AHS-TechClub-100212 - Avon High School Tech Crew

Report
V2012.13
Agenda
•
•
•
•
•
Week ‘0’ Meeting Review
Fundraising
Community Service
Resources
Week 1 Topic - CPUs: From Phones to Servers
Avon High School Tech Crew
2
Community & Fundraising
• Fundraising : Why do we need funds?
– To Build a system
~$700-$900
• Community
Avon High School Tech Crew
3
Tech Crew Resources
• AHS Tech Crew
–
–
–
–
On the web: http://ahstechcrew.org
Follow us on Twitter: #AHSTechCrew
Facebook: http://facebook.com/AHSTechCrew
Subscribe to Mailing list: http://ahstechcrew.org/lists
• Twitter
– If you have consent, consider an account
– NOT a requirement!
• T-Shirts
– Limited sizes/colors
Avon High School Tech Crew
4
Future Meeting Preview
GAMING
OPERATING
SYSTEM
NETWORK
CLOUD
PERIPHERALS
STORAGE
I/O
CPU
NETWORK
DATA &
DATABASES
GRAPHICS
MEMORY
GRAPHICS
LANGUAGES
VIRTUAL
Avon High School Tech Crew
APP
DEVELOPMENT
5
Future Meeting Preview
• Included in each topic:
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Guest Speaker*
Brief History
Definition
Technical Overview
Trends
Classroom/Online Challenges
Hands on (when practical)
Additional Content/Links
Project**
NETWORK
STORAGE
I/O
CPU
GRAPHICS
MEMORY
*Not for every topic
**Based on interest
Avon High School Tech Crew
6
Terminology can be Confusing!
MPU
Core
SoC
Nanometer
QUAD-CORE
CPUPACKAGE
DUAL-CORE
DIE
GHz
clock speed
Avon High School Tech Crew
THREAD
Processor
Embedded
7
So, What is a CPU?
• Central Processing Unit
• Main central processing power of the computer
• Does the "thinking" for the computer and tells
other components (of the computer) what to do
and when
• Think of it as the human brain. It controls the
whole body, and without it, we don't run
• Terms CPU, Processor and MPU (Micro
Processor Unit) are interchangeable
Avon High School Tech Crew
8
How are CPUs Made?
• There are 3 main components:
– Package/Substrate
• Is what you get when you buy a single processor
• It contains one or more dies and gold-plated contacts that
match those on your motherboard
– Die
• A single piece of silicon. A die can contain any number of
cores
• Processor die is where the transistors making up the CPU
actually reside
– Core
• Execution engine
Avon High School Tech Crew
9
CPU Diagram
Cores
Package
Avon High School Tech Crew
Heat
Disperser
Die
10
How are CPUs Made? (cont.)
• Composed of thin layers (die) of thousands of
transistors often call semi-conductors
• CPU is composed of millions (and soon billions)
of transistors (semi-conductors)
• AMD, IBM, Intel, Motorola, Sun/Oracle are just a
few of the companies that make most of the
CPU's used for various kinds of computers
including, phones, desktops, mainframes and
supercomputers
Avon High School Tech Crew
11
Intel Core-i5 Die
Avon High School Tech Crew
12
Wait, So What is a Core?
• Processor core is an independent execution
unit that can run one program thread at a time in
parallel with other cores
• Today’s modern CPUs have either 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 or
more cores
• Multi-Core Processors
– Dual-Core (2), Quad-Core (4), Hexa-Core (6), etc
• Because multiple cores can run multiple
instructions at the same time, overall speed is
increased for programs or applications
Avon High School Tech Crew
13
Now I’m Confused, What is a Thread?
• Thread (short for "thread of execution") is merely
an ordered sequence of instructions that tells the
computer what to do (a task)
• Thread count is the number of individual tasks
which can be executing simultaneously on the
CPU itself
• Without any additional or special hardware, this
is always equal to the core count
Avon High School Tech Crew
14
Where Does Clock Rate Fit?
• The speed at which a microprocessor executes
instructions
• The faster the clock, the more instructions the
CPU can execute per second
• Clock speeds are expressed in megahertz
(MHz) or gigahertz (GHz)
• Clock rate is only one of several factors that can
influence performance when comparing
processors in different families
Avon High School Tech Crew
15
And Then There’s Bit Size …
• At their most basic level, computers
communicate in binary language
• Binary can be thought of as a series of switches
that can either be "on“ (1) or "off“ (0),
representing the presence or absence of
electricity
• As the number of bits increases there are two
important benefits:
– More data can be processed in larger chunks
– Access to larger physical memory
Avon High School Tech Crew
16
OK, One More Time …
• A CPU is made up of a die, core(s) and a
package/substrate
• CPUs can have multiple cores
• Each core can execute a thread in parallel
• The clock dictates how fast tasks are executed
• Larger ‘bit’ systems can access more memory in
bigger chunks
• Performance isn’t necessarily measured by
biggest and fasted
Avon High School Tech Crew
17
CPUs: A Brief History
• ENIAC ("Electronic Numerical Integrator And
Computer") was built in 1943
• Used nearly 17,500 vacuum tubes, 7,200 diodes
and many miles of wire. It took up 1,800 square
feet of space, and weighed almost 30 tons!
