Synovial fluid

Report
„Secret fluids” - biological fluids
overview, modelling, problems
Anna Kucaba-Piętal
Rzeszów University of Technology,
Poland
School of Engineering, University of Liverpool Liverpool L69 3GH, UK , May 13th 2013
1
Contents
Overview of biological fluids, contents, modelling, problem formulation
• Fundamental
• biofluid
• rheology
• Blood
• rheological parameters of blood
• factors which effect on blood viscosity
• diaseses
• Synovial fluid
• rheological parameters of s.f
• factors which effect on s. f. viscosity
• diaseses
• Plasma and lymph as Newtonian fluid
• Conclusion
2
Aim of Lectures
Questions:
What influences the change of rheological properties
of biological fluids and what are the consequences?
Why is it important to predict rheological
parameters of biofluid?
Answers:
Due to the formulation bioflow equations
To maintain nonbiological fluids that has
rheological properties comparble to real biofluid
To use it in diagnostics of clinical disorders
3
4
Body fluids
• Total amount of fluid in the human body is approximately 70% of body
weight
• Body fluid has been divided into two compartments –
– Intracellular fluid (ICF)
– Extracellular fluid
• Outside the cells
• 45% of total body water
40
Percentage of Body Weight
• Inside the cells
• 55% of total body water
35
30
25
Intracellular
20
Extracellular
15
Interstitial
10
Plasma
5
0
Body1Fluids
5
Body fluid compartments
Extracellular fluid includes:
• Interstitial fluid
» Present between the cells
» Approximately 80% of ECF
• Plasma
» Present in blood
» Approximately 20% of ECF
• Also includes
» Lymph
» synovial fluid
» aqueous humor
» cerebrospinal fluid
» vitreous body
» endolymph
» perilymph
» pleural, pericardial and peritoneal fluids
6
Body fluid compartments
7
Body fluid compartments
8
Barriers separate ICF, interstitial fluid and plasma
• Plasma membrane
• Separates ICF from surrounding interstitial fluid
• Blood vessel wall
• Separate interstitial fluid from plasma
9
Composition of body fluids
Organic substances
Glucose
 Amino acids
 Fatty acids
 Hormones
 Enzymes

