Mackenzie Norton Connie O’Donnell Gary Friedmann Laura Roark What A civil rights movement that seeks equal access, opportunity, consideration, basic human respect and dignity for those with a physical or mental disability. Who Individuals with physical disabilities such as those who are blind, deaf or restricted to a wheel chair Individuals with mental disabilities such as Autism or severe behavioral impairments When The beginning of the Disability Rights Movement is a debated topic. Whether it started in the 1800's with the founding of the first school for the deaf or later, the movement hit it's peak with the passing of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) in1990. Prepared by Mackenzie Norton In July 1990 President George Bush signed the Americans with Disabilities Act. The ADA website explains the act the best as the following: The ADA prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability in employment, State and local government, public accommodations, commercial facilities, transportation, and telecommunications. Attached is a video funded by the Department of Education through the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research about the good works of the ADA. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ns7UY8HdPr8 For more information please check out the Civil Rights Division of the Department of Justice or the ADA website. http://www.justice.gov/crt/about/drs/ or http://www.ada.gov/ Prepared by Mackenzie Norton It is natural to fear the unknown. In chapter 8 of Hall’s Among Cultures he writes, “Fear discourages interaction and helps to establish defensive attitudes that can encourage negative results when interactions do occur, thus functioning as a self-fulfilling prophecy.” One of Autism Speaks main objectives is to advocate for the needs of individuals with autism and their families. One of the ways that they do this is to supply free “tool kits” to schools and various members of communities. These kits teach people how they can help to include those with autism spectrum disorder in everyday activities and social situations. (Hall, 2005, p.247) http://www.autismspeaks.org/ Prepared by Connie O’Donnell Science - Autism Speaks funds biomedical research in an effort to better understand the causes of autism and to advance its prevention, diagnosis and treatment. Every effort that Autism Speaks makes has the goal of spreading knowledge. It is a condition of Autism Speaks funding that all peer-reviewed articles funded in whole or in part by its grants must be made available in the PubMed Central online archive. Advocacy - Autism Votes is an Autism Speaks initiative. Year after year they help support state and federal initiatives to help protect and expand autism insurance benefits. In Washington state there is currently a bill in the works for 2012. Attached is a link to a map to see the Autism Speaks 2012 Initiatives Map. http://www.autismvotes.org/site/c.frKNI3PCImE/b.3909861/k.B9DF/State_In itiatives.htm Family Services - Autism Speaks takes being an organization to a whole other level with the care they show for the families of those with autism spectrum disorder. Their family services department is always available to help answer questions involving the science of autism, about grants, medical coverage, support groups, behavioral advice, etc. Donate, Walk Now for Autism Speaks, sign up to receive email updates, and follow Autism Speaks on Facebook and Twitter. For more information please visit www.autismspeaks.org Prepared by Connie O’Donnell The world view on people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) tends to be more towards Ascription. Ascription is based on the notion that something is given to a person and does not require the person to have done something for it. (Hall, 34) As a result, five areas stand out as consequence for Ascription: Being marginalized or a failure to fit into the social grouping. Out of touch with one’s feelings Making an identity Thinking differently Prepared by Gary Friedmann Values are grounded in beliefs about the way the world should be rather than assumptions about the way the world is. Norms are social rules for what certain types of people should and should not do. (Hall, 2005) Individuals with ASD have many problems with social rules in communication, behavior, and social cues. Presence or absence of retrieval cues appear to be related to the specific communicative functions used by the children. (Quill, 1995) The use of request functions ("I want juice") or rejections ("No, I don't want that") is linked to a tangible contextual cue (i.e., the desired/ undesired item) and adult consequences (i.e., to give/remove item). The absence of social communication is not an unwillingness to share information but, rather, an impaired ability to extract relevant information from a social context. (Quill, 1995) Many children with ASD focus more on visual cues that involve the use of pictographic and written language as instructional supports in both structured and natural learning contexts. (Quill, 1995) For children who are nonverbal, graphic augmentative systems have been successfully used during communication training such systems include picture symbols.