SYLLABUS CLASS-VIII APRIL-MAY ELECTRICAL SAFETY RULES, ELECTRICAL SHOCK AND ITS TREATMENT JUNE-JULY FUSE- FUNCTION, TYPES OF FUSES AND THEIR USES, DIAGRAM, IMORTANCE, POSSIBLE ACCIDENTS WITHOUT A FUSE. AUGUST HOUSE WIRING :- TYPES OF WIRING, MATERIALS REQUIRED FOR WIRING, CONNECTION FROM ENERGY METER TO SWITCH BOARDVIA DISTRIBUTION BOARD AND MAIN SWITCH. SEPTEMBER PAPIER MACHE:-PREPARE A BIRD / ANIMAL, FLOWER VASE USING THIS TECHNIQUE. MEAL PLANNING AND PREPARATION • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1. Understanding the definitions of food, health, disease, nutrients, nutrition. 5 food groups. 2. Preparation of soup-tomato/mixed vegetable/sweet corn 3. Preparation of eggs-poached, omellette, scrambled 4. Preparation of mango panna 5. Preparation of sago cutlets 6. Preparation of rainbow/ribbon sandwich 7. Preparation of pasta/macaroni 8. Preparation of corn bhel 9. Preparation of ice cream shakes 10. Preparations using condensed milk (like shahi tukra / kheer/ chocolate rolls) 11. Scrap book – Pasting of pictures of food nutrients and food groups. TEXTILE DESIGNING • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1. Fabric Painting Trace different figures/designs using butter paper and blue / used dry cell and mineral oil. Paint 2 pillow covers, music system cover. Learn how to mix-match colours and prepare new colours with colour schemes. 2. Block Printing – Using wooden blocks and ready to use colours, print a TV cover/Table cloth in 2 to 3 colours. Make a border on the cloth with blocks. 3. Tie and dye – Understand the different techniques of tieing the fabric like folding, bandhani, marbelling, knotting, laheria, tritik etc. Understand how to prepare the dye. Tie and dye cotton handkerchiefs in single colour. Fix the colour so that it becomes permanent. ELEMENTS OF DRESS DESIGNING (Cutting, Tailoring, Knitting and Embroidery) • 1. Preparation of samples of different types of buttons with button • holes, lace fixing. • 2. Understand the parts of a sewing machine, threading of machine • and use of machine. • 3. Drafting, cutting and stitching of an apron and decorate it with lace. • 4. Embroider two pillow covers using different stitches • 5. Preparation of a wall hanging using cross stitch. • 6. Preparation of knitting designs using books. • 7. Knitting of Baby Baniyan for a child using simple knitted design. ELECTRICAL MEASURING INSTRUMENTS • AMPEREMETER(AC,DC AND AC/DC):- IT IS USED TO MEASURE THE CURRENT OF ANY APPLIANCE, EQUIPMENT, MACHINE OR CIRCUIT CONNECTED WITH THE SUPPLY. IT IS FOUND IN DIFFERENT RANGES i.e. 0 TO 1A, 0 TO 5A, 0 TO 10A, 0 TO 20A, 0 TO 50A, 0 TO 100A,ETC. VOLTMETER(AC/DC AND DC) • IT IS USED TO MEASURE THE VOLTAGE OF ANY APPLIANCE, EQUIPMENT, GENERATOR, CELL OR SUPPLY, ETC. IT IS ALSO FOUND IN DIFFERENT RANGES, i.e. 0 TO 10V, 0 TO 15V, 0 TO 30V, 0 TO 110V, 0 TO 250V, 0 TO 300V, 0 TO 500V, ETC. OHM METER • IT IS USED TO MEASURE THE RESISTANCE OF ANY COIL, ELEMENT OR CIRCUIT, ETC.,IT IS CONNECTED ACROSS THE RESISTANCE TO BE MEASURED. Multi meter • It is used to measure the current, voltage and resistance of any circuit and posses different ranges. Kilo watt hour meter or Energy meter( AC and DC • It is used to measure the consumption of electricity in the circuits. It is of different types i.e. single phase and three phase and DC type. Watt meter • It is used to measure the electrical power of the circuits or wattage of any bulb, tube etc. it is also of different type i.e. AC type single phase and three phase and DC type. Three phase watt meter Frequency meter • It is used to measure the frequency of Ac supply. Megger set • It is used to measure the insulation resistance of insulated conductors CRAFT WORK • • • • • • • • • • • • 1. Paper work a) Prepare masks (animal/human) b) Prepare puppet with paper. 2. Papier Mache a) Prepare a bird/animal using this technique. b) Prepare a flower vase using papier mache. 3. Clay Modelling a) Prepare a flower pot, decorate it with clay carving. b) Prepare clay models of face of a man or a woman. 