Ch 8 Rosids

Report
Rosids
Geranium
Chapter 8
Simpson, 2nd
Edition
Rosids
• Diversity of the Rosids
• 16 orders
• 137 families
• Fabids - 77 families
• Malvids – 60 families
• 1/3 of eudicot families
• General traits:
• perianth – unfused parts
• stamen # > K or C
• ovules bitegmic, crassinucellate
(well-developed nucellus)
• Asterids have unitegmic,
tenuinucellate ovules (poorly
developed nucellus)
Rosids: Fabids
A. Order Malpighiales
Euphorbiaceae - Spurge family
245/6300 cosmopolitan
1) latex sap
2) usually monoecious
3) many xerophytic & cactoid
4) no perianth
5) cyathium in Euphorbia - a reduced
cymose inflorescence bearing a
pistillate flower and several staminate
ones with in involucre, the whole
mimicing a single perfect flower
(Greek-> wine cup)
6) schizocarp/capsule
7) many poisonous species
K5(0) C5(0) A1-∞ G(3) (2-∞)
superior
Rosids: Fabids
A. Order Malpighiales
Euphorbiaceae - Spurge family
Euphorbia pulcherrima - poinsettia
Euphorbia marginata –
snow on the mountain
Euphorbia spp.
Ricinia - castor bean
Rosids: Fabids
convergent evolution
A. Order Malpighiales
Euphorbiaceae - Spurge family
Euphorbia mammilaris
(Indian Corn Cob)
Euphorbia horrida
Euphorbia officinarum
Rosids: Fabids
A. Order Malpighiales
Euphorbiaceae family
Spurge
Economic Importance
1) tung oil (Aleurites fordii)
2) natural rubber (Hevea
brasiliensis)
3) cassava/manioc (Manihot
esculentus)
4) castor bean oil & the poison
ricin (Ricinus communis)
5) ornamentals
Rosids: Fabids
B. Order Fabales
Family Fabaceae (=Leguminosae) - legume family
730/19,500 3rd largest family
diverse and widely distributed
Uniting traits of the legumes….
1) single carpel
2) compound, stipulate leaves
3) fruit a legume - dry, dehiscent along both sutures
4) many are nitrogen fixers - possessing nodules with
nitrogen-fixing bacteria (a feature otherwise
restricted to a few small families)
Rosids: Fabids
B. Order Fabales
Lumper view:
Fabaceae sensu lato (Leguminosae)
• Subfamily Mimosoideae 2,500 spp.
• Subfamily Caesalpinioideae 2,700 spp.
• Subfamily Papilionoideae 14,300 spp
Splitter view:
• Mimosaceae
• Caesalpiniaceae
• Fabaceae sensu stricto
Family Fabaceae
character
Mimosoideae
Caesalpinioideae
Paplionoideae
symmetry
actinomorphic
+/- zygomorphic
zygomorphic
petals
valvate
banner inside wings
banner outside wings
stamen #
(4) 10-many
10 (many)
10, often 9+1
leaves
bipinnate
pinnate (simple)
pinnate, palmate, (simple)
Acacia - acacia
Mimosa - mimosa, sensitive
Cercis - redbud
Cassia - senna
Gymnocladus dioica - Kentucky
examples
plant
Desmanthus - prairie
mimosa
Prospopis - mesquite
K(5) C5or(5) A10-∞ G1
coffee tree
Caesalpinia - poinciana
Gleditsia - honey locust
K5 C5 A5-10 G1
Lupinus - lupine,
bluebonnet (State Flower
of Texas)
Amorpha - lead plant
Dalea - prairie clover
Trifolium - clover
K(5) C(5) A(9)+1 G1
Family Fabaceae
character
Mimosoideae
Caesalpinioideae
Paplionoideae
symmetry
actinomorphic
+/- zygomorphic
zygomorphic
petals
valvate
banner inside wings
banner outside wings
stamen #
(4) 10-many
10 (many)
10, often 9+1
leaves
bipinnate
pinnate (simple)
pinnate, palmate, (simple)
Acacia - acacia
Mimosa - mimosa, sensitive
Cercis - redbud
Cassia - senna
Gymnocladus dioica - Kentucky
examples
plant
Desmanthus - prairie
mimosa
Prospopis - mesquite
K(5) C5or(5) A10-∞ G1
coffee tree
Caesalpinia - poinciana
Gleditsia - honey locust
K5 C5 A5-10 G1
Lupinus - lupine,
bluebonnet (State Flower
of Texas)
Amorpha - lead plant
Dalea - prairie clover
Trifolium - clover
K(5) C(5) A(9)+1 G1
Rosids: Rosales
C. Order Rosales
Rosaceae - rose family
100/3,000 cosmopolitan,
especially in N. America
K5 C5 A10-
4-6 subfamilies
• 3 commonly occur in
the US
ROSOIDEAE G1-
PRUNOIDEAE G1
MALOIDEAE G(5) epigynous
Rosaceae
Rosoideae
Prunoideae
Maloideae
compound;
stipules
simple; deciduous
stipules
simple; deciduous
stipules
conical
receptacle;
hypanthial cup
hyanthial cup
adnate
hypanthium
perigynous
perigynous
epigynous
carpel #
many; apocarpous
monocarpellate
pentacarpellate
fruit
achene, druplet,
aggregate
drupe
pome
leaves
hypanthium
ovary position
genera
Rosa
Potentilla
Rubus
Frageria
Prunus
Malus
Sorbus
Crataegus
Rosaceae - Rosoideae G
Rubus flower
Rubus young aggregate fruit
Rubus mature aggregate fruit
Rosaceae - Prunoideae G1
Prunus flower - note
hypanthial cup
Prunus fruit (drupe)
Rosaceae - Maloideae G(5)
Malus pome c.s.
