MWM_Dr. Regina Dube - Support to National Urban Sanitation Policy

Report
Urban Sanitation Strategies and City Sanitation
Planning
Opportunities and Challenges for Developing Countries
IWA AIT
1st Specialist Conference on Municipal Water Management and
Sanitation in Developing Countries
Bangkok 2.-4. December 2014
Dr. Regina Dube,
Project Director, SNUSP
GIZ India
Dec. .2014, Delhi
Seite 1
Who are we?
 GIZ is a federally owned organisation of
the Government of Germany.
 Our mandate is to support the German
Government
in
achieving
its
development objectives.
 We provide viable, forward-looking
solutions
for
political,
economic,
ecological and social development in a
globalised world.
 GIZ has operations in 128 countries.
Seite 2
Implemented by
Support to the National Urban Sanitation Policy
Program – India
Phase 1: Three Years (2011- 2014); Finished
Phase 2: Three Years (2014-2017); Running
•
•
•
Three-tiered
approach
“Elevator Effect” for better coordination, vertical
communication and knowledge exchange.
National Level (NUSP)
Support cell at MoUD/CPHEEO
NAGUS/Techn. Advisory Committee
(TAC)
Strengthening of policy making &
implementation tools (e.g. NUSP, SLB,
DPR, etc.)
State Level (State Sanitation Strategy)
•
State cell at UD department
•
SSS preparation/implementation
•
Capacity Development
•
•
•
•
City Level (City Sanitation Plan)
City cell at the Municipal Corporation
CSP preparation/implementation
Capacity development
Data management
Seite 3
Sanitation & Health : Lack of proper sanitation kills !!
More than 1000 children under the age of five die every day due to
diarrhea in India (Source: Unicef/WHO report - 2009)
Seite 4
Sanitation & Environment
Ground and surface
water pollution
Seite 5
Sanitation & Gender Equality
Women suffer most
• Women & girls face drudgery
& serious health disorders –
due to lack and dirtiness of
toilets, lack of private places,
long waiting time etc.
• Girls lose school days,
discontinue school
• High rate of crimes and
violence against women when they are out for
defecation
Seite 6
Sanitation & economic impacts: India
Inadequate sanitation costs India INR 2.4 Trillion (US$ 53.8 Billion) per year
Losses incurred due to inadequate sanitation
Tourism
impact
0.5%
Health
related
impact
71.7%
Loss related to
Access time
spent
20.0%
US$ in Billion
Access time spent
Doemstic water related
impact
10.73
Health related impact
38.49
Tourism impact
0.26
Doemstic
water related
impact
7.8%
Source: WSP Report on The Economic Impacts of inadequate sanitation in India, Dec 2010
M1: City Sanitation Plan - Relevance and added values
Slide 7
Seite
4.21
Challenges
or
why is sanitation still an issue in the 21st century?
Roads, airports, flyovers, Mars missions …. everything works but sanitation?
Source: http://breakoutwear.co.uk/blog/?p=3449
Source: http://www.apagemedia.com/gallery/category/92
Seite 8
Challenge No.1
Speed
• Cities are not able to cope
with the pace of
urbanization with regard
to
• Reforms
• Institutions
• Skill development
• Asset creation and
maintenance
Seite 9
Challenge No. 2
Sanitation requires not only
sound technical solutions but
highly depends on
• good governance
• social and local political
contexts
• wide ranging awareness in
all stakeholders
• inclusiveness
Seite 10
Challenge No. 3
Solutions of the west can not be
replicated due to
• Lack of money
• Lack of water
• Lack of energy
• Lack of reuse orientation
Simple copy / pasting from the west will not lead to smart
solutions
Seite 11
Challenge No. 4
The big question : What
then????
• Few good examples
• The famous “leap frogging”
requires
• vision,
• political will
• courage as well as
• capable institutions
Success factors are often missing
Seite 12
Challenge No 5 : Global warming
Impacts on
Sanitation
Infrastructure
Floods
Sea level
rise
Extreme
events
Increased
(heavy
Precipitation storms)
Drought
Heat
waves
Urban sanitation and climate change –
What to plan for?
