SYLLABUS CLASS-VIII - e-CTLT

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SYLLABUS CLASS-VIII
APRIL-MAY
ELECTRICAL SAFETY RULES, ELECTRICAL SHOCK AND ITS
TREATMENT
JUNE-JULY
FUSE- FUNCTION, TYPES OF FUSES AND THEIR USES, DIAGRAM,
IMORTANCE, POSSIBLE ACCIDENTS WITHOUT A FUSE.
AUGUST
HOUSE WIRING :- TYPES OF WIRING, MATERIALS REQUIRED FOR
WIRING, CONNECTION FROM ENERGY METER TO SWITCH
BOARDVIA DISTRIBUTION BOARD AND MAIN SWITCH.
SEPTEMBER
PAPIER MACHE:-PREPARE A BIRD / ANIMAL, FLOWER VASE
USING THIS TECHNIQUE.
MEAL PLANNING AND PREPARATION
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1. Understanding the definitions of food, health, disease, nutrients,
nutrition. 5 food groups.
2. Preparation of soup-tomato/mixed vegetable/sweet corn
3. Preparation of eggs-poached, omellette, scrambled
4. Preparation of mango panna
5. Preparation of sago cutlets
6. Preparation of rainbow/ribbon sandwich
7. Preparation of pasta/macaroni
8. Preparation of corn bhel
9. Preparation of ice cream shakes
10. Preparations using condensed milk (like shahi tukra / kheer/
chocolate rolls)
11. Scrap book – Pasting of pictures of food nutrients and food groups.
TEXTILE DESIGNING
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1. Fabric Painting
 Trace different figures/designs using butter paper and blue / used
dry cell and mineral oil.
 Paint 2 pillow covers, music system cover.
 Learn how to mix-match colours and prepare new colours with
colour schemes.
2. Block Printing – Using wooden blocks and ready to use colours,
print a TV cover/Table cloth in 2 to 3 colours. Make a border on the
cloth with blocks.
3. Tie and dye – Understand the different techniques of tieing the
fabric like folding, bandhani, marbelling, knotting, laheria, tritik etc.
 Understand how to prepare the dye.
 Tie and dye cotton handkerchiefs in single colour.
 Fix the colour so that it becomes permanent.
ELEMENTS OF DRESS DESIGNING
(Cutting, Tailoring, Knitting and Embroidery)
• 1. Preparation of samples of different types of buttons with
button
• holes, lace fixing.
• 2. Understand the parts of a sewing machine, threading of
machine
• and use of machine.
• 3. Drafting, cutting and stitching of an apron and decorate
it with lace.
• 4. Embroider two pillow covers using different stitches
• 5. Preparation of a wall hanging using cross stitch.
• 6. Preparation of knitting designs using books.
• 7. Knitting of Baby Baniyan for a child using simple knitted
design.
ELECTRICAL MEASURING
INSTRUMENTS
• AMPEREMETER(AC,DC AND AC/DC):- IT IS
USED TO MEASURE THE CURRENT OF ANY
APPLIANCE, EQUIPMENT, MACHINE OR
CIRCUIT CONNECTED WITH THE SUPPLY. IT IS
FOUND IN DIFFERENT RANGES i.e. 0 TO 1A, 0
TO 5A, 0 TO 10A, 0 TO 20A, 0 TO 50A, 0 TO
100A,ETC.
VOLTMETER(AC/DC AND DC)
• IT IS USED TO MEASURE THE VOLTAGE OF ANY
APPLIANCE, EQUIPMENT, GENERATOR, CELL
OR SUPPLY, ETC. IT IS ALSO FOUND IN
DIFFERENT RANGES, i.e. 0 TO 10V, 0 TO 15V, 0
TO 30V, 0 TO 110V, 0 TO 250V, 0 TO 300V, 0 TO
500V, ETC.
