Chemical weapons

Report
Chemical weapons
Chemical weapons definition
A substance , such as a poisonous gas rather
than an explosive ,which can be used to kill or
injure people.
Use of chemical weapons in the 20th century
1914-8: Over 1300000 people receive gas injuries in first world war,
and over 90000 of them die
•
1935: Italy begins conquest of Abyssinia (Ethiopia) using mustard gas
delivered by aircraft spray
1936: Japan invades China using chemical weapons (including
mustard gas, phosgene, and hydrogen cyanide
•
•
1963-7: Egypt uses phosgene and mustard aerial bombs in support of
South Yemen against the Yemeni royalist forces during the Yemeni
civil war
1980-8: Iraq attacks Iran and Iraqi Kurds during Iran-Iraq war using
mustard and nerve agents
•
•
1994-5: Japanese uses sarin in terrorist attacks at Matsumoto in June
1994 and on the Tokyo underground in March 1995
•
HISTORY OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS
The first large-scale use of chemical weapons, in the modern •
era, occurred during World War I, on battlefields near Ieper,
Belgium. In the course of that war, 100,000 tonnesof toxic
chemicals, such as chlorine, mustard gas and phosgene, were
deployed against soldiers and civilians, resulting in about 90,000
deaths and over a million casualties
Chemical warfare agents
Chemical Agents •
Chemicals used in military operations to •
kill, injure, or incapacitate
Incapacitating vs. Lethal •
Local vs. Systemic effects •
ROUTES OF ENTRY
Ingestion •
Eyes •
Respiratory Tract •
Injection •
Skin •
THE CHEMICAL AGENTS
Nerve Agents •
Blister Agents •
NERVE AGENTS
The most toxic of all weaponized military agents
They are liquids, not “gas” •
Stored and transported in liquid state •
NERVE AGENTS PHYSIOLOGY
Inhibits the enzyme that breaks down •
Acetylcholine (neurotransmitter)
Causes Hyper stimulation of organs of •
cholinergic nervous system
Muscarinic-smooth muscles and glands •
Nicotinic—Skeletal muscles, ganglions •
NERVE AGENTS : TREATMENT
Antidotes Atropine,2-Pam •
Decontaminate •
ATROPINE
Dries secretions, relaxes smooth muscle •
May cause cardiac arrhythmias •
Starting dose = 2 mg, max dose 20 mg •
Don’t rely on heart rate/pupil size •
PRALIDOXIME CHLORIDE
Removes nerve agent from AChE in absence •
“Aging”= the bond between enzyme and •
nerve agent.
Usually enough time to prevent aging before •
bond is permanent (2 minutes)
MARK 1 KITS
Nerve agent antidote medications are only •
given if patient is showing signs and
symptoms of nerve agent poisoning. THEY
ARE NOT TO BE GIVEN PROHPHYLACTICALLY
Bronchospasm and respiratory secretions •
are the best indicators of need for atropine and
2-PAM therapy
VESICANTS (BLISTER AGENTS)
Chemicals that cause redness and blistering •
of the skin •
Military Vesicants •
Sulfur Mustard •
MUSTARD
Vapor and Liquid Threat •
Topical eye, skin, and airway damage; •
causes extensive blistering •
Treatment is symptomatic
ONSET OF MUSTARD SYMPTOMS
Chemical cell damage —1-2 minutes •
Clinical effects: 2-48 hours, usually 4 to 8 •
hours
HOW MUSTARD WORKS ?
Quickly cyclizes in tissue •
DNA damage, cell death •
May affect eyes, skin, and respiratory •
tract
Very similar to radiation poisoning . •
G 1 EFFECTS OF MUSTARD
Within 24 hours: Nausea/vomiting; •
After 3 to 5 days: Tissue destruction •
ORGANISATION FOR THE PROHIBITION OF
CHEMICAL WEAPONS (OPCW)
The convention is administered by the Organization •
for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW),
which acts as the legal platform for specification of
the CWC provisions (the Conference of State Parties
is mandated to change the CWC, pass regulations on
implementation of CWC requirements etc.). The
organisations furthermore conducts inspections at
military and industrial plants to ensure compliance
of member states.
REFERENCES
www.catawbacountync.gov
And
Wikipedia.org

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