Inorganic substances







Sodium
Potassium
Calcium
Magnesium
Chloride
Phophate
Sulphate
10
Difference
• Most abundant cation - Na+,
• Most abundant cation - K+
– muscle contraction
– Impulse transmission
– fluid and electrolyte balance
–
–
–
–
Resting membrane potential
Action potentials
Maintains intracellular volume
Regulation of pH
• Most abundant anion - Cl– Regulates osmotic pressure
– Forms HCl in gastric acid
•
Anion are proteins and
phosphates (HPO42-)
Na+ /K+ pumps play major role in keeping K+ high
inside cells and Na+ high outside cell
11
Control of body fluid volume (Homeostasis)
• In health the volume and composition of various
body fluid compartments are maintained within
physiological limits even in face of wide variations in
intake of water and solutes .
12
Body fluids
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Amniotic fluid
Aqueous humour and vitreous
humour
Bile
Blood
Breast milk
Cerebrospinal fluid
Cerumen (earwax)
Chyle
Chyme
Endolymph and perilymph
Feces - see diarrhea
Female ejaculate
Gastric acid
Gastric juice
Lymph
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Mucus (including nasal drainage and phlegm)
Pericardial fluid
Peritoneal fluid
Pleural fluid
Pus
Rheum
Saliva
Sebum (skin oil)
Semen
Sputum
Sweat
Synovial fluid
Tears
Vaginal secretion
Vomit
Urine
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Specialized fluids of the body
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Lymph
Milk
Cerebrospinal fluid
Amniotic fluid
Aqueous humor
Sweat
Tears
14
Transport problems
Microscopic level
• Transport Mechanisms
• Membrane Transport
• Intracellular membrane
transport
• ICF-ECF Exchange
• ISF-Plasma Exchange
• Capillary Pressures
Macroscopic level
• Blood Flow CFD simulation 
• synovial fluid
15
Navier-Stokes equations
• Wstawie pozniej
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Rheological parameters, a constitutive equation
• The viscosity and elasticity determine the pressure
required to produce bioflows.
• Viscosity is an assessment of the rate of energy
dissipation
• Elasticity is an assessment of the elastic storage of energy
• How is relations between shear stress and deformation?
17
Body fluid percentages
18
Rheology as an interdisciplinary science
Physics
Chemistry
Rheology
(of Liquids)
Mechanics
of
Continuum
Technology/
Engineering
19
Viscosity
Viscosity = F(S,T,p,s,t, V)
S- physico-chemical properties of substances,
T-temperature, p- pressure, s-velocity of shear, ttime, V-voltage
dU
τμ
 μγ
dy
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Models
NEWTONIAN
FLUID
F
y
u(y)
NON-NEWTONIAN
FLUID
.
t  f(g)
21
21
Blood
 Blood is a concentrated suspension of
Red Blood Cells; outside the range of
dilute suspension
 Particles change their shape in
response to the fluid forces
 The nature of RBC membrane and its
deformation stress/strain is much
less established
 RBC tends to form agregates known as
rouleaux
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Blood - components
Constituents of Blood
Plasma proteins
Red blood cells
White blood cells
Water
Electrolytes
Organic nutrients
Organic wastes
Platelets
%
3.2 – 4.4
40 – 54
0.03 - 0.05
42 –58
< 0.001
< 0.001
< 0.001
~ 0.1
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Blood – formed elements
TYPES OF LEUKOCYTES
PLATELETS
RBCs
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Physical properties of blood
PROPERTY
Density (g/cm3)
RANGE
1.050-1.064
Viscosity (cP)
2.18-3.59
pH
7.35-7.45
Factors affecting the blood rheology:
a) hematocrit
b) deformation and agregation of red blood cells
c) biochemical properties of plasma
d) temperature
e) the geometry and flow parameters
25
Plasma
Plasma is the straw-colored liquid in which the
blood cells are suspended.
Composition of blood plasma:
Component
Water
Proteins
Salts
Lipids
Glucose (blood sugar)
Percent
~92
6–8
0.8
0.6
0.1
26
Plasma
• Water : 90%
• Solids: 10%
• organic constituents: proteins, lipids,
carbohydrates , hormones, enzymes,
Ketone bodies , and other organic compounds.
Inorganic compounds: Na, K Ca,Cl,and CO2.
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Comparison of Newtonian plasma and blood viscosity
28
Lymph
• Clear and colorless fluid
• 96% water and 4% solids
• Solids –
– Proteins
• 2-6% of solids
• albumin, globulin, fibrinogen, prothrombin, clotting factors, antibodies,
enzymes
– Lipids
• 5-15%
• Chylomicrons
• Lipoproteins
– Carbohydrates
• Glucose mainly
– NPN
• Urea and creatinine
– Electrolytes
• Sodium, calcium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonates
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Functions of lymph
• Return protein from tissue spaces into blood
• Redistribution of fluid
• Removal of bacteria, toxins and other foreign bodies from
tissues
• Maintain structural and functional integrity of tissue
• Route for intestinal fat absorption
• Transport lymphocytes
30
Lymphatic fluid
• What is it? It is a fluid that resembles plasma but with a
much lower concentration of suspended proteins
• Functions?
 Transports hormones, nutrients, and waste products
from peripheral tissues to the general circulation
 Returns fluid and solute from peripheral tissues to the
blood
 Maintains blood volume and eliminates local variations
in the composition of the interstitial fluid
31
Newtonian behavior
Newtonian fluid: constant
viscosity at all shear rates
at a constant pressure and
temperature. Relationship
between shear stress and
shear rate is linear.
32
Synovial fluid
33
Synovial fluid
Contents
Dry matter
Density(20oC)
pH
value
0,133,5
1,00811,015
7,27,4
viscosity (20oC)
water, g/kg
hyaluronic acid
(HA )
960988
The content of dry matter g/kg
1240
Albumins,
globulins g/l
Phospholipids,
glycoprotein's
10,721,3
10,2
0,5
Mucyns, g/l
0,681,35
Glucoses, g/l
jak w surowicy
krwi
Urynial Acid,
mg/l
73,4
2-3%
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Functions
• Minimise the friction between during bones
movement or weight bearing
• Provides nutrition for cartilage.
• 0.15-3.5ml
35
Synovial fluid
Main Factors affecting the rheological properties:
a) Hyaluronic Acid concentation
c) Molecular weigh of Hyaluronic Acid
d) Temperature
Sodium Hyaluronate, Hyaluronan
• Made up of repeating glucuronic acid and N-acetylglucosamine subunits
• High molecular weight: 0.2 to 10 million Dalton
• Major component of synovial fluid
• Exhibits viscoelastic properties
36
Perspectives
• Pathophysiological significance of biofluid rheology
• Develop an understanding of how the micro- and nanostructure of blood influences its rheology
• Explore to use of rheological parameters in diagnostics
and menagement of clinical disorders and inoptimisation
of blood processing
• Explore new methods of measurement suited for clinical
application
• Maintain new type apparatus for such measurements
37
Thank you
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