4. Doll Making Make a pair of dolls –Bride and bridegroom of any one state of India out of socks. Tie and dye • Tie and dye is a resist method for dyeing cloths. It is one of the most easiest methods and a variety of designs can be obtained by it. The process involves tying of thread on cloths. The dye cannot penetrate the cloth where the thread is tied. A variety of things can be put inside before tying to obtain different patterns like marble chips, pulses, clips, bottle caps, bangles etc. Project tie and dye two cotton hankies • Materials required:- dye of different shades, thread, salt, cotton cloth • Tools required:- bowls spoons, scissors, needle, mugs etc. • Method:• 1. Cut squares hankies of size 12X12 inches. • 2. Tie thread on them in different styles. • 3. boil 2 bowls of water, add I spoon of colour and one spoon of common salt. • 4. wet the hankies in water, put in them saucepan and then boil for 5-10 minutes. • 5. wash the hankies in running water. • 6. let the hankies dry, remove the thread. Iron and finish the edges by attaching lace. PREPARATION OF SPECIFIC ITEMS AND THEIR VALUE ADDITION • 1. Gift wrapping • a. Use of waste material in gift wrapping like old rakhis, doris, mirrors • bangles etc. • b. Making envelopes for shagun. • c. Packaging Diwali gifts, Holi gifts, Christmas gifts, New year gifts. • d. Packing a child’s stationery kit. • 2. Best out of waste • a. Making puppets with broken doll’s face. • b. Using old marriage cards, greeting cards and gift papers; prepare • shopping bags. COMPUTER APPLICATIONS • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1. Starting Power Point 2. Powerpoint Screen Elements • The main power point window • Toolbars • The presentation window 3. Power point wizards and templates 4. Opening and closing a presentation file 5. Exiting a power point. 6. Opening new, blank presentation 7. Different types of auto layouts 8. Creating slides and entering text in slide view, 9. Saving a new presentation 10. Spell-checking a presentation 11. Drawing objects and adding clip art on to slides. 12. Working with organization, columns and pie charts • 13. Adding transitions and builds to the presentation • 14. Animating the drawing objects • • Preset animation • • Custom animation • 15. Running a slide show. GARDENING AND VERMICOMPOSTING • • • • • • • • • • 1. Identification of spraying and dusting machines. 2. Handling and care of tools and implements. 3. Sowing of seeds in pot and bed. 4. Sowing of seeds in nursery beds for transplantation. 5. Transplantation of seedlings. 6. Weeding and thinning by khurpi. 7. Watering of pots and garden. 8. Watering of seed beds. 9. Identification of herbs, shrubs and trees. 10. Prepare a scrap book on locally available herbs, flowering plants, • leaves. (Herbarium) Electricity safety Rules 1.Don’t remove a plug from a power point by pulling on the cord; pull the plug instead. 2. Never plug adaptors into adaptors and avoid using adaptors filled with plugs where possible. 3. Switch off electrical items that are not in regular use at the plug and ensure that when we are away from the house for any length of time that you unplug and switch off electrical items as items left plugged in can be a fire risk and waste energy if left on standby. 4. Do not use any electrical items in the bathroom unless specifically designed for use there, eg. Shavers and electric toothbrushes. Even with these items however, take care not to get wet and avoid plugging and unplugging with wet hands. 5. Do not use items with damaged cords so that the wires are exposed. Either repair or replace. Check items regularly. 6. Do not use damaged sockets, replace with care when necessary. 7. Always turn the electrics off at the mains if carrying out any electrical repairs and only attempt repairs if you know what you are doing. 8. Ensure any electrical items are approved standard when purchasing and keep them correctly maintained where necessary. Look for the BEAB seal of approval. 9. Do not use electrical equipment outside if it’s raining. 10. Use the correct wattage light bulb for all light fittings. 