Matthew’s Gospel Matthew’s Story: Matt. is M ethodical: Intertextual cf. Mk/Lk/James A postling (Discipleship) T heology of Christ T ime: past/present/future H ebrew orientation E xtensive (non-Jewish aspect) W itness S tyle Matthew’s story: How does Matthew differ from Mark? How does Matthew differ from Luke? Point is: unique material indicates his take on Jesus Methodical Matthew and Mark Develops brief statements of Mark Preaching of the kingdom: Mk 1:14f but Matt. develops it in SoM for 3 chapters; Temptation Mk 1:12-13 –-> Mat 4:1-11 Why would Matthew develop it? Jesus=new Israel Jesus = new Moses Why would Matthew do more with Jesus’ words and Mark with Jesus works? Audience: Mark Roman, Matthew Jewish Jesus as the New Moses: 5 Teaching Discourses Sermon on the Mount Mt 5-7 Sending of the 12 Mt 10 Parables of the kingdom Mt 13 Matthew Community Instructions Mt 18 Olivet Discourse: End times Mt 24-25 “When Jesus finished” (7:28; 11:1; 13:53; 19:1 26:1) Methodical: Mat/Mark Condenses Mark’s Miracles Gerasene demoniac—Mat 8/Mk 5 326 words in Mark, --1 demoniac 134 in Mat. –2 demoniacs Jesus Walking on water: Mk 6:45-52; 139 words, Mat. 14:22ff 101 adds Peter walking on water and instructional lesson for Peter— falls in; little faith Methodical: compare Mat/Luke Mat. gathers what Luke scatters (SoM) Mt 5:13 Mt 5:15 Mt 6:22 Mt. 7:7 Salt of world Candle covered light body is eye ask –receive Lk 14:34 Lk 8:16 Lk 11:34 Lk 11:9 What does that say about the narrative and chronology? Mat. Topical – Luke more chronological Matthew compared with James (Porter, BSac 2005) James 1:12 Blessed is a man who perseveres under trial Mat 5:10f. Blessed are those who have been persecuted for the sake of righteousness Matthew compared with James (Porter, BSac 2005) James 1:23: For if anyone is a hearer of the word and not a doer, he is like a man who looks at his natural face in the mirror.. Mat. 7:26 Everyone who hears these words of mine and does not act on them, will be like a foolish man who built his house on sand. James and Matthew James 5:12 But above all, my brethren, do not swear, either by heaven or by earth or with any other oath; but your yes is to be yes, and your no, no, so that you may not fall under judgment Mat 5:34ff: But I say to you, make no oath at all….but let your statement be “Yes, yes” or “No, no”; Matthew’s story: Apostling Apostling (sent one): Discipleship theme How does one begin to be an disciple of Jesus? Peter the consummate disciple: Why so many unique stories of Peter: Walking on water—little faith 14:28ff Peter-Rock—representative disciple, Get behind me Satan—16:21 Temple tax– 17:24ff 3x Denial –26:69ff Peter as Consummate Disciple The Call/Vocation Rabbi’s: students sought teachers out, not = Jesus, he goes to them Ordinary people in the midst of life Mat 4:18f casting nets, not super-stars, leave fishing and follow Jesus—contrast Rich Young Ruler – Matt. 19 // Mk 10:21 Matthew’s story: Apostling What are the key qualities of a true disciple of Christ? [CCOURT]= Call, Cost, Obedience Understanding, Righteousness, True/false disciples Apostling: Obedience Obedience: Chs. 1-2, 28 –Importance –El ladder Who is the focus in ch. 1? Joseph or Mary? – Joseph instructed obedient 1:24 Magi—why the magi? not elsewhere (Gentiles; Abrahamic covenant fulfilled; Gen. 12) Joseph—going to Egypt instructions— Jesus=new Israel Herod?