Progress Monitoring

A Look at RTI in Early
Presentation Provided to PSJA I.S.D.
August 19, 2013
Laura M. Sáenz, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Special
Associate Vice Provost for Undergraduate Studies
Overview of the Presentation
Roadmap to Pre-k RTI
Models of RTI
in Preschool
Overview of RTI
RTI Approaches Have Evolved as a
Response to Two Primary Concerns in K-12
1. An existing “wait to fail” model in which teams had to
wait until a child/student demonstrated a significant
discrepancy between intellectual ability and academic
achievement (that is, failed) before determining that he or
she had a learning disability and thus was eligible for
special education services.
2. A commonly occurring practice in which students were
identified as having a delay or disability without
consideration of the quality, type, or relevance of teaching
efforts they may have received in general education
settings prior to this identification.
RTI in Early Childhood Settings
• Understanding models of K-12 RTI
models may be useful, but the models
may not be directly applicable to EC
– Variability in supervision of programs (e.g.,
agencies vs. schools)
– Variability in teacher training or expertise
– Variability of resources
– Develop needs of EC students are much
broader than those in K-12
Origins of RTI
• Education of All Handicapped Children Act (1975)
defined “underachievement” as discrepancy between IQ
and achievement.
• IQ/achievement discrepancy is criticized:
– IQ tests do not necessarily measure intelligence
• Therefore, a discrepancy between IQ and achievement may be
– IQ and achievement are not independent.
• Difference scores, therefore, may be unreliable.
– Waiting for students to fail.
• Most students identified by grades 3 to 5.
Six Problems in Identifying SLD
• 1: Subjectivity in referral with much
emphasis on teacher perceptions
• 2: Flawed procedures determining LD
such as IQ-Achievement Discrepancy
• 3: “Wait to fail” approach
(Haager et al., 2007, chapter 1).
Six Problems in Identifying SLD
• 4: Very little emphasis on appropriateness
of instruction
• 5: Variability in prevalence across states
• 6: Disproportionate numbers of minority
students identified as LD
(Haager et al., 2007, chapter 1).
Addressing the Problems of LD
• One option: Eliminate LD as a category
included in IDEA.
• Second option: Investigate alternate
methods for indentifying SWLD.
– Major change: recommended use of Response
to Intervention (RTI)
(Haager et al., 2007, chapter 1).
What is RTI?
• RTI is an alternative framework for
– unexpected failure to benefit from validated
• RTI eliminates poor instructional quality as
an explanation for learning problems.
What is RTI?
• Not a new process.
• A system with parts that have been
implemented by schools for a number of
• Shifts responsibility for struggling
• Should be viewed as a process that can
enhance the learning of all students.
(Ogonosky, 2008, Chapter 1).
What is Response to
Intervention (RTI)?
• RTI is a systematic problem-solving
process designed to
– allow for earlier identification of students’
– provide students with a level of instructional
intensity matched to their demonstrated
response to intervention
– provide a data-based method for evaluating
the effectiveness of instructional approaches and
changing/improving them
Definition of Responsiveness-toIntervention
When a low-performing student does not
show growth in response to small-group
validated intervention, to which most
students respond, he/she is considered to
have special learning needs, due to a
disability, which require an individualized
learning program. This is typically
delivered under the auspices of special
education (National Center on Student
Progress Monitoring, 2007).
Definition of RTI
Response to intervention integrates
assessment and intervention within a multilevel prevention system to maximize student
achievement and to reduce behavior
problems. With RTI, schools identify
students at risk for poor learning outcomes,
monitor student progress, provide evidencebased interventions and adjust the intensity
and nature of those interventions depending
on a student’s responsiveness, and identify
students with learning disabilities (National
Center on RTI, 2008).
Definition of RTI
RTI is a “process of instruction,
assessment, and intervention that allows
schools to identify struggling students
early, provide appropriate instructional
interventions, and increase the likelihood
that the students can be successful and
maintain their class placement” (Mellard &
Johnson, 2008, p. 1).
Definition of RTI
• RTI is the practice of…
– Providing high-quality instruction/
intervention matched to student needs and
– Using learning rate over time and level of
performance to
– Making important educational decisions.
Source: NASDE 2005 Response to Intervention: Policy
Considerations and Implementation. (p. 5)
Operationalizing RTI as Dual
• Unresponsive is often operationalized as
dual discrepancy:
– Student performs substantially below level
demonstrated by peers and demonstrates a
learning rate substantially below peers.