OHM METER
• IT IS USED TO MEASURE THE RESISTANCE OF
ANY COIL, ELEMENT OR CIRCUIT, ETC.,IT IS
CONNECTED ACROSS THE RESISTANCE TO BE
MEASURED.
Multi meter
• It is used to measure the current, voltage and
resistance of any circuit and posses different
ranges.
Kilo watt hour meter or Energy meter( AC and DC
• It is used to measure the consumption of
electricity in the circuits. It is of different types
i.e. single phase and three phase and DC type.
Watt meter
• It is used to measure the electrical power of
the circuits or wattage of any bulb, tube etc. it
is also of different type i.e. AC type single
phase and three phase and DC type.
Three phase watt meter
Frequency meter
• It is used to measure the frequency of Ac
supply.
Megger set
• It is used to measure the insulation resistance
of insulated conductors
CRAFT WORK
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1. Paper work
a) Prepare masks (animal/human)
b) Prepare puppet with paper.
2. Papier Mache
a) Prepare a bird/animal using this technique.
b) Prepare a flower vase using papier mache.
3. Clay Modelling
a) Prepare a flower pot, decorate it with clay carving.
b) Prepare clay models of face of a man or a woman.
4. Doll Making
Make a pair of dolls –Bride and bridegroom of any one state of
India out of socks.
Tie and dye
• Tie and dye is a resist method for dyeing
cloths. It is one of the most easiest methods
and a variety of designs can be obtained by it.
The process involves tying of thread on cloths.
The dye cannot penetrate the cloth where the
thread is tied. A variety of things can be put
inside before tying to obtain different patterns
like marble chips, pulses, clips, bottle caps,
bangles etc.
Project tie and dye two cotton hankies
• Materials required:- dye of different shades,
thread, salt, cotton cloth
• Tools required:- bowls spoons, scissors, needle,
mugs etc.
• Method:• 1. Cut squares hankies of size 12X12 inches.
• 2. Tie thread on them in different styles.
• 3. boil 2 bowls of water, add I spoon of colour and
one spoon of common salt.
• 4. wet the hankies in water, put in them
saucepan and then boil for 5-10 minutes.
• 5. wash the hankies in running water.
• 6. let the hankies dry, remove the thread. Iron
and finish the edges by attaching lace.
PREPARATION OF SPECIFIC ITEMS
AND THEIR VALUE ADDITION
• 1. Gift wrapping
• a. Use of waste material in gift wrapping like old rakhis, doris,
mirrors
• bangles etc.
• b. Making envelopes for shagun.
• c. Packaging Diwali gifts, Holi gifts, Christmas gifts, New year gifts.
• d. Packing a child’s stationery kit.
• 2. Best out of waste
• a. Making puppets with broken doll’s face.
• b. Using old marriage cards, greeting cards and gift papers; prepare
• shopping bags.
COMPUTER APPLICATIONS
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1. Starting Power Point
2. Powerpoint Screen Elements
• The main power point window
• Toolbars
• The presentation window
3. Power point wizards and templates
4. Opening and closing a presentation file
5. Exiting a power point.
6. Opening new, blank presentation
7. Different types of auto layouts
8. Creating slides and entering text in slide view,
9. Saving a new presentation
10. Spell-checking a presentation
11. Drawing objects and adding clip art on to slides.
12. Working with organization, columns and pie charts
• 13. Adding transitions and builds to the
presentation
• 14. Animating the drawing objects
• • Preset animation
• • Custom animation
• 15. Running a slide show.
GARDENING AND VERMICOMPOSTING
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1. Identification of spraying and dusting machines.
2. Handling and care of tools and implements.
3. Sowing of seeds in pot and bed.
4. Sowing of seeds in nursery beds for transplantation.
5. Transplantation of seedlings.
6. Weeding and thinning by khurpi.
7. Watering of pots and garden.
8. Watering of seed beds.
9. Identification of herbs, shrubs and trees.
10. Prepare a scrap book on locally available herbs,
flowering plants,
• leaves. (Herbarium)
Electricity safety Rules
1.Don’t remove a plug from a power point by pulling on the cord; pull
the plug instead.