Seite 13
Planning framework for improving city –wide sanitation
services
(as per IWA/Eawag/GIZ strategy paper Sanitation 21)
• 5 stage approach (to be customized to local needs)
• Contains key principles and process support
• Looks at locally appropriate and affordable solutions for
• Technologies and sector governance such as data
management, awareness, institutional development, financing,
O&M, monitoring and evaluation, capacity building, gender and
participation
Selected examples from each stage of the process in India
Seite 14
Stage 1 : Build institutional commitment and partnership
for planning
• Identify leadership of and ensure accountability for the planning
process (everybody has to understand his role)
• Establish meaningful consultation beyond lobbyists
• Define vision, timelines and incentives for the planning process
itself
Issues faced in India : lack of role clarity, lobbyism, institutional
weakness and lack of ownership for meaningful city wide planning
as such
Seite 15
Extent of participation
Passive
• spectator
• no own
initiative
Only for
incentives
• participate
only if there
is some kind
of gain
Consultations
• engagement
only
on particular
topic
• not proactive
• answering
questions
Functional
participation
• proactive
• functional
engagement
• supportive
efforts
Interactive
participation
• ability to
influence
decisions
• suggest /
demand for
alternate
options
Self
Mobilization
• willingness
to contribute
resources
• highly
empowered
to take up
activities
• decision
making
Seite 16
Major obstacle : Investment centric approaches
alone do not work but form often the only incentives
Do I always
have to eat this
rubbish???
Process oriented approaches with focus on institutional development,
efficiency, O&M, monitoring and accountability needed
02.12.2013
XXX
Seite 17
Stage 2 : Understand the existing context and define
priorities
• Undertake data collection
• Identify the status of service provision
• Undertake a sanitation market
assessment
• Identify priorities
Source: www.dilbert.com
Issues faced in India : Insufficient spatial and non spatial data, no
coordination, no clarity on need for primary data, PPP modelling
not understood, monitoring weak, septage management and
reuse oriented solutions unpracticed
Seite 18
5 Strategic dimensions of good City Sanitation Plan (CSPs)
Governance &
Institutional
Strengthening
Finances
Capacity
Enhancement
Solid Waste
Inclusiveness
Technology
Access to Sanitation
Water Supply
Storm WaterXXX
Waste water Management
Seite 19
Private sector involvement – A relieve for overburdened
ULBs?
PPPs without proper designing, steering
and contract management are not going to
work:
 Economy of scale contra smaller
concessions
 Who is really willing and able to monitor
 Conflict of interest?
 Who has which role and responsibility?
(eg. EIA)
 Role of SPCBs?
Seite 20
Stage 3 : Develop systems for sanitation improvement
• City wide planning approach
• Zones for system improvements
• Strategy for collection and transportation of
wastewater and fecal sludge
• Strategy for treatment, disposal and reuse
• Cost benefit and/ or life cycle analysis
Issues in India : Septage management as city wide responsibility
unpracticed, O&M mainly ignored, finding location specific options
involving conventional and unconventional solutions as part of city
development planning unknown
Seite 21
Sanitation scheme in future – ecological sanitation:
from linear to closed loop
Source: Water and Wastewater in Asia - The Imperative for New Approaches to Urban Water and Wastewater Management, ADB & Partners Conference, Manila, 12
October, 2010, Paul Reiter, Executive Director, International Water Association
Seite 22
Decision criteria for appropriate sanitation system
Centralised
Decentralised
CONVENTIONAL
CATCHMENT
SIMPLIFIED /
SHALLOW
SMALL BORE/
SOLID FREE
ON SITE
Conventional fully
centralised sewer
system with the
minimum of
STPs. Sewage is
pumped from
each catchment
to 1 or 2 large
STPs
Traditional sewer
system but with
multiple systems
and STPs to suit
drainage
catchments eg.
the 7 Zones
proposed for
Kochi
Catchment based
sewerage system
but with less
conservative
design on such
things as
minimum sewer
depths and sizes.