• Special education considered only when
dual discrepancy, in response to smallgroup validated instruction, is found.
Assumptions of RTI
• Intended to reduce the need for special
education by improving and providing
services early
• Services are individualized and based on
evidence-based strategies
• There is a high quality of “general”
intervention, and resources and services
are added as needed.
Key Ideas of RTI
1. All children can learn
2. Intervene early
3. Use a multi-tier model of service
4. Use problem solving method to drive decisions
5. Use research-based, scientifically validated
interventions/instruction to the extent available
6. Monitor student progress to inform instruction
7. Use data to make decisions
8. Universal screening, diagnostics and progress
Advantages of RTI
• Students identified as LD only after not
responding to effective instruction.
– Poor instructional quality is ruled out as
explanation for poor student performance.
• Students provided intervention early.
– RTI does not wait for students to fail.
• Student assessment data informs teachers
about appropriate instruction.
– Data help improve teacher instruction.
Two Types of Assessment in
• Screening and benchmark assessment to
determine the need for intervention
• Progress-monitoring assessment to track
student progress
(Haager et al., 2007, Chapter 2).
Three Functions of Assessment
in RTI
• Screening: conducted to identify a subset
of students in need intensive intervention
(Tier 2)
• Progress Monitoring: conducted to
quantify RTI for the purpose of making
decisions about movement into and out of
more intensive supports (Tier 2 and 3)
• Informing Instructional Planning:
conducted to help teachers individualize
instruction (Haager et al, 2007, Chapter 3).
Five Dimensions of RTI
1. Number of tiers (2–5)
2. How at-risk students are identified:
– Percentile cut on norm-referenced test
– Cut-point on measures
– Growth over time
– 3. Nature of Tier 2 preventative treatment:
– Individualized (i.e., problem solving)
– Standardized research-based protocol
Five Dimensions of RTI
4. How “response” is defined:
– Final status on norm-referenced test or using a
– Pre–post improvement
– Growth over time
– End of year performance or benchmark
5. What happens to nonresponders:
– Nature of the abbreviated evaluation to
categorize learning disability (LD), behavior
disability (BD), and mental retardation (MR)
– Nature of special education
The Basics of a Three-Tier
K-12 RTI Model
RTI: A Multi-tiered Prevention System
• RTI relies on a multi-tier prevention
system to identify students with LDs:
– Primary prevention level
– Secondary prevention level
– Tertiary prevention level
(Some models incorporate more than 1 tier
of intervention within each of the 3
prevention levels.)
Continuum of Schoolwide
Primary Prevention:
Schoolwide and classwide
~80% of students
Tertiary Prevention:
Further intensified and
Intensified, validated
The Basics of Tier 1
• Primary Prevention (Tier 1):
– All students screened to determine which
students are suspected to be at risk.
– Students suspected to be at risk remain in
primary prevention, with PM.
– PM:
• Disconfirms risk. These responsive students
remain in primary prevention.
• Confirms risk. These unresponsive students move
to secondary prevention.
The Basics of Tier 2
• Secondary Prevention (Tier 2):
– Research-based tutoring
– Provided in small groups
– With weekly PM
– At end of tutoring trial, PM indicates students
• Responsive to Tier 2 tutoring. These responsive
students return to primary prevention but PM
• Unresponsive to Tier 2 tutoring. These
unresponsive students move to tertiary prevention
(special education).
The Basics of Tier 3
• Tertiary Prevention (Tier 3):
– Special education services
– With weekly PM
– PM is used to:
• Set Individualized education program (IEP) goals.
• Design individualized instructional programs.
• Monitor student response.
– When PM indicates the student achieves benchmark
performance, student exits special education (i.e., returns
to primary or secondary prevention), with ongoing PM.
Three Tiers of RTI
TIER 1: Primary Prevention
- General education setting
- Research-based instruction
- Screening to identify students
suspected to be at risk
- PM to (dis)confirm risk status
TIER 2: Secondary
- Validated or researchedbased tutoring
- PM to assess responsiveness
TIER 3: Tertiary Prevention
- Special education
- PM to set IEP goals
- PM to formulate individualized
- PM to assess responsiveness
Typical RTI Procedure
1. Screen all students to identify suspected
at-risk students.
2. Monitor progress of students suspected
to be at risk to (dis)confirm risk.
3. Provide second preventative tutoring to
at-risk students, while progress is
monitored to assess response.
Typical RTI Procedure
4. Move students who prove unresponsive
to secondary preventative tutoring to
tertiary prevention. They receive
comprehensive evaluation to answer
questions and to determine disability.