2. Never plug adaptors into adaptors and avoid using adaptors filled
with plugs where possible.
3. Switch off electrical items that are not in regular use at the plug and
ensure that when we are away from the house for any length of
time that you unplug and switch off electrical items as items left
plugged in can be a fire risk and waste energy if left on standby.
4. Do not use any electrical items in the bathroom unless specifically
designed for use there, eg. Shavers and electric toothbrushes. Even
with these items however, take care not to get wet and avoid
plugging and unplugging with wet hands.
5. Do not use items with damaged cords so that the wires are
exposed. Either repair or replace. Check items regularly.
6. Do not use damaged sockets, replace with care when necessary.
7. Always turn the electrics off at the mains if carrying out any
electrical repairs and only attempt repairs if you know what you are
doing.
8. Ensure any electrical items are approved standard when
purchasing and keep them correctly maintained where necessary.
Look for the BEAB seal of approval.
9. Do not use electrical equipment outside if it’s raining.
10. Use the correct wattage light bulb for all light fittings.
11. Circuit breakers and fuses should be the correct size current
rating for their circuit
Electric Shock
• Electricity is non hazardous provided the
equipment and installation are properly designed,
installed and maintained. But if some how the live
parts of circuits come into contact with metal parts
of equipments will complete the circuit and receive
an ELECTRIC SHOCK (passage of current through
body due to completion of circuit).
• The severity of an electric shock depends upon
voltage of system, area in electrical contact,
duration of contact, physical condition of person
and dampness of person’s skin and the ground.
Treatment for electric shock
• 1 Switch off the current:- when a person is in
the contact with a live conductor, switch off
the main immediately if it is nearby or if the
switch is found at a far off distance, then
remove the plug if possible or by insulating
yourself on a dry wood or mat etc. cut or pull
the wire ends connected with the switch
board. If it is impossible to cut off the supply
then proceed further.
Treatment for electric shock
• 2. Removing the casualty from the contact of
current:- Insulate yourself with the insulating
material standing on the dry wooden piece,
chair, stool, mat or folded news paper and
push the casualty with a dry rod or coat or
other garment or push his clothes if they are
dry.
Treatment for electric shock
• 3. Giving artificial respiration:- Expiration:- Keeping your arms
straight lean forward slowly until the arms are vertical using no
special force. This movement should be done up to 2 seconds
counting one, two.
• Inspiration:- Rock backward counting three for one second and
slide your hands past the casualty’s shoulders until they grip his
upper arms near the elbows. Raise and pull on the arms until
tension is felt for a period of 2 seconds counting four five. Do not
raise the chest of the casualty from the ground the whole operation
should be continued until breathing recommences. i.e. for 6
seconds. In this way when the casualty begins to show sings of
breathing then use the movement only for two times, raising and
lowering the arms alternatively counting 1,2 (2 seconds) for
inspiration and 3,4 (2 seconds) for expiration
• 4. Treating the burns:- If there is any burn on the body
use proper ointment on them and cover them with
proper dressing.
• 5. Removing the casualty from fire:- When the
casualty’s clothing catches fire, approach him holding
a blanket, coat or thick table cloth in front of yourself
for your protection and wrap the body of the casualty
with the thing which you are having in your hands and
lay the casualty that on the ground or roll him on the
ground. Call for the fire brigade.
• 6. Sending the casualty to the hospital or seeking
medical aid:- Even after apartment recovery the
casualty should be sent to the hospital to ensure that
all is well or call for the doctor at spot.
First Aid For Electric Shock
1. The victim usually gets stuck to the source of
the electricity, and it is important that you first
separate him from the electrical source.
2. Turn off the power supply switch and
disconnect the plug. It's best to simply turn off
the main power supply or pull out the fuse.
Often, simply turning off the switch may not
stop the flow of electricity.
3. In certain circumstances it may be quicker to simply pull
the victim away from the electrical source.