• Cost around $500,000. That’s about $6 million
today, adjusted for inflation
• Original programmers of ENIAC computer were
women
Avon High School Tech Crew
18
CPUs: A Brief History
• ENIAC took 70 hours to work out pi to 2000
decimal places
• A modern PC with a CPU the size of 2x2 cm is
exponentially faster than ENIAC, which used up
an entire room
• For an example, a modern PC can calculate a
million decimal places of pi in about 10 seconds
Avon High School Tech Crew
19
ENIAC
Avon High School Tech Crew
20
CPUs: A Brief History
1971: Intel 4004 processor
1972: Intel 8008 processor
1974: Intel 8080 processor
1976: Intel 8085 processor
1978: Intel 8086 / 8088 processors
1982: Intel 80186 processor
1982: Intel 80286 processor
1982: AMD begins manufacturing IBM processors
1985: Intel 80386 DX processor
1988: Intel 80386 SX processor
1989: Intel 80486 DX processor
1989: Cyrix FasMath 83D87 & 83S8 math co-processors
1990: Intel 80386 SL processor
1991: Intel 80486 SX processors
1991: AMD's Am386 processor
1992: Intel 80486 SL processor
1992: Cyrix 486SLC & Cyrix 486DLC
1993: Intel Pentium processor
1993: AMD Am486 processor
1993: Cyrix 486DRx2 & Cyrix 486SLC
1995: Cyrix 5x86
1995: Intel Pentium Pro processor
1995: AMD-K5 processor
1995: Cyrix 6x86
1996: Cyrix MediaGX processor
1997: Intel Pentium II processor
1997: AMD-K6 processor
1998: Intel Pentium II Xeon Server processor
1998: Intel Pentium Celeron processor
Avon High School Tech Crew
1999: Intel Pentium III processor
1999: Intel Pentium Celeron Mobile processor
1999: Intel Pentium III Xeon processor
1999: AMD Athlon
1999: Cyrix M3
2000: Intel Pentium 4 processor
2001: Intel Xeon processor
2001: Intel Itanium processor
2001: AMD Athlon MP
2002: Intel Itanium 2 processor
2002: AMD Athlon XP
2003: Intel Pentium M (Mobile) processor
2003: Intel Pentium 4 processor with Hyper-Threading
2003: AMD Opteron Server Processor
2003: AMD Athlon 64 Processor
2004: AMD Dual Core x86 based processor
2004: Intel Pentium Celeron D processor
2005: Intel Dual Core Xeon processor
2005: AMD Turion 64 Mobile
2005: AMD Athlon 64 x2 (Dual Core)
2006: Intel Core Duo processor
2006: Intel Core Solo ULV processor
2006: Intel Dual Core Itanium 2 processor
2006: Intel Quad-Core Xeon processor
2006: Intel Core 2 Duo processor
2006: Intel Pentiom Core 2 Extreme processor
2006: Intel Pentiom Core Solo processor
2007: Intel Core 2 Quad processor
2008: Intel Core2 Extreme
2008: Intel Atom
2009: AMD Quad-Core Opteron processor
2009: AMD Athlon Neo mobile processor
2009: AMD Six-Core Opteron processor
2009: Intel Core i7
2009: Intel Core i5
2009: AMD Phenom II X4
2010: Intel Core i3
2010: AMD Phenom II X6
2010: AMD Opteron 4000 series
2010: AMD Opteron 6000 series (8 core and 12 core processors)
2010: AMD Opteron 6100 series (8 core and 12 core processors)
2011: AMD Fusion series (CPU and GPU on a single die)
2011: Intel 2nd Generation Core i3
2011: Intel 2nd Generation Core i5
2011: Intel 2nd Generation Core i7
2012: Intel 3rd Generation Core i3
2012: Intel 3rd Generation Core i5
2012: Intel 3rd Generation Core i7
21
Moore’s Law
• Gordon Moore, Intel co-founder
• Simplified version states:
‘The number of transistors on a chip will
double approximately every two years’
Avon High School Tech Crew
22
Moore’s Law
Avon High School Tech Crew
23
Moore’s Law
Avon High School Tech Crew
24
Moore’s Law
• He also stated the law cannot be sustained
indefinitely:
‘It can't continue forever. The nature of
exponentials is that you push them out
and eventually disaster happens’
Avon High School Tech Crew
25
Challenge #1
Can you think of any issues
with the increase of processor
speeds and memory?
Avon High School Tech Crew
26
Different Types of CPUs
• Embedded
–
–
–
–
Limited processing (although that’s changing)
Smaller memory footprints
Power consumption
SoC (System on a Chip)
• Server
–
–
–
–
More cores or multiple CPU configurations
More/faster I/O
Error-correcting RAM
Redundancy
Avon High School Tech Crew
27
What Can We Expect in the Future?
• Advances in transistors
• Lower Power Consumption
– "Near Threshold Voltage“
• Refers to the amount of voltage required to switch a
transistor from 0 to 1
• An NTV processor is able to operate much closer to the
On/Off point. The result is a significant level of power
savings.
• Digital Radio (for phones, tablets, etc)
– Used with WiFi, Bluetooth and 3G/4G chips
– Convert analog technology to digital
Avon High School Tech Crew
28
What Can We Expect in the Future?
• More-than-Moore” (MtM) Scaling
– The goal of MtM scaling is to extend the same design
principles which have driven digital device scaling for
decades over to analog circuitry, and to integrate
those technologies
– More than Moore explores a new area of
micro/nanoelectronics, which reaches beyond the
boundaries of conventional semiconductor
technologies and applications
Avon High School Tech Crew
29
More than Moore
Avon High School Tech Crew
30
What Can We Expect in the Future?
• Focus on SoC
– SoC integrates almost all ‘computing’ components
into a single silicon chip
– Along with a CPU, an SoC usually contains a GPU (a
graphics processor), memory, USB controller, power
management circuits, and wireless radios (WiFi, 3G,
4G LTE, and so on)
– Whereas a CPU cannot function without dozens of
other chips, it’s possible to build complete computers
with just a single SoC
Avon High School Tech Crew
31
Questions/Comments?
Scott Seighman
[email protected]
Avon High School Tech Crew
32

similar documents