5. Monitor progress in tertiary prevention
to set IEP goals, formulate effective
programs, and determine exit decisions.
Defining RTI in Early
Core Practices of RTI that
Align with EC Practices
• Specification of a multi-tiered system of
• Early provision of support of intentional
teaching/caregiving with sufficient intensity
to promote positive outcomes and prevent
later problems;
• Use of child data to inform teaching and
responsive caregiving practices; and
• Use of research-based, scientifically validated
practices to the maximum extent possible
Features of Pre-K RTI Shared with
RTI for K-12 Children Include…
• Tiered instruction and intervention
• High quality classroom instruction
• Ongoing student assessment and progress
Each of these RTI features must be
adapted for Pre-K Settings
Application of K-12 Models
with Preschoolers
• Models or approaches designed for
school-aged children cannot be directly
applied to preschoolers without
• Critical features may remain the same, but
specific applications must be adapted to
meet the early childhood culture and must
address the development needs of young
Application of K-12 Models
with Preschoolers
• RTI for school-aged children has had a focus
on identifying “non-responders” once
referred to as “treatment resisters.”
• With preschoolers, the language and focus
should be on how the child’s response
indicates a need for additional support and
by sharing responsive education plans to
ensure the child is placed on a trajectory for
• Unlike K-12 RTI , RTI for preschoolers
should include a deliberate focus on family
Major Components of Pre-K
Learning About the Child’s Strengths and
Weaknesses: Screening, Assessment, and
Progress Monitoring
Evidence-based Practices and Standard
Fidelity of implementation
Collaborative Problem Solving
Parental and Family Engagement
One Model:
Recognition and Response
• R&R is a tiered instructional model based on
Response to Intervention (RTI) principles &
research-based interventions in early
• R&R uniquely addresses the use of RTI for
academic learning in pre-k
• Dual focus on improving instructional
quality for all students & targeted
interventions for some to help all students
One Model:
Recognition and Response
• Recognition:
– Formative assessment (universal screening &
– progress monitoring)
• Response:
Core instruction for all children; Targeted
interventions for some children
PD & Collaborative problem solving to support
implementation & data-based decision making
Formative Assessment
• Used for instructional planning, not for
diagnostic evaluation
• Direct assessments of children’s skills in
key content areas
• Administered 3 times/year—fall, winter,
• Both universal screening & progress
monitoring functions
Formative Assessment
• Tier 1
– Do most children meet screening criteria?
– Which children need targeted interventions?
• Tier 2
– How well are Tier 2 interventions working for
– some children who need additional supports?
• Tier 3
– How well are Tier 3 interventions working for a
– few children who need more individualized
– and intensive supports?
What is the Tier 1 Response?
Core curriculum & intentional teaching for all
• Research-based core curriculum that includes
all key domains of learning and is
implemented with fidelity
• Intentional teaching that plans and evaluates
instruction to address the learning needs of
all children
• High quality inclusive learning environment,
including accommodations for individual
What is the Tier 2 Response?
Language & Literacy
• Lessons based on shared storybook
reading and related activities
• Focused on building skills in—
– Vocabulary & comprehension
– Sound awareness
– Print & alphabet knowledge
What is the Tier 3 Response?
Individualized scaffolding strategies for a
few children who require intensive supports
• Provided in conjunction with Tier 1 and
Tier 2
• Derived from research-based strategies
• Modeling, response prompting, peer
supports, corrective feedback,
supplemental behavioral supports
Intentional Teaching
• The purposeful organization of the early
learning environment and developmentally
appropriate learning activities within a
comprehensive curriculum to help children
develop and acquire important skills.
• In RTI, IT is expanded to include targeted
interventions for some children who require
additional academic or behavioral supports,
generally provided through
• Small group instruction – Tier 2
• Embedded instruction/interventions – Tier 2
• Individualized scaffolding – Tier 3
Embedded Instruction
• Multi-component approach to provide
intentional and systematic instruction on
priority learning targets during typically
occurring activities, routines, and transitions
to support child engagement and learning
Key Components of Embedded
Instruction in RTI
Embedded Instruction in EC
RTI Frameworks
From: Snyder, P., Hemmeter, M.L., McLean, M., Sandall, S., & McLaughlin, T. (2013). Embedded instruction to support early learning in
response to intervention frameworks. In V. Buysse & E. Peisner-Feinberg (Eds.), Handbook of response-to-intervention in early childhood.
Baltimore: Brookes.
R&R Website

similar documents