4. Do NOT touch the victim with your bare hands, or the
electric current will pass through you as well.
5. If you are barefoot, stand of some clothes or any hand
non-conductive material like wood or paper. Make sure you
are not standing on anything that is wet.
6. Throw a blanket over the victim and try to separate him
from the source. Make sure you don't touch him though.
You could also use dry, nonconductive material such as a
wooden broom handle or a chair to separate the victim
from the live current. whatever is handy.
Once the victim has been separated, check to see if he is
breathing. If breathing has stopped or seems slow, administer
CPR immediately.
8. Let his head be slightly lower than the rest of the body, and
raise his legs.
Cover the victim with a blanket.
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9. Move the victim as little as possible. He may have suffered
injuries to his spine and neck.
10. If the victim has a burn, remove the clothing from the
burned area (unless it's stuck to the skin) and rinse it in cool,
running water. Cover the burn with a dressing.
11. Don't apply ice or any other ointment or cotton dressing to
the burn.
12. Call for emergency medical attention as soon as possible.
FUSE
A FUSE IS A SAFETY DEVICE THAT IS ESSENTIAL TO
PRAVENT SERIOUS DAMAGE TO AN ELECTRICAL
INSTALLATION DUE TO A FAULT IN IT. A FUSE IS A SMALL
STRIPE OR WIRE OF COPPER OR ALLOY WITH A
RELATIVELY LOW MELTING POINT CONNECTED IN
SERIES WITH THE CIRCUIT.WHEN A LARGE CURRENT
FLOW THROUGH THE CIRCUIT, THE FUSE BLOW OR
MELT AND CUTS OFF FLOW OF CURRENT. FOR
DOMESTIC USE, TWO TYPES OF FUSES ARE EMPLOYED
NAMELY, CARTRIDGE TYPE OF FUSE AND RE-WIRABLE
TYPE OF FUSE.
FUNCTION OF FUSE
1. IF A SHORT CIRCUIT OCCURS ANYWHERE IN
THE WIRING SYSTEM, AN EXCESSIVE CURRENT
FLOWS THROUGH THE FUSE AND IF THE FUSE
OPERATES PROPERLY, IT WILL MELT, CUTTING
OFF THE CURRENT BEFORE ANY HARM IS DONE.
IF THE FUSE FAILS TO OPERATE, THE WIRE MAY
BECOME HOT ENOUGH TO IGNITE THE
INSULATION, POSSIBLY CAUSING FIRE AND IT
MAY HARM THE APPLIANCES AND FITTINGS
CONNECTED IN THE CIRCUIT.
FUNCTION OF FUSE
2. FUSES HAVE A SECOND FUNCTION. BESIDES
PROTECTING IN THE CASE OF SHORT CIRCUIT, THEY
PROTECT IN THE CASE OF OVERLOAD. IF TOO MANY
APPLIANCES ARE CONNECTED IN A CIRCUIT, MORE
CURRENT WILL FLOW THROUGH THE SUPPLY WIRES
THEN THE WIRES WERE MEANT TO CARRY AND WILL
CAUSE THE WIRES TO BE BURNT AND APPLIANCES,
ACCESSORIES CONNECTED IN THE CIRCUIT WILL BE
DAMAGED. IN SUCH CASE, THE FUSE, IF PROPERLY
SELECTED, WILL MELT OR BLOW, THUS PROTECTING
THE WIRES, APPLIANCES, ACCESSORIES, ETC.
TYPES OF FUSE
1.THE ORDINARY FUSE
2. SCREW PLUG TYPE FUSE
3. A KNIFE BLADE CARTRIDGE FUSE
4.THE FERRULE TYPE CARTRIDGE FUSE
5.H.R.C. CARTRIDGE FUSES
6.TIME DELAY FUSE
THE ORDINARY FUSE
• THE ORDINARY OR SINGLE LINK FUSE IS
SIMPLY A STRIP OF METAL, USUALLY LEAD. THE
STRIP OF METAL, CALLED THE FUSE LINK, IS
THE PART OF THE FUSE THROUGH WHICH
ELECTRICITY FLOWS. THIS MELTS WHEN MORE
ELECTRICITY FLOWS AND BREAKS THE
CONNECTION AND STOPS FLOW OF
ELECTRICITY.