11. Circuit breakers and fuses should be the correct size current rating for their circuit Electric Shock • Electricity is non hazardous provided the equipment and installation are properly designed, installed and maintained. But if some how the live parts of circuits come into contact with metal parts of equipments will complete the circuit and receive an ELECTRIC SHOCK (passage of current through body due to completion of circuit). • The severity of an electric shock depends upon voltage of system, area in electrical contact, duration of contact, physical condition of person and dampness of person’s skin and the ground. Treatment for electric shock • 1 Switch off the current:- when a person is in the contact with a live conductor, switch off the main immediately if it is nearby or if the switch is found at a far off distance, then remove the plug if possible or by insulating yourself on a dry wood or mat etc. cut or pull the wire ends connected with the switch board. If it is impossible to cut off the supply then proceed further. Treatment for electric shock • 2. Removing the casualty from the contact of current:- Insulate yourself with the insulating material standing on the dry wooden piece, chair, stool, mat or folded news paper and push the casualty with a dry rod or coat or other garment or push his clothes if they are dry. Treatment for electric shock • 3. Giving artificial respiration:- Expiration:- Keeping your arms straight lean forward slowly until the arms are vertical using no special force. This movement should be done up to 2 seconds counting one, two. • Inspiration:- Rock backward counting three for one second and slide your hands past the casualty’s shoulders until they grip his upper arms near the elbows. Raise and pull on the arms until tension is felt for a period of 2 seconds counting four five. Do not raise the chest of the casualty from the ground the whole operation should be continued until breathing recommences. i.e. for 6 seconds. In this way when the casualty begins to show sings of breathing then use the movement only for two times, raising and lowering the arms alternatively counting 1,2 (2 seconds) for inspiration and 3,4 (2 seconds) for expiration • 4. Treating the burns:- If there is any burn on the body use proper ointment on them and cover them with proper dressing. • 5. Removing the casualty from fire:- When the casualty’s clothing catches fire, approach him holding a blanket, coat or thick table cloth in front of yourself for your protection and wrap the body of the casualty with the thing which you are having in your hands and lay the casualty that on the ground or roll him on the ground. Call for the fire brigade. • 6. Sending the casualty to the hospital or seeking medical aid:- Even after apartment recovery the casualty should be sent to the hospital to ensure that all is well or call for the doctor at spot. First Aid For Electric Shock 1. The victim usually gets stuck to the source of the electricity, and it is important that you first separate him from the electrical source. 2. Turn off the power supply switch and disconnect the plug. It's best to simply turn off the main power supply or pull out the fuse. Often, simply turning off the switch may not stop the flow of electricity. 3. In certain circumstances it may be quicker to simply pull the victim away from the electrical source. 4. Do NOT touch the victim with your bare hands, or the electric current will pass through you as well. 5. If you are barefoot, stand of some clothes or any hand non-conductive material like wood or paper. Make sure you are not standing on anything that is wet. 6. Throw a blanket over the victim and try to separate him from the source. Make sure you don't touch him though. You could also use dry, nonconductive material such as a wooden broom handle or a chair to separate the victim from the live current. whatever is handy. Once the victim has been separated, check to see if he is breathing. If breathing has stopped or seems slow, administer CPR immediately. 8. Let his head be slightly lower than the rest of the body, and raise his legs. Cover the victim with a blanket. 7. 9. Move the victim as little as possible. He may have suffered injuries to his spine and neck. 10. If the victim has a burn, remove the clothing from the burned area (unless it's stuck to the skin) and rinse it in cool, running water. Cover the burn with a dressing. 