Reflections on Lockheed Martin`s 20 year affiliation with USC CSSE

Report
Reflections on Lockheed Martin’s
20 year affiliation with USC CSSE
Copyright 2013 Lockheed Martin
Historical Perspective
Total Onboard
Operational
Flight
Programs
Software Size
Trend* - Military
Aircraft
JSF
CTOL
5000
4500
4000
3500
3000
F-22
F/A 18CD
2500
F-15Es2
2000
1500
F-18A
1000
500
F-111
F-106
FB-111
F-15C
F-15A
F-16A
F-15CDs4
F-16C/50 T3
F-15Es0
F-117
F-15Es4E+
F-16C/50M2
F-15CDs2
F-15CDs0
0
1950
1960
1970
1980
1990
2000
2010
*Source: Rob Gold, OSD/DDR&E, NDIA Strategic Software Summit, October 2006
Percentage of Functionality Implemented in Software
100%
90%
80%
Percent of Functionality
kSource Lines of Code (kSLOC)
• Software Development in
military systems reached a
“crisis” in the 80’s
• Size and Complexity were
exponentially increasing
• There were a plethora of
software languages
• DoD Programs were costing
twice as much and taking 50%
longer than planned
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
F-4 (1960)
A-7 (1964)
F-111 (1970)
F-15 (1975)
F-16 (1982)
Program (Year)
Copyright 2013 Lockheed Martin
B-2 (1990)
F/A-22 (2000)
F-35 (2006)
What Did We Do About It?
• We invested in Software Technology
Research (SW Tech Center w/ Dr. Win Royce)
• We invested in Software Producibility
Initiatives (Reuse, Autocoders, Rational …)
• We brought together Subject Matter Experts
(SW Task Force and Working Groups)
• We created and joined consortiums and
associations
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SEI
SPC
AIAA
IEEE
AIA
Etc.
Copyright 2013 Lockheed Martin
In June 1993, Lockheed became a charter affiliate member of CSE
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AT&T Bell Laboratories
Electronic Data Systems Corporation
Hughes Aircraft Company
Institute for Defense Analyses
Litton Data Systems
Lockheed Corporation
Northrop Corporation
Science Applications International
Corporation
Software Productivity Consortium
TASC
Teledyne, Inc.
TRW, Inc.
U.S. Air Force Rome Laboratory
U.S. Army Research Laboratory
And its affiliate via a Technology
cooperation Agreement:
CMU Software Engineering Institute
With this breadth of collaborative
opportunities and knowledge
sharing, everyone comes out ahead
Copyright 2013 Lockheed Martin
Initial Benefits of CSE
• As an affiliate of CSE we also
became an affiliate of COCOMO®
• We provided data points (it wasn’t
easy to solve proprietary issues)
• We collaborated with our own work
• Walt Johnson on COTS SW
estimation
• George Bazoki on SW size
estimation
• We participated in workshops
• We gained insight into better
software development estimation
Copyright 2013 Lockheed Martin
Other Research Topics of Interest
In 1996 and 1997 CSE brought in many of the thought
leaders in Systems and Software Architecture
• Eb Rechtin, Mark Maier, Bob Balzar, Dave Wile and
others
• This is a critical area of expertise needed by Lockheed
Martin on many large scale programs
In 1998 CSE brought a theme of Rapid Application
Development
• This was a precursor to Agile Development
• Concepts were consistent with Lockheed Martin Skunk
Works and Kelly Johnson’s 14 rules
In 1999 and 2000 CSE ventured into Model Based
Architecting and Software Engineering
• The best thing about architectural modeling standards is
that there are so many to choose from
• Modeling (and simulation) means different things to
different people based on the context that it is being
applied
Copyright 2013 Lockheed Martin
“Be Quick, be quiet, be on time.”
“The Skunk Works is a concentration of a few good people solving
problems far in advance – and at a fraction of the cost – by applying
the simplest, most straight-forward methods possible to develop and
produce new products.” - Kelly Johnson
Copyright 2013 Lockheed Martin
Kelly’s 14 Rules
1. The Skunk Works manager must be delegated practically complete control of his
program in all aspects. He should report to a division president or higher.