The screw-plug –type fuse
It is used on electric machinery circuits of 220
volts. This type of fuse can be had in sizes
from 3 to 30 amperes and is constructed with
either a porcelain or glass body which enclose
the fuse link.
The screw-plug –type fuse
A knife blade cartridge type fuse
• This type of fuse is mostly on heavy power line
of 60 to 600 amperes and 250 volts or more.
They are constructed with a heavy fibre body,
fitted with brass ferrules at each end and a
heavy copper blade for making contact with
the circuit. The fuse link can easily be renewed
by removing the end ferrules and inserting the
new link.
A knife blade cartridge type fuse
The ferrule type cartridge fuse
• This type of fuses are of two type-the renewal
or non-renewal. The renewal type has a small
screw plug in each end which can be renewed
and the new link is inserted. The body part of
this fuse is made of fibre with brass ferrules
fastened to each end and can be had in sizes
up to 100 amperes and 250 volts.
The ferrule type cartridge fuse
HRC (HIGH RUPTURING CAPACITY)
CARTRIDGE FUSE
• THESE ARE USED WHER THE HIGH POWER IS
SUPPLIED. THESE HAVE A DEFINITE-KNOWN
BREAKING CAPACITY AND HIGH VALUE.
HRC (HIGH RUPTURING CAPACITY)
CARTRIDGE FUSE
TIME DELAY FUSE
• IT IS A FUSE WHICH HAS THE ABILITY TO CARRY
OVERLOAD CURRENT OF SHORT DURATION
WITHOUT MELTING. THE HEAVIER THE
OVERLOAD, THE LESS IS THE TIME REQUIRED FOR
THE FUSE TO’BLOW’. IN MOST CIRCUITS WHERE
THE STARTING CURRENT ARE HIGH BUT FOR
SHORT DURATION, THIS TYPE OF FUSE NEED NOT
HAVE AS HIGH RATING AS AN ORDINARY FUSE TO
PERMIT THE MOTOR TO BE STARTED. LIKE THE
COMMON FUSE THE TIME DELAY FUSE IS ALSO
MADE IN PLUG AND CARTRIDGE TYPE.
ADVANTAGES OF FUSE
• 1. IT IS CHEAPEST FORM OF OPERATION.
• 2. IT AFFORD CURRENT LIMITING EFFECT
UNDER SHORT CIRCUIT CONDITION DUE TO
CUT OFF.
• 3. IT REQUIRES MINIMUM TIME TO REPLACE.
• 4. IT REQUIERS NO MAINTENANCE.
DISADVANTAGES OF FUSE
• 1. TIME IS LOST IN REPLACING FUSES AFTER
OPERATION.
• 2. THERE ARE CHANCES TO RECEIVE THE
SEVERE SHOCKS AT THE TIME OF
REPLACEMENT.
IMPORTANCE OF FUSE:-A fuse(s) or circuit breaker(s) is
needed in any electrical system (AC or DC). These protection
devices react to the amount of heat being produced by
electricity passing through wires and/or components. They
are used so as to protect wires and components from the
extreme heat produced should there be an electrical overload
or short circuit.
When a short or overload occurs, the amps being drawn spike
and this increases the heat produced in the wiring and
components. When this occurs, a fuse or circuit breaker
reacts almost instantly to stop the flow of electricity in the
circuit and thereby stopping heat production.