Pipes not in roads
Small bore
system using
septic tanks to
remove solids
before
wastewater
enters the
sewerage
system. Can be
black water only
or black & grey.
On site sanitation
systems such as
septic tanks,
composting
toilets, pit latrines
that do not
require any
sewerage system
Whole city
Zones
Ward
Sub-ward / Plot
Ward
Pre-treatment &
site conditions
determine
sewage
transport
choices
Seite 23
Proper septage management ensures safe resource
recovery and reuse of nutrients and energy incl. Waste to
Energy concepts
Seite 24
Stage 4 : Develop models for service delivery
• Develop appropriate management arrangements : technical
pilots and asset creation require institutional development
• Develop robust cost recovery mechanisms
• Strengthen monitoring
• Strengthen regulatory mechanism
Issues in India : Incomplete devolution of power, weak urban
finance, lack of suitable utilities, ULBs as polluters hardly
monitored and controlled
Seite 25
Transition from on-site systems to centralized sewerage
systems
Individual System
Pit Latrines
Septage Management System
Septic Tank
Upgrade
Managed by Households
• Mason
Centralized Sewerage system
Upgrade
Managed by Households
• Mason
• Plumber
Managed by City / ULB
• Vacuum truck operators
• Treatment plant
operators
Institutional & human
resource required
Managed by Household
• Plumbers for Household
connectivity
Managed by City / ULB
Requires a dedicated institution for
water supply & sanitation with
various departments viz.
• Management
• Engineering & Technical
• Accounts & Finance
• Administration
• Data management
• Customer service
Seite 26
• Etc….
Water & sanitation utilities – elements of good
governance
Seite 27
Stage 5 : Prepare for implementation
• Ensure proposals meet expectations for improvement
• Capacity building
• Sanitation promotion, advocacy and awareness raising
Issue in India : Debate rarely reaches the urban poor and the
elected representatives, awareness yet very low but Swachh
Bharat Abhiyan, the Clean India Mission has started to trigger a
mass movement for sanitation and cleanliness
Seite 28
Sanitation and public health: awareness needed
1 gram of excreta can contain
• 1,00,00,000 viruses
• 10,00,000 bacteria
• 1,000 parasite cysts
• 100 parasite eggs
Food sanitation and improved sanitation can
reduce diarrheal morbidity –
 Hand washing with soap:
30%
 Point of use Water treatment :
39%
 Sanitation (toilet):
32%
Each time an adult human defecates
about 250 gram of excreta
P
Common diseases are:
Diarrhoea, Cholera, Malaria,
Intestinal worms, Hepatitis,
Typhoid, Polio, Ascariasis
Fluid
P
S
Fields
S
Food
Faeces
New host
Flies
Fingers
P
M1: City Sanitation Plan - Relevance and added values
Slide 29
Seite
No challenges without opportunities…….
• Sanitation is gaining momentum (India : Clean India Mission)
• Septage management is getting recognized as the need of
the hour
• Strong international players are pushing for sustainable
business models and innovative technologies (BMGF)
• Some developing countries are adopting innovative solutions
for septage management
• First pilots for innovative onside sanitation solutions closing
material loops and adopting waste to energy strategies are
under construction (Hamburg / Jenfelder Au)
Seite 30
No challenges without opportunities…….
Innovative approaches for communication and awareness raising are
being explored: Estimated fecal waste flows
Seite 31
No challenges without opportunities…….
• Developing countries are currently
the drivers for innovation
• Europe for many more years to
come will use existing assets
• Developing countries may take the
lead in sustainable sanitation
solutions of the future
Seite 32
Thank You!
www.urbansanitation.com
www.susana.org
Seite 33

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