2. Strong but small project offices must be provided both by the military and industry.
3. The number of people having any connection with the project must be restricted in
an almost vicious manner. Use a small number of good people (10% to 25%
compared to the so-called normal systems).
4. A very simple drawing and drawing release system with great flexibility for making
changes must be provided.
5. There must be a minimum number of reports required, but important work must be
recorded thoroughly.
6. There must be a monthly cost review covering not only what has been spent and
committed but also projected costs to the conclusion of the program. Don't have
the books ninety days late and don't surprise the customer with sudden overruns.
8
Copyright 2013 Lockheed Martin
Kelly’s 14 Rules (cont.)
7. The contractor must be delegated and must assume more than normal responsibility
to get good vendor bids for subcontract on the project. Commercial bid procedures
are very often better than military ones.
8. The inspection system as currently used by the Skunk Works, which has been approved
by both the Air Force and Navy, meets the intent of existing military requirements and
should be used on new projects. Push more basic inspection responsibility back to
subcontractors and vendors. Don't duplicate so much inspection.
9. The contractor must be delegated the authority to test his final product in flight. He
can and must test it in the initial stages. If he doesn't, he rapidly loses his
competency to design other vehicles.
10. The specifications applying to the hardware must be agreed to well in advance of
contracting. The Skunk Works practice of having a specification section stating clearly
which important military specification items will not knowingly be complied with and
reasons therefore is highly recommended.
11. Funding a program must be timely so that the contractor doesn't have to keep
running to the bank to support government projects.
Copyright 2013 Lockheed Martin
Other Research Topics of Interest (cont.)
In 2000 CSE hosted an Executive Workshop on Evolutionary
Acquisition and Spiral Development
• “They keep using that word - I don’t think it means what
they think it means”*
• Government, Industry and Academia collaborated to
understand the benefits and drawbacks
In 2000 the concept of a Systems Engineering Cost Model
emerged at the 15th annual COCOMO Forum (COSYSMO)
• Gary Thomas presented the concept
• Ricardo Valerdi took it on as his PhD research project
• Garry Roedler served as focal point for Lockheed Martin
In 2002 and 2003 CSE conducted Executive Workshops on
Agile Development
• This had the largest impact on Lockheed Martin of any
other research topic at CSE
• Hybrid application of Agile Practices have been widely
used within Lockheed Martin ever since this introduction
*Adapted from a line in the movie The Princess Bride
Copyright 2013 Lockheed Martin
1. Objectives,
Alternatives,
and
Constraints
2. Risk
Analysis and
Aversion
Commitment
4. Planning and
Management
3. Product
Development
Integrated Systems and Software Engineering
In 2002-2005, much of the aerospace industry was moving towards integrated
Systems and Software Engineering Processes
• SEI came out with CMMI
• ISO was harmonizing ISO/IEC 15288 and 12207
• DoD AT&L Systems Engineering added Software to the Organization
• NDIA added Software to the System Engineering Division
• STC changed to Systems and Software Technology Conference
• Software Productivity Consortium became Systems and Software Consortium
At the suggestion of the Affiliates, USC merged CSE and SAE as CSSE
Copyright 2013 Lockheed Martin
Continuing Benefits of CSSE to Lockheed Martin
• Engagement of the Systems Engineering Community
• Establishment of a Systems and Software Architect Development Program
• Certificate Program
• Masters Degree
• UARC – Systems Engineering Research Center (w/Stevens Inst. And others)
• Ongoing research for our primary customer – DoD
• Understanding and Insight into the Incremental Commitment Model
Through Collaboration, USC CSSE And Its Affiliates Have
Truly Developed a Win-Win Relationship
Copyright 2013 Lockheed Martin
Personal Reflection
What have I personally gained from my affiliation with USC CSSE?
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Affirmation
Knowledge
Insights
Friendships
Good Times
Satisfaction
• And Great Food!
Contact info:
Gary Hafen
System Engineer Principal
Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company
(661) 572-7178 (Office)
(661) 878-4175 (Cell)
Copyright 2013 Lockheed Martin

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