– fulfills Scripture (even he)—2:16ff Great commission: inclusio-Nations (Gen. 12) Apostling: obedience Student like teacher: Mt 10:24f imitatio Orthodoxy/orthoproxy: Mat 23:3-5 obey what they say, do not do what they do Brotherhood not hierarchy (Mat 23:8f)— all brothers, humility not= power, etc, flat organizational structure, not hierarchy, servant leadership –upside down kingdom What separated the wise and foolish man (house on rock/sand) Mat 7:24f --Everyone who hears these words of mine and does not put them into practice is like a foolish man who built his house on the sand. Apostoling --Obedience Who are my family disciples? Mat 12:49—Then he pointed to his disciples and said, “These are my mother and brothers. Anyone who does the will of my Father in heaven is my brother and sister and mother. Apostling: Righteousness How does “righteousness” play into discipleship (two big convergent themes in Matthew)? How do we prove that? 3 following examples Question: What is the difference between these next two verses?—Lk. 12:31 and Mat. 6:33 Righteousness 1) Luke 12:31: But seek his kingdom, and these things will be added to you as well. Compare Mat 6:33: But seek first his kingdom and his righteousness and all these things will be given to you as well. Note the linking of righteousness and the kingdom Apostling: Righteousness 2) Luke 6:22: Blessed are you when men hate you, when they exclude you and insult you …because of the Son of Man Compare Mat 5:10: Blessed are those who are persecuted because of righteousness. Righteousness 3) Luke 6:21 Blessed are you who hunger now, for you will be satisfied Compare Mat 5:6: Blessed are those who hunger and thirst for righteousness, for they will be filled. How do you account for the differences? Apostling: Righteousness Better righteousness head to heart Mat 5:27f: adultery look Mat 5:21f: murder anger Mat 12:36 accountable at judgment for every word Better righteousness: mouth hands: do what they say not as they do (Mat 23:3ff) Core righteousness: love God / love neighbor Apostling: Understanding Understanding: Parables, Walking on water, leaven Mk 4:13 Then Jesus said to them, “Don’t you understand this parable?”--rebuke Compare Mat 13:16f: But blessed are your eyes because they see, and your ears because they hear. Many prophets …wanted but couldn’t see what you see Note: Mark rebukes the disciples for not understanding; Matthew drops that and instructs Apostling: Understanding Question: How do you fit these together from the walking on water incident? Mk 6:50f Then he climbed into the boat … They were completely amazed, for they had not understood about the loaves; their hearts were hard –don’t get it Compare Mat 14:33: Then those who were in the boat worshipped him, saying “Truly you are the Son of God.” –get it Apostling: Understanding Mar 8:21: Warning about the yeast of the Pharisees story ends with the rebuke: “Do you not yet understand?” Compare Mat 16:12: after warning of the leaven of the Pharisees “then they understood that he had not told them to beware of the yeast of bread, but of the teaching of the Pharisees… Little faith (oligopistoi) paralyzing disciple Mat. 16:8f—lack of faith inhibits understanding— do you still not understand? Cf Mt 6:30//Lk 12:23f Lack understanding of passion 16:21ff; 26:51f Apostling: Cost of Discipleship What is the cost of discipleship?—Dietrich Bonhoeffer, Columbine, Nigeria, Iraq, Egypt True disciples will suffer rejection, persecution, hatred (Mat 10:23f, 34f) not peace but sword For I have come to turn a man against his father, a daughter against her mother, … a man’s enemies will be the members of his own household. Anyone who loves his father or mother more than me is not worthy of me… and anyone who does not take his cross and follow me is not worthy of me. Whoever finds his life will lose it, and whoever loses his life for my sake will find it. Apostling: Cost of Discipleship Forsaking/leaving attachments: Rich young ruler (Mat 19:16ff) Denying oneself/loosing one’s life/crucifixion: (Mat. 16:24-26)-imitatio Imitation of Christ—Thomas a Kempis If anyone would come after me, he must deny himself and take up his cross and follow me. … (16:24) Apostling: False disciples What does Matthew teach about false apostles/disciples? Mixture: Parable of Tares 13:24ff Faith or works? Mat 7:21-22 not every one who says Lord, Lord will enter the kingdom of heaven, but only he who does the will of my Father who is in heaven. Many will say to me on that day, ‘Lord, Lord, did we not prophesy in your name, and in your name drive out demons and perform many miracles?’ Then I will tell them plainly, ‘I never knew you. Away from me, you evildoers! Apostling: False disciples Sheep and Goats: Mat 25:41ff—on what basis let into kingdom—did it to the least of these did it to me—self-deception Question: Am I a Christian? Matthew’s Story: Theology of Jesus How does Matthew see Jesus? Teacher-wisdom: you have heard it said but I say….; one greater than Solomon (12:42) Christ=greater Moses (?) 5 sections of Matt. = new law (DeSilva) Infants slain by king at birth Flight to Egypt Meeting God on a mountain Transfiguration: Moses & Elijah Theology in Matthew Healer: Therapeutic/non-therapeutic miracles Deity: Emmanuel: birth, Mt. 18:20 where two or three gather, great commission with them unto the end of the age. Peter walking on water--You are son of God (14:28, 33) Job 9:8 Kingship and the kingdom of heaven: genealogy, victory over Satan, Lord of the Sabbath; Son of David 9x in Mt: DVD = 14 Kingdom of Heaven Prominence in Matthew (3 proofs) Jesus/John’s preaching: repent for kingdom of heaven is near (Mat 3:1; 4:17) Beatitudes: inclusio: blessed are poor in spirit for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. 5:3; 5:10 32 times used in Matthew Kingdom of heaven or kingdom of God The knowledge of the secrets of the kingdom of heaven has been given to you (Mt. 13:11) The secret of the kingdom of God has been given to you. (Mk 4:11) Kingdom of Heaven Eschatological kingdom expectations: Davidic rule, Israel back in the land, peace Already: Imminence/near: Mt 3:2/5:20; Lk 17:21 Entrance repentance/belief: Mt 21:31 Kingdom parables: Sower, Tares, Sheep/goats Not yet: Future kingdom: end, thy kingdom come (Mt. 6:9f); What does Mt. 16:28 mean? Spread of gospel: 24:14; 6:33f? Transfiguration? Resurrection? Already, but not yet Initial Kingdom concepts Complex concept: not singular Past: Ex. 19:6 kingdom of priests Present: Lk. 17:21 kingdom within you Future: reign of Christ: lion/lamb Isa. 11:6 Already but Not Yet (Mathewson) Here: Isa. 2:2-4; 9:6-7; 11:6-9 There: my kingdom not of this world Jn 18:36 Matthew’s Story: Matt. is M ethodical: Intertextual cf. Mk/Lk/James A postling (Discipleship) T heology of Christ T ime: past/present/future H ebrew orientation E xtensive (non-Jewish aspect) W itness S tyle Matthew’s Story: Take on Time How does Matthew use time? Use of OT quotes 40x. In what sense is the OT “fulfilled”? Matthew’s Story: Past Prophecy--fulfillment Mt 1:23 virgin birth Isa 7:14 Mt 2:6 Bethlehem Mic 5:2 Mt 2:15 Egypt flight Hos 11:1(?) Mt 2:18 Slaughter infants Jer. 31:15 Mt. 27:8ff Judas’ wages Zech 11:12f Mt 27:8f Purchase of field Jer. 32:6-9 Mt. 27:35 Soldiers cast lots Ps. 22:18 Eloi, Eloi lama – Ps. 22 (Mat 27:46) Significance: Church and Israel connection Matthew’s Story Present: 5 Discourses [New Moses] Mt 5-7 Sermon on the Mount Mt 10 Commissioning of 12 Mt 13 Parables of the Kingdom Mt 18 on humility and forgiveness Mt 23, 24-25 Pharisees, Olivet Discourse Matthew’s Story Future: Parables of the kingdom –how it will grow Wicked tenants--killing the son stealing inheritance—conflict Church: only Gospel to use ekklesia Mt 16:18; 18:17 Sheep/goats – end of the age, justice 10 bridesmaids—when the bridegroom comes—be ready Matthew’s Future: Olivet Discourse Not one stone will be left on another 24:2 –critics vaticinium post eventu, date late after 70 AD For false Christs and false prophets will appear