Matthew drops that and instructs
Apostling: Understanding
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Question: How do you fit these together
from the walking on water incident?
Mk 6:50f Then he climbed into the boat …
They were completely amazed, for they
had not understood about the loaves; their
hearts were hard –don’t get it
Compare Mat 14:33: Then those who
were in the boat worshipped him, saying
“Truly you are the Son of God.” –get it
Apostling: Understanding
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Mar 8:21: Warning about the yeast of the Pharisees
story ends with the rebuke: “Do you not yet
understand?”
Compare Mat 16:12: after warning of the leaven of
the Pharisees “then they understood that he had not
told them to beware of the yeast of bread, but of the
teaching of the Pharisees…
Little faith (oligopistoi) paralyzing disciple
 Mat. 16:8f—lack of faith inhibits understanding—
do you still not understand? Cf Mt 6:30//Lk 12:23f
Lack understanding of passion 16:21ff; 26:51f
Apostling: Cost of Discipleship
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What is the cost of discipleship?—Dietrich
Bonhoeffer, Columbine, Nigeria, Iraq, Egypt
True disciples will suffer rejection, persecution,
hatred (Mat 10:23f, 34f) not peace but sword
For I have come to turn a man against his father, a
daughter against her mother, … a man’s enemies
will be the members of his own household.
Anyone who loves his father or mother more than
me is not worthy of me… and anyone who does
not take his cross and follow me is not worthy of
me. Whoever finds his life will lose it, and
whoever loses his life for my sake will find it.
Apostling: Cost of Discipleship
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Forsaking/leaving attachments: Rich young
ruler (Mat 19:16ff)
Denying oneself/loosing one’s
life/crucifixion: (Mat. 16:24-26)-imitatio
Imitation of Christ—Thomas a Kempis
If anyone would come after me, he must
deny himself and take up his cross and
follow me. … (16:24)
Apostling: False disciples
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What does Matthew teach about false
apostles/disciples?
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Mixture: Parable of Tares 13:24ff
Faith or works?
Mat 7:21-22 not every one who says Lord, Lord
will enter the kingdom of heaven, but only he
who does the will of my Father who is in heaven.
Many will say to me on that day, ‘Lord, Lord, did
we not prophesy in your name, and in your
name drive out demons and perform many
miracles?’ Then I will tell them plainly, ‘I never
knew you. Away from me, you evildoers!
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Apostling: False disciples
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Sheep and Goats: Mat 25:41ff—on what
basis let into kingdom—did it to the least
of these did it to me—self-deception
Question: Am I a Christian?
Matthew’s Story: Theology of
Jesus
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How does Matthew see Jesus?
Teacher-wisdom: you have heard it said but I
say….; one greater than Solomon (12:42)
Christ=greater Moses (?)
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5 sections of Matt. = new law (DeSilva)
Infants slain by king at birth
Flight to Egypt
Meeting God on a mountain
Transfiguration: Moses & Elijah
Theology in Matthew
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Healer: Therapeutic/non-therapeutic
miracles
Deity: Emmanuel: birth, Mt. 18:20 where
two or three gather, great commission with
them unto the end of the age.
Peter walking on water--You are son of God
(14:28, 33) Job 9:8
Kingship and the kingdom of heaven:
genealogy, victory over Satan, Lord of the
Sabbath; Son of David 9x in Mt: DVD = 14
Kingdom of Heaven
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Prominence in Matthew (3 proofs)
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Jesus/John’s preaching: repent for kingdom of
heaven is near (Mat 3:1; 4:17)
Beatitudes: inclusio: blessed are poor in spirit for
theirs is the kingdom of heaven. 5:3; 5:10
32 times used in Matthew
Kingdom of heaven or kingdom of God
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The knowledge of the secrets of the kingdom of
heaven has been given to you (Mt. 13:11)
The secret of the kingdom of God has been given to
you. (Mk 4:11)
Kingdom of Heaven
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Eschatological kingdom expectations: Davidic rule, Israel
back in the land, peace
Already: Imminence/near: Mt 3:2/5:20; Lk 17:21
Entrance repentance/belief: Mt 21:31
Kingdom parables: Sower, Tares, Sheep/goats
Not yet: Future kingdom: end, thy kingdom come (Mt.
6:9f);
What does Mt. 16:28 mean?
 Spread of gospel: 24:14; 6:33f? Transfiguration?
Resurrection?
Already, but not yet
Initial Kingdom concepts
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Complex concept: not singular
Past: Ex. 19:6 kingdom of priests
Present: Lk. 17:21 kingdom within you
Future: reign of Christ: lion/lamb Isa. 11:6
Already but Not Yet (Mathewson)
Here: Isa. 2:2-4; 9:6-7; 11:6-9
There: my kingdom not of this world Jn
18:36
Matthew’s Story: Matt. is
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M ethodical: Intertextual cf. Mk/Lk/James
A postling (Discipleship)
T heology of Christ
T ime: past/present/future
H ebrew orientation
E xtensive (non-Jewish aspect)
W itness
S tyle
Matthew’s Story: Take on Time
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How does Matthew use time?
Use of OT quotes 40x.
In what sense is the OT “fulfilled”?
Matthew’s Story: Past
Prophecy--fulfillment
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Mt 1:23 virgin birth
Isa 7:14
Mt 2:6
Bethlehem
Mic 5:2
Mt 2:15 Egypt flight
Hos 11:1(?)