11. Don't apply ice or any other ointment or cotton dressing to the burn. 12. Call for emergency medical attention as soon as possible. FUSE A FUSE IS A SAFETY DEVICE THAT IS ESSENTIAL TO PRAVENT SERIOUS DAMAGE TO AN ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION DUE TO A FAULT IN IT. A FUSE IS A SMALL STRIPE OR WIRE OF COPPER OR ALLOY WITH A RELATIVELY LOW MELTING POINT CONNECTED IN SERIES WITH THE CIRCUIT.WHEN A LARGE CURRENT FLOW THROUGH THE CIRCUIT, THE FUSE BLOW OR MELT AND CUTS OFF FLOW OF CURRENT. FOR DOMESTIC USE, TWO TYPES OF FUSES ARE EMPLOYED NAMELY, CARTRIDGE TYPE OF FUSE AND RE-WIRABLE TYPE OF FUSE. FUNCTION OF FUSE 1. IF A SHORT CIRCUIT OCCURS ANYWHERE IN THE WIRING SYSTEM, AN EXCESSIVE CURRENT FLOWS THROUGH THE FUSE AND IF THE FUSE OPERATES PROPERLY, IT WILL MELT, CUTTING OFF THE CURRENT BEFORE ANY HARM IS DONE. IF THE FUSE FAILS TO OPERATE, THE WIRE MAY BECOME HOT ENOUGH TO IGNITE THE INSULATION, POSSIBLY CAUSING FIRE AND IT MAY HARM THE APPLIANCES AND FITTINGS CONNECTED IN THE CIRCUIT. FUNCTION OF FUSE 2. FUSES HAVE A SECOND FUNCTION. BESIDES PROTECTING IN THE CASE OF SHORT CIRCUIT, THEY PROTECT IN THE CASE OF OVERLOAD. IF TOO MANY APPLIANCES ARE CONNECTED IN A CIRCUIT, MORE CURRENT WILL FLOW THROUGH THE SUPPLY WIRES THEN THE WIRES WERE MEANT TO CARRY AND WILL CAUSE THE WIRES TO BE BURNT AND APPLIANCES, ACCESSORIES CONNECTED IN THE CIRCUIT WILL BE DAMAGED. IN SUCH CASE, THE FUSE, IF PROPERLY SELECTED, WILL MELT OR BLOW, THUS PROTECTING THE WIRES, APPLIANCES, ACCESSORIES, ETC. TYPES OF FUSE 1.THE ORDINARY FUSE 2. SCREW PLUG TYPE FUSE 3. A KNIFE BLADE CARTRIDGE FUSE 4.THE FERRULE TYPE CARTRIDGE FUSE 5.H.R.C. CARTRIDGE FUSES 6.TIME DELAY FUSE THE ORDINARY FUSE • THE ORDINARY OR SINGLE LINK FUSE IS SIMPLY A STRIP OF METAL, USUALLY LEAD. THE STRIP OF METAL, CALLED THE FUSE LINK, IS THE PART OF THE FUSE THROUGH WHICH ELECTRICITY FLOWS. THIS MELTS WHEN MORE ELECTRICITY FLOWS AND BREAKS THE CONNECTION AND STOPS FLOW OF ELECTRICITY. The screw-plug –type fuse It is used on electric machinery circuits of 220 volts. This type of fuse can be had in sizes from 3 to 30 amperes and is constructed with either a porcelain or glass body which enclose the fuse link. The screw-plug –type fuse A knife blade cartridge type fuse • This type of fuse is mostly on heavy power line of 60 to 600 amperes and 250 volts or more. They are constructed with a heavy fibre body, fitted with brass ferrules at each end and a heavy copper blade for making contact with the circuit. The fuse link can easily be renewed by removing the end ferrules and inserting the new link. A knife blade cartridge type fuse The ferrule type cartridge fuse • This type of fuses are of two type-the renewal or non-renewal. The renewal type has a small screw plug in each end which can be renewed and the new link is inserted. The body part of this fuse is made of fibre with brass ferrules fastened to each end and can be had in sizes up to 100 amperes and 250 volts. The ferrule type cartridge fuse HRC (HIGH RUPTURING CAPACITY) CARTRIDGE FUSE • THESE ARE USED WHER THE HIGH POWER IS SUPPLIED. THESE HAVE A DEFINITE-KNOWN BREAKING CAPACITY AND HIGH VALUE. HRC (HIGH RUPTURING CAPACITY) CARTRIDGE FUSE TIME DELAY FUSE • IT IS A FUSE WHICH HAS THE ABILITY TO CARRY OVERLOAD CURRENT OF SHORT DURATION WITHOUT MELTING. THE HEAVIER THE OVERLOAD, THE LESS IS THE TIME REQUIRED FOR THE FUSE TO’BLOW’. IN MOST CIRCUITS WHERE THE STARTING CURRENT ARE HIGH BUT FOR SHORT DURATION, THIS TYPE OF FUSE NEED NOT HAVE AS HIGH RATING AS AN ORDINARY FUSE TO PERMIT THE MOTOR TO BE STARTED. LIKE THE COMMON FUSE THE TIME DELAY FUSE IS ALSO MADE IN PLUG AND CARTRIDGE TYPE. ADVANTAGES OF FUSE • 1. IT IS CHEAPEST FORM OF OPERATION. • 2. IT AFFORD CURRENT LIMITING EFFECT UNDER SHORT CIRCUIT CONDITION DUE TO CUT OFF. • 3. IT REQUIRES MINIMUM TIME TO REPLACE. • 4. IT REQUIERS NO MAINTENANCE. DISADVANTAGES OF FUSE • 1. TIME IS LOST IN REPLACING FUSES AFTER OPERATION. • 2. THERE ARE CHANCES TO RECEIVE THE SEVERE SHOCKS AT THE TIME OF REPLACEMENT. IMPORTANCE OF FUSE:-A fuse(s) or circuit breaker(s) is needed in any electrical system (AC or DC). These protection devices react to the amount of heat being produced by electricity passing through wires and/or components. They are used so as to protect wires and components from the extreme heat produced should there be an electrical overload or short circuit. When a short or overload occurs, the amps being drawn spike and this increases the heat produced in the wiring and components. When this occurs, a fuse or circuit breaker reacts almost instantly to stop the flow of electricity in the circuit and thereby stopping heat production. Without PROPERLY-SIZED FUSES OR CIRCUIT BREAKERS, this quick break in the circuit would not be possible, and damage to components and even FIRE could result If you are having a problem with fuses "blowing" or breakers "tripping," please know that