Malus flower
Malus hypanthium
Malus pome
Malus pome l.s.
Rosids: Rosales
C. Order Rosales
Ulmaceae - elm family
18/150 temperate to tropical,
especially in N hemisphere
1) trees and shrubs
2) oblique leaf base
Ulmus - elm
Celtis - hackberry
Rosids: Rosales
C. Order Rosales
Moraceae - mulberry family
38/1100 widely distributed; Old
and New World;
tropical/subtropical
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
trees, shrubs
monoecious or
dioecious
milky latex
stipulate leaves
fruit often a multiple
fruit
Rosids: Rosales
C. Order Rosales
Urticaceae - nettle family
55/2600 cosmopolitan
1)
2)
3)
4)
herbs, shrubs, trees
stinging hairs
plants monoecious or
dioecious
pollen an allergen
Urtica
Rosids: Rosales
Cannabis hemp,
marijuana
C. Order Rosales
hemp pollen
Cannabaceae - hemp family
2/2 North temperate zone
1)
Humulus - hops (used
for brewing)
Whilst malt and yeast
contribute substantially
to the character of
beers, the quality of beer
is at least as much a
function of the water
and, especially, of the
hops used in its
production.
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
herbs
hemp contains delta-9tetrahydrocannabinol (THC),
psychoactive ingredient found in hashish
and marijuana
palmately compound leaves
fibrous – source of hempen fiber
hemp common allergen
hops - brewing
Rosids: Rosales
D. Order Cucurbitales
Cucurbitaceae – cucumber family
122/900 tropical to subtropical
1.
2.
3.
herbs,
climbing with
tendrils
monoecious
fruit a pepo
K5 C(5) A5 G0
K(5) C(5) A0 G(3)
Rosids: Rosales
E. Order Fagales
Fagaceae – beech family
7/970 temperate & tropical
region of N. hemisphere
1.
2.
monoecious shrubs/trees
staminate flowers in an
erect or pendulous spike or
head (ament)
3.
pistillate flowers in an
involucre (think acorn cup
here)
4.
Genera:
Quercus - oak
Castanea - chestnut
Fagus - beech
Rosids: Rosales
E. Order Fagales
Fagaceae - beech family
Quercus - oak
great species diversity
hybridization common
Economic Importance:
lumber
cork
tannins
Food (acorns) historically
Rosids: Rosales
E. Order Fagales
Fagaceae - beech family
important components to
woodlands of NA and Eurasia
Fagus - beech
Rosids: Rosales
E. Order Fagales
Fagaceae - beech family
Castanea - chestnut
Rosids: Rosales
E. Order Fagales
Fagaceae - beech family
Chestnut blight, or chestnut bark disease, is caused by an
introduced fungus.
The fungus enters wounds, grows in and under the bark and
eventually kills the cambium all the way around the twig, branch, or
trunk.
Sprouts develop from a burl-like tissue at the base of the tree
called the ‘root collar,’ which contains dormant embryos. Sprouts
grow, become wounded and infected, and die, and the process
starts all over again.
Cankers were first reported in the United States in 1904 on
American chestnut trees in New York City. None of the control
attempts (chemical treatments, clearing and burning chestnut
trees around infection sites) were successful.
By 1926 the fungus was reported throughout the native range of
American chestnut and a major forest tree had been reduced to a
multiple-stemmed shrub. In 1912 the Plant Quarantine Act was
passed to reduce the chances of such a catastrophe happening
again.
Castanea - chestnut
Rosids: Rosales
E. Order Fagales
Betulaceae – birch family
6/170 widespread in N.
hemisphere
1.
2.