and perform great signs and miracles to deceive even the elect…24:24 Then you will be handed over to be persecuted and put to death…24:9 And this gospel of the kingdom will be preached in all the whole world…then the end will come. When you see the abomination of desolation 24:14 No one knows the day or hour not even the Son 24:36 Two in field one taken the other left behind 24:40 Problem: This generation will not pass (Mt. 24:34) ?? Matthew’s Story: Matt. is M ethodical: Intertextual cf. Mk/Lk/James A postling (Discipleship) T heology of Christ T ime: past/present/future H ebrew orientation E xtensive (non-Jewish aspect) W itness S tyle Hebrew Language: gematria 14= DVD (Mt. 1), Eloi, behold Use of OT: prophecy/fulfillment: virgin birth, Bethlehem, Egypt Law: Mat 5:17 not destroy law/fulfill it, Exclusvie Jewish Mission—sends 12, Canaanite woman Jewish customs not explained Mt 15:2; cf. Mk 7:3, DSS aware, Knowledge of Sadducees—whose wife will she be Kingdom of heaven, contra kingdom of God “Israel” 6 times unique to Mat. Jewish rumor—Mat. 28:11ff Sorcerer accusation—Mat. 12:24=rabbinic writings Matthew’s Story: Extensive Foreigners in Christ’s genealogy: Tamar, Rahab, Uriah’s wife, Ruth, --wisemen Why? Fulfillment of Abrahamic covenant Universal mission: Mt. 28:19f Rejection of Israel: Centurion’s servant: Mat 8:12ff Woe to Chorazin: Mat. 11:20f Wicked Tenants: Mat 21:43 Sit on 12 thrones judging Israel: two communities continuity (Mat. 19:28) Matthew’s Story--witness Witness: Magi, sends 12, Lament for Jerusalem Mat 23:37f Spread of the gospel before the end (Mat. 24:14) – completion of Abrahamic coveant Great Commission: Mat. 28:19f: Therefore go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, and teaching them to obey everything I have commanded you. And surely I am with you always, to the very end of the age. Matthew Story--style Fondness for repetition Truly I say to you (formulas), You have heard it said, but I say… Blessed are the … Parallelism: heaven/earth; law/prophets, scribes/pharisees 5 Discourses—Sermon Mount, Olivet Disc. OT quotes – 40x Vocabulary Kingdom of Heaven All—hyperbole 3:5 (all not = all); Universalizing/Absolutizing: e.g. gouge out eye (5:29f); turn the other cheek (5:39); judge not 7:1 3. Question What does Mt. 7:1 “Do not judge, or you too will be judged” mean? Doesn’t Jesus call us to make a judgment in 7:6: don’t cast your pearls to the pigs? Doesn’t 7:15 warning against false prophets call us to make evaluations? Isn’t the point in 7:1-5 hypocrisy not an absolute rejection of any kind of judgment Mat 7:1 Mat. 18:17: church discipline 1 Cor. 5:1-12 Paul tells them they must judge this guy who is a sinner inside the church. 1 Cor. 5:9f: I have written you in my letter not to associate with sexually immoral people …who are in the church… Rom. 12:9: Hate what is evil, cling to what is good Questions or Comments? Questions: Mat 8:21 1) Mat 8:21f.: Another disciple said to him, “Lord first let me go and bury my father.” But Jesus told him, “Follow me and let the dead bury their own dead.” What about honoring your parents? Why was Jesus so harsh in turning him away? Possible Solution: 1) Figurative: spiritual dead bury their physical dead; because they rejected Jesus 2) shock and awe, high requirements of followers of Jesus, giving up things (Mt. 10:37)—love father more than me not worthy he needs to focus on proclaiming the gospel, Luke 9:60: “Let the dead bury their own dead, but you go and proclaim the kingdom of God.” Further Idea of no looking back (Lk. 9:62) Perhaps ossuary re-interment of bones The other way of looking at this is taking the man’s request as: “let me look after my father until he dies” which is a possible alternative translation. In that case it could take years before he follows Jesus.