Without PROPERLY-SIZED FUSES OR CIRCUIT BREAKERS, this
quick break in the circuit would not be possible, and damage
to components and even FIRE could result
If you are having a problem with fuses "blowing" or
breakers "tripping," please know that these devices are
doing their job! It is important that you NOT replace a fuse
or breaker with a higher-rated one. Check the circuit for
shorts or overloads. Bare wires touching each other, as well
as having too many appliances on a circuit is dangerous and
will cause fuses to blow and breakers to trip.
The wiring in your home or business is sized for a specific
amperage. Increasing the size of protection devices will
cause your elecrical system to not be protected adequately.
Branch circuits feeding lights and 120 volt recepticles
should have only a 15 amp or 20 amp protection device,
depending on the wire size.
If you cannot locate the overload or short, keep the power
to the circuit OFF and contact a qualified electrican
Types of domestic wiring
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1. Cleat wiring
2. CTS, TRS, or PVC Wiring
3. Casing-Caping Wiring
4. Conduit and concealed Wiring
5. Lead covered Wiring
Cleat Wiring
• In this type of wiring insulated conductors(
usually VIR, Vulcanized Indian rubbe) are
supported on porcelain or wooden cleats. The
cleats have halves, one base and the other cap.
The cables are placed into the grooves provided
in the base and then the cap is placed. Both are
fixed securely on the walls by 40mm long screws.
The cleats are easy to erect and are fixed 4.5-15
cms apart. This wiring is suitable for temporary
installations where cost is the main criteria but
not the appeareance.
Materials required for cleat wiring
• Wooden pegs, porcelain cleat-flat( two way
and three way) wooden round block, wood
screw, wire, wooden board, porcelain tube,
batten holders, ceiling roses, DP main switch
fise carrier, neutral link
CTS, TRS, or PVC Wiring
• In this type of wiring system, wires sheathed
in tough rubber are used which are quite
flexible. They are clipped on wooden battens
with brass or tin clips (link or joint ) and fixed
on the walls or ceilings by flat head screws.
These cables are moisture and chemical proof.
They are suitable for damp climate but not
suitable for outdoor use in sunlight. TRS wiring
is suitable for lighting in low voltage
installations.
Materials required for
• Wooden/ plastic pegs, wood batten, wooden
round block, wooden board, tin clips,
Casing-Caping Wiring
• It consist of insulated conductors laid inside
rectangular teak wood pr PVC boxes having
grooves inside it. A rectangular strip of wood
called caping having same width as that of
casing is fixed over it. Both casing and caping
are screwed at every 15 cm. Casing is attached
to the walls. Two or more wires of same
polarity drawn through different grooves. The
system is suitable for indoor and domestic
installations.
Materials required forCasing-Caping
Wiring
Conduit and concealed Wiring
• In this system PVC or VIR Cables are run through
metallic or PVC pipes providing good protection
against mechanical injury and fire due to short
circuit. They are either embedded inside the wall
or supported over the walls, and are known as
concealed wiring or surface conduit wiring( open
conduit) respectively. The conduits are drawn
through them with steel wires. The system is best
suited for public buildings, industries and
workshops.
Materials required for Conduit and
concealed Wiring
Lead covered Wiring
• This type of wiring is similar to that CTS but the
conductors ( two or three) are individually
insulated and covered with common outer lead
aluminium alloy sheath. The sheath is protects
the cable against dampness, atmospheric
extremities and mechanical damages. The sheath
is earthed every junction to provide a path to
ground for the leakage current. They are fixed by
the means of metal clips on wooden battens. The
wiring system is very expensive. It is suitable for
low voltage installations.
Materials required for lead covered
Wiring
Electro-magnetism
• When a current is passed through a coil of wire, a
magnetic field is set up around the coil. If a soft iron
piece is placed in the coil carrying current, the iron gets
magnetized and this process is known as electromagnetism. In other words the property of
magnetizing of soft iron piece by the help of an electric
current passed through the coil is known as electro
magnetism. The strength of an electro-magnet
depends upon the value of the current in the coil, the
number of turns of the coil, the material of the core
used inside the coil, the size of the core used and the
general construction or design.

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