Mt 2:18 Slaughter infants Jer. 31:15
Mt. 27:8ff Judas’ wages
Zech 11:12f
Mt 27:8f Purchase of field Jer. 32:6-9
Mt. 27:35 Soldiers cast lots Ps. 22:18
Eloi, Eloi lama – Ps. 22 (Mat 27:46)
Significance: Church and Israel connection
Matthew’s Story Present:
5 Discourses [New Moses]
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Mt 5-7 Sermon on the Mount
Mt 10 Commissioning of 12
Mt 13 Parables of the Kingdom
Mt 18 on humility and forgiveness
Mt 23, 24-25 Pharisees, Olivet Discourse
Matthew’s Story Future:
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Parables of the kingdom –how it will grow
Wicked tenants--killing the son stealing
inheritance—conflict
Church: only Gospel to use ekklesia Mt
16:18; 18:17
Sheep/goats – end of the age, justice
10 bridesmaids—when the bridegroom
comes—be ready
Matthew’s Future: Olivet Discourse
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Not one stone will be left on another 24:2 –critics
vaticinium post eventu, date late after 70 AD
For false Christs and false prophets will appear and
perform great signs and miracles to deceive even the
elect…24:24
Then you will be handed over to be persecuted and put to
death…24:9
And this gospel of the kingdom will be preached in all the
whole world…then the end will come. When you see the
abomination of desolation 24:14
No one knows the day or hour not even the Son 24:36
Two in field one taken the other left behind 24:40
Problem: This generation will not pass (Mt. 24:34) ??
Matthew’s Story: Matt. is
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M ethodical: Intertextual cf. Mk/Lk/James
A postling (Discipleship)
T heology of Christ
T ime: past/present/future
H ebrew orientation
E xtensive (non-Jewish aspect)
W itness
S tyle
Hebrew
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Language: gematria 14= DVD (Mt. 1), Eloi, behold
Use of OT: prophecy/fulfillment: virgin birth, Bethlehem, Egypt
Law: Mat 5:17 not destroy law/fulfill it,
Exclusvie Jewish Mission—sends 12, Canaanite woman
Jewish customs not explained
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Mt 15:2; cf. Mk 7:3,
DSS aware,
Knowledge of Sadducees—whose wife will she be
Kingdom of heaven, contra kingdom of God
“Israel” 6 times unique to Mat.
Jewish rumor—Mat. 28:11ff
Sorcerer accusation—Mat. 12:24=rabbinic writings
Matthew’s Story: Extensive
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Foreigners in Christ’s genealogy: Tamar,
Rahab, Uriah’s wife, Ruth, --wisemen
Why? Fulfillment of Abrahamic covenant
Universal mission: Mt. 28:19f
Rejection of Israel:
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Centurion’s servant: Mat 8:12ff
Woe to Chorazin: Mat. 11:20f
Wicked Tenants: Mat 21:43
Sit on 12 thrones judging Israel: two
communities continuity (Mat. 19:28)
Matthew’s Story--witness
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Witness: Magi, sends 12,
Lament for Jerusalem Mat 23:37f
Spread of the gospel before the end (Mat.
24:14) – completion of Abrahamic coveant
Great Commission: Mat. 28:19f: Therefore go
and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them
in the name of the Father and of the Son and of
the Holy Spirit, and teaching them to obey
everything I have commanded you. And surely I
am with you always, to the very end of the age.
Matthew Story--style
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Fondness for repetition
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Truly I say to you (formulas),
You have heard it said, but I say…
Blessed are the …
Parallelism: heaven/earth; law/prophets,
scribes/pharisees
5 Discourses—Sermon Mount, Olivet Disc.
OT quotes – 40x
Vocabulary
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Kingdom of Heaven
All—hyperbole 3:5 (all not = all);
Universalizing/Absolutizing: e.g. gouge out eye
(5:29f); turn the other cheek (5:39); judge not 7:1
3. Question
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What does Mt. 7:1 “Do not judge, or you
too will be judged” mean?
Doesn’t Jesus call us to make a judgment
in 7:6: don’t cast your pearls to the pigs?
Doesn’t 7:15 warning against false
prophets call us to make evaluations?
Isn’t the point in 7:1-5 hypocrisy not an
absolute rejection of any kind of judgment
Mat 7:1
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Mat. 18:17: church discipline
1 Cor. 5:1-12 Paul tells them they must
judge this guy who is a sinner inside the
church.
1 Cor. 5:9f: I have written you in my letter
not to associate with sexually immoral
people …who are in the church…
Rom. 12:9: Hate what is evil, cling to what
is good
Questions or Comments?
Questions: Mat 8:21
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1) Mat 8:21f.: Another disciple said to
him, “Lord first let me go and bury my
father.” But Jesus told him, “Follow me
and let the dead bury their own dead.”
What about honoring your parents?
Why was Jesus so harsh in turning him
away?
Possible Solution:
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1) Figurative: spiritual dead bury their
physical dead;  because they rejected
Jesus
2) shock and awe, high requirements of
followers of Jesus, giving up things (Mt.
10:37)—love father more than me not worthy
he needs to focus on proclaiming
the gospel, Luke 9:60: “Let the dead bury
their own dead, but you go and proclaim the
kingdom of God.”
Further
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Idea of no looking back (Lk. 9:62)
Perhaps ossuary re-interment of bones
The other way of looking at this is taking
the man’s request as: “let me look after my
father until he dies” which is a possible
alternative translation. In that case it
could take years before he follows Jesus.

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