these devices are doing their job! It is important that you NOT replace a fuse or breaker with a higher-rated one. Check the circuit for shorts or overloads. Bare wires touching each other, as well as having too many appliances on a circuit is dangerous and will cause fuses to blow and breakers to trip. The wiring in your home or business is sized for a specific amperage. Increasing the size of protection devices will cause your elecrical system to not be protected adequately. Branch circuits feeding lights and 120 volt recepticles should have only a 15 amp or 20 amp protection device, depending on the wire size. If you cannot locate the overload or short, keep the power to the circuit OFF and contact a qualified electrican Types of domestic wiring • • • • • 1. Cleat wiring 2. CTS, TRS, or PVC Wiring 3. Casing-Caping Wiring 4. Conduit and concealed Wiring 5. Lead covered Wiring Cleat Wiring • In this type of wiring insulated conductors( usually VIR, Vulcanized Indian rubbe) are supported on porcelain or wooden cleats. The cleats have halves, one base and the other cap. The cables are placed into the grooves provided in the base and then the cap is placed. Both are fixed securely on the walls by 40mm long screws. The cleats are easy to erect and are fixed 4.5-15 cms apart. This wiring is suitable for temporary installations where cost is the main criteria but not the appeareance. Materials required for cleat wiring • Wooden pegs, porcelain cleat-flat( two way and three way) wooden round block, wood screw, wire, wooden board, porcelain tube, batten holders, ceiling roses, DP main switch fise carrier, neutral link CTS, TRS, or PVC Wiring • In this type of wiring system, wires sheathed in tough rubber are used which are quite flexible. They are clipped on wooden battens with brass or tin clips (link or joint ) and fixed on the walls or ceilings by flat head screws. These cables are moisture and chemical proof. They are suitable for damp climate but not suitable for outdoor use in sunlight. TRS wiring is suitable for lighting in low voltage installations. Materials required for • Wooden/ plastic pegs, wood batten, wooden round block, wooden board, tin clips, Casing-Caping Wiring • It consist of insulated conductors laid inside rectangular teak wood pr PVC boxes having grooves inside it. A rectangular strip of wood called caping having same width as that of casing is fixed over it. Both casing and caping are screwed at every 15 cm. Casing is attached to the walls. Two or more wires of same polarity drawn through different grooves. The system is suitable for indoor and domestic installations. Materials required forCasing-Caping Wiring Conduit and concealed Wiring • In this system PVC or VIR Cables are run through metallic or PVC pipes providing good protection against mechanical injury and fire due to short circuit. They are either embedded inside the wall or supported over the walls, and are known as concealed wiring or surface conduit wiring( open conduit) respectively. The conduits are drawn through them with steel wires. The system is best suited for public buildings, industries and workshops. Materials required for Conduit and concealed Wiring Lead covered Wiring • This type of wiring is similar to that CTS but the conductors ( two or three) are individually insulated and covered with common outer lead aluminium alloy sheath. The sheath is protects the cable against dampness, atmospheric extremities and mechanical damages. The sheath is earthed every junction to provide a path to ground for the leakage current. They are fixed by the means of metal clips on wooden battens. The wiring system is very expensive. It is suitable for low voltage installations. Materials required for lead covered Wiring Electro-magnetism • When a current is passed through a coil of wire, a magnetic field is set up around the coil. If a soft iron piece is placed in the coil carrying current, the iron gets magnetized and this process is known as electromagnetism. In other words the property of magnetizing of soft iron piece by the help of an electric current passed through the coil is known as electro magnetism. The strength of an electro-magnet depends upon the value of the current in the coil, the number of turns of the coil, the material of the core used inside the coil, the size of the core used and the general construction or design.