(Quill, 1995) Prepared by Gary Friedmann In addition to the autistic individual, those who are close to them such as family, friends, and intimate relationships are also significantly impacted. Greater risk for mental illness in individuals with ASD such as Bi-polar disorder. (Tantam, 2009) Individuals with Autism rarely go into public places popular to their age groups and restrict themselves to places with little to no social socialization. (Tantam, 2009) Bullying tends to be a large factor with individuals who have ASD. Many feel this based on the amount of support individuals receive. (Tantam, 2009) In a study comparing families with a child with ASD and families of other children with special health care needs the result was that parents of children with ASDs reported less access to and more dissatisfaction with school and community health services than the other parents. (Quill, 1995) Those with an ASD feel that they are different from other people in that they are cut off but also that other people somehow are all the same. Some individuals experience paranoia. (Tantam, 2009) Prepared by Gary Friedmann Frequently, autistic individuals do not show any outward appearances of having a disability. It is not until one interacts with them that they notice that there is something different about them. As a result, they don’t experience discrimination because of their known disability, but because they behave outside social norms. In a study conducted by Butler and Gillis at Auburn University to measure the impact of labels and behaviors on adults with Aspergers Disorder showed that it is the associated behaviors that people with AD demonstrate that cause the stigmatism and rejection of those adults. (Butler, Gillis, 2011) Prepared by Laura Roark Johnson discusses how a disabled person is often assumed to be less intelligent or capable by their non-disabled counterparts. (Johnson, 2006) In The Meaning of Autism: Beyond Disorder, Sara O’Neil discusses some of the ways that those with autism are discriminated against. In her section on communication, which is frequently an area of challenge for autistics, she mentions a Rubin, who was described as “retarded” growing up. Once Rubin learned facilitated communication she was able to find her voice and is now a autism advocate. (O’Neil, 2008, p. 791) Prepared by Laura Roark In 2010 national attention was drawn to a restaurant that posted a sign that said “Screaming Children WILL NOT be Tolerated” at a North Carolina restaurant. Two parents of autistic children noticed the sign and demanded it be removed stating that it was discriminatory. (np) Some people with autism can express themselves through loud and unusual sounds, which can be disconcerting to those who are not familiar with the individuals. In this case, the parents felt that the class of autistic people were being punished for behaviors their children cannot control. This particular incident could be categorized as a “blame the victim” scenario, as described by Johnson. He explains that the disabled group is “routinely assumed to be something that resides solely in the person who has it” ultimately making it their problem, not the non-disabled persons. (Johnson, 2006) Prepared by Laura Roark Individuals with autism are frequently stereotyped for their behaviors. Many people with autism do have special talents, but to assume they all do, and to assume all autistics lack social skills is a common stereo type found in American culture. This type of thinking demonstrates the fundamental attribution error, as discussed by Hall. (Hall, 2005, p. 193) The family and care providers of an autistic individual are capable of discrimination too. O’Neil explains that many times parents and medical providers fail to explain to children exactly what their diagnosis is and fail to gather that individuals input about treatment. (O’Neil, Prepared by Laura Roark 2008) In Dyches, et al paper “Multicultural Issues in Autism” they explain that some Latino cultures view having a child with disabilities as “punishment for the sins of the parent”. They go on to summarize individuals that are both autistic and come from a multicultural background have four “dimensions” that are stacked up: “communication, social skills, behavioral repertoires, and culture.” (Dyches, 2004, p. 221) As you can see by the previous examples, individuals with autism clearly face many prejudices that those in