3.
shrubs/trees
biserrate leaf margin
staminate and
pistillate flowers in
catkins
Corylus fruit - filbert
Alnus - alder
Rosids: Rosales
E. Order Fagales
Betulaceae – birch family
Betula - birch
Rosids: Rosales
E. Order Fagales
Betulaceae – birch family
Birch – Finland’s national tree
Rosids: Rosales
E. Order Fagales
Betulaceae – birch family
Ostrya hophornbeam;
ironwood
Rosids: Malvids
K(5) C(5) A(5-15) G(5)
A. Order Geraniales
Geraniaceae -
Geranium family
7/800 temperate regions,
especially Old World
1) glandular trichomes
2) fruit = elastic shizocarp
3) mericarps split from base
of ovary and curl upwards
(mericarp = pieces of
schizocarp)
Geranium
mericarpZ
Pelargonium - geranium
Rosids: Malvids
K4 C4 A4+4 G(4)
inferior with
hypanthium
B. Order Myrtales
Onagraceae - Evening Primrose family
22/650 especially W. North America
1) tetramerous floral parts
2) epigyny
3) tubular hypanthium
4) internal phloem - 1° phloem
that lies between the 1°
xylem & pith
5) moth pollination common
(white or yellow corolla)
6) comose seeds
Rosids: Malvids
B. Order Myrtales
Onagraceae -
Evening Primrose
family
Epilobium - fireweed
Rosids: Malvids
B. Order Myrtales
Onagraceae - Evening
Primrose family
Gaura - butterfly weed
Rosids: Malvids
B. Order Myrtales
Onagraceae - Evening Primrose family
Oenothera - evening primrose
Rosids: Malvids
C. Order Brassicales
K4 C4 A4+2 G(2), superior
Brassicaceae (=Cruciferae) - Mustard Family
321/3700 cosmopolitan
1) tetradynamous stamens
4 long + 2 short
Rosids: Malvids
C. Order Brassicales
Brassicaceae (=Cruciferae) Mustard Family
1) tetradynamous stamens
4 long + 2 short
2) fruit
• bicarpellate gynoecium
• walls peel awayfrom a thin
central papery partition
(false septum with replum –
persistent cross-wall)
a) silicle
2X long as wide or less
Rosids: Malvids
C. Order Brassicales
Brassicaceae (=Cruciferae) Mustard Family
1) tetradynamous stamens
4 long + 2 short
2) fruit
• bicarpellate gynoecium
• walls peel awayfrom a thin
central papery partition
(false septum with replum –
persistent cross-wall)
b) silique
long and slender
Rosids: Malvids
C. Order Brassicales
Brassicaceae (=Cruciferae) Mustard Family
Rosids: Malvids
K(5) C5 A(5-∞) G(2-∞)
superior
D. Order Malvales
Malvaceae - Mallow Family
250/4200 worldwide, tropics
1) monadelphous androecium
many stamens, separate
anthers, filaments fused
into a sheath
Hibiscus
G (5-∞)
stellate hairs
2) stellate pubescence
3) discoid stigma
4) fruit a capsule or shizocarp
H. esculentus - okra)
shizocarp
monadelphous stamens
marshmallow
Rosids: Malvids
D. Order Malvales
Malvaceae - Mallow Family
Gossypium - cotton
Rosids: Malvids
D. Order Malvales
Malvaceae - Mallow Family
Abutilon - velvet leaf
Callirhoe - poppy mallow
Malva neglecta- common mallow
Rosids: Malvids
D. Order Malvales
Malvaceae (Tiliaceae) –
Linden (Basswood)
• few temperate species
Tilia americana- basswood
Rosids: Malvids
E. Order Sapindales
Rutaceae -
Citrus family
161/1900 tropical & temperate
1) glandular punctate leaves,
secretory glands containing
essential oils
2) woody
3) aromatic
4) staminal disk
5) hesperidium/winged achene
Citrus - citrus
Ptelea - hop tree
Rosids: Malvids
E. Order Sapindales
Rutaceae -
Citrus family
Rosids: Malvids
E. Order Sapindales
Anacardiaceae 70/850 tropical
Cashew family
1) shrubs/woody
vines/trees
2) Rhus &
Toxicodendron
in temperate
areas
3) resinous
compounds in
stems/leaves
4) skin irritant in
Pistacia - pistachio
Anacardium - cashew
Rhus - sumac
Toxicodendron
Mangifera - mango
Toxicodendron - poison ivy,
poison oak
Rosids: Malvids
E. Order Sapindales
Sapindaceae (Aceraceae) Maple family
135/1580 tropical
& temperate
1) trees or shrubs
2) opposite
palmately lobed
and veined
leaves (pinnate
in A. negundo)
3) fruits paired
winged
schizocarps =
samara
Acer - maple
Acer negundo - box elder
Rosids: Malvids
E. Order Sapindales
Sapindaceae (Hippocastanaceae)
- Buckeye family
1) trees
2) opposite
palmately
compound leaves
3) flowers in
conspicuous
inflorescences
4) fruit a leathery
1-2 seeded
capsule
Aesculus hippocastanum horsechestnut

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