the privileged categories do not worry about. Whether it be gaining and retaining employment, labels, such as “retarded” assigned to them, being able to go out in public and enjoy a meal, or even having a voice in their own care, those with autism are regularly discriminated against. Prepared by Laura Roark Learn Actively Our group decided to research the Disability Rights Movement specifically the works of the organization Autism Speaks. We divided our project into four parts so we each had to research and compile our own data and present it to the group. Communicate with Clarity and Originality Our group decided to meet in person after a series of emails that confused many in the group. We struggled at first to figure out the direction of the project. Once we met in person however, our group was able to clearly communicate the objective of the project and the research direction we wanted to take. Think Critically, Creatively and Reflectively Our group decided to research the Disability Rights Movement specifically the works of the organization Autism Speaks. We divided our project into four parts so we each had to research and compile our own data and present it to the group. Interact in Diverse and Complex Environments Each member of our group has a different work schedule, making it difficult to communicate. We were able to over come this obstacle by meeting on campus and exchanging different email addresses that proved more effective than the angel email system. Prepared by Mackenzie Norton "Americans with Disabilities Act - YouTube ." YouTube - Broadcast Yourself. . ADA National Network, 17 June 2010. Web. 10 Dec. 2011. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ns7UY8HdPr8>. Anonymous. (2011). Comfort Suites to Pay $132,500 for Disability Discrimination Against Clerk with Autism. Targeted News Service. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.comoffcampus.lib.washington.edu/docview/902539619 Autism Speaks. (2011). Ways to Give. In Autism Speaks. Retrieved December 7, 2011, from http://www.autismspeaks.org/ways-give. Autism Speaks. (2011). It's Time for Lawmakers to Listen. In Autism Votes. Retrieved December 7, 2011, from http://www.autismvotes.org/site/c.frKNI3PCImE/b.3909853/k.BE44/Home.htm. Autism Speaks. (2011). Stratigic Plan. In Autism Speaks. Retrieved December 7, 2011, from http://www.autismspeaks.org/science/strategic-plan. Autism Speaks. (2011). School Community Tool Kit. In Autism Speaks. Retrieved December 7, 2011, from http://www.autismspeaks.org/family-services/tool-kits/school-community-tool-kit. Autism Speaks. (2011). Family Services. In Autism Speaks. Retrieved December 7, 2011, from http://www.autismspeaks.org/family-services.. Bowen, S (2010). Carolina Beach restaurant’s ‘screaming kids’ policy draws challenge. Star News. November 4, 2010. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.offcampus.lib.washington.edu/docview/751421567?accounted=147 84 Butler, R. C., & Gillis, J. M. (2011). The Impact of Labels and Behaviors on the Stigmatization of Adults with Asperger's Disorder. Journal Of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 41(6), 741- Disability Rights Section. (n.d.). Civil Rights Division. Retrieved December 8, 2011, from www.justice.gov/crt/about/drs/ 749. doi:10.1007/s10803-010-1093-9 Dyches, T., Wilder, L. K., Sudweeks, R. R., Obiakor, F. E., & Algozzine, B. (2004). Multicultural Issues in Autism. Journal Of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 34(2), 211222. Wilder, L. K., Sudweeks, R. R., Obiakor, F. E., & Algozzine, B. (2004). Multicultural Issues in Autism. Journal Of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 34(2), 211-222. Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.offcampus.lib.washington.edu/ehost/ A Guide to Disability Rights Laws. (n.d.). ADA Home Page - ada.gov - Information and Technical Assistance on the Americans with Disabilities Act. Retrieved December 8, 2011, from http://www.ada.gov/cguide.htm Hall, B. Among Cultures: The Challenge of Communication (2nd ed). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning. An Introduction to the Disability Rights Movement. (n.d.). Disability Insurance Quotes and Information. Retrieved December 8, 2011, from http://www.protectyourincome.com/education-center/an-introduction-to-the-disabilityrights-movement Johnson, A. (2006). Privilege, Power, and Difference. New York, NY: McGraw Hill O’Neil, Sara (2008). The meaning of autism: beyond disorder. Disability & Society. December 3, 2008. 787-799j. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1080.0968759080246298 Quill, K. A. (1995). Focus on Autistic Behavior, 10(3), 10-11. Tantam, D. (2009). Can the world afford autistic spectrum disorder? : Nonverbal communication, Asperger syndrome. (pp. 151-153 and 156). Jessica Kingsley Publishers Ltd.