Document

Report
Small Wind Energy
Appalachian State University
Affordable,
Clean Energy
for Homes, Farms &
Businesses
Small Wind Energy
Appalachian State University
• Small Wind
Introduction
• Beech Mountain
R&D Site
• Wind Resource
Assessment
Small Wind Intro
Why Wind?
•Renewable
•Clean
•Widely available
•Produced locally
•Reduced price
volatility
•Allows energy
independence
•SUSTAINABLE!
A Valuable, Widely-Available Resource
Small Wind
Energy Systems
Value of Power
= 6-18¢ / kWh
Installed cost of
$2-$3/Watt is
1/3 to 1/2 that
of solar
technologies
Require less wind to operate than utility-scale wind
energy applications
Factors to Consider
• Good wind resource: Class
2 or better
• Home or business located
on 1 acre or more of land
• (depending on site)
Average monthly electricity
bills >$100 for 10 kW
system,
>$50 for 5 kW system
• Zoning restrictions,
economic incentives
Small Wind Turbines Are
Different
• Utility-Scale Wind Power
600 - 1,800 kW wind turbines
1,500 kW
– Installed on wind farms, 10 – 300 MW
– Professional maintenance crews
– 13 mph (6 m/s) average wind speed
• Small Wind Power
300 W - 250 kW wind turbines
– Installed at individual homes, farms,
businesses, schools, etc.
– On the “customer side” of the meter,
or off the utility grid entirely
– High reliability, low maintenance
– 9 mph (4 m/s) average wind speed
10 kW
Small Wind Turbines
• Configuration: 2 or 3 blades aimed into
the wind by the tail
• Blades: Fiber-reinforced plastics
• Over-Speed Protection: Furling (rotor
turns out of the wind), no brakes
• Generator: Direct-drive, permanent
magnet alternator (no brushes), 3-phase
AC, variable-speed operation
• Controller: Electronic device that delivers
- DC power for charging batteries
- AC power for utility interconnection
• Result:
– Simple, rugged design
– Only 2–4 moving parts
– Little regular maintenance required
Bergey EXCEL, 10 kW
Small Wind Turbine Towers
Guyed Tower
Tilt-Up Tower
Self-Supporting
Tower
Over-Speed Protection
During High Winds
• Upward Furling: The
rotor tilts back during
high winds
Over-Speed Protection
During High Winds
• Angle Governor: The rotor turns up and to one side
• Or do a 360 degree spin out , from
commentator Jeff Lauckhart….
The Small Wind Market
Southwest Windpower
Flagstaff, Arizona www.windenergy.com
Whisper H80
1000 W
AIR-X
400 W
Whisper
H40
Whisper
175
900 W
3 kW
Bergey Windpower
Norman, Oklahoma
www.bergey.com
1 kW
BWC Excel
10 kW
African Windpower
Abundant Renewable Energy, Newberg, Oregon
www.abundantre.com
AWP3.6
1 kW
Proven Engineering Products, Ltd.
Scotland, United Kingdom
www.provenenergy.com
WT600
600 W
WT2500
2.5 kW
WT6000
6 kW
Wind Turbine Industries, Inc.
Prior Lake, Minnesota
Jacobs
31-20
20 kW
www.windturbine.net
Atlantic Orient Corp.
Norwich, Vermont
AOC 15/50
50 kW
www.aocwind.net
Fuhrländer
FL 250
250 kW
Lorax Energy Systems, Rhode Island
www.lorax-energy.com
FL 100
100 kW
FL 30
30 kW
Aeromax
Aeromax Incorporated Chino Valley, AZ
www.aeromaxenergy.com
Lakota
900 W
Lakota M1
900 W
OB1KW
Coming soon
…or Build Your Own Turbine
www.scoraigwind.com
Types of Systems
Options: On or Off the Grid?
Stand-Alone System
• Batteries to store
excess power
• Charge controller
• Inverter (DC to AC)
• Back-up power source
for complete energy
independence
Grid-Connected System
• Inverter (DC to AC)
• Annual wind speed
>10 mph (4.5 m/s)
• Customer motivated by
high utility prices, self
sufficiency, or
environmental concerns
Connecting to the Grid
• PURPA requires utilities
to connect with and
purchase power from
small wind systems
• Utility acts as a big
“battery bank”
• Safety - Must stop
supplying power to grid
during power outages
• Power Quality
- Must
match utility’s voltage,
frequency, and quality
Typical Applications
Farms, Homes, Businesses
Off-Grid Water
Pumping with Wind
Supplementing Grid Power
• Supplies
water for
120 head
of cattle
• 1 kW,
9-ft
rotor,
30-ft
tower
• Produces ~ 2,000 kWh/yr
• Offsets ~ 1.5 tons CO2/yr
• Costs ~ $4,000 installed
• Connected to utility grid
through house/farm wiring
• 3 kW, 15-ft rotor, 23-ft tower*
• Produces ~ 5,000 kWh/yr
• Offsets ~ 3.8 tons CO2/yr
• Costs ~ $10,000
* due to zoning restrictions
(not recommended)
Hybrid Systems
Solar and Wind Resources
are Complimentary
400
Hours of sunshine or average
wind power (Watts/m2)
Data from SE Iowa
350
Hoursofof
Hours
sunshine/month
Sunshine
300
250
200
Average wind power
150
100
Jan
Feb Mar
Apr May Jun
Jul
Aug Sep
Oct Nov Dec
02770324
The Effect of Seasons on
Hybrid Power Systems
Summer
PV modules and wind turbine
(active generation)
Battery
(storage)
Loads
(utilization)
PV modules and wind turbine
(no generation)
Battery
(storage)
Loads
(utilization)
Winter
02770322
SWI Research &
Demonstration Site
Beech Mountain, NC
SWI Research & Demonstration Site
Beech Mountain, NC
www.wind.appstate.edu
SWI Research & Demonstration Site
Beech Mountain, NC
www.wind.appstate.edu
Research
•Acoustic
•Power Curve
•Energy
Demonstration
•Students
•Public
•Always open
Workshops
•Intro/tours
•Wind assessment
•Experts
•Installations
SWI Research & Demonstration Site
Beech Mountain, NC
www.wind.appstate.edu
Problem Solving
•Tower raising
•Grid connection
•Hurricanes
•Configuration
SWI Research & Demonstration Site
Beech Mountain, NC (class 5)
www.wind.appstate.edu
SWWP
AirX
400W
33
kWh/mon
SWWP
Whisper
H40
900W
155 kWh/mo
Bergey
XL.1
African
AWP3.6
1000W
1500W
185
kWh/mo
362
kWh/mo
SWWP Jacobs
Whisper 31-20
20kW
175
3000W
697
kWh/mo
3991
kWh/mo
Wind Resource Assessment
The United States Wind Map
North Carolina
The North Carolina Wind Map
Watauga County
Initial Site Assessment
• Flagging of vegetation
• Open view to prominent
wind direction
• Hill or ridge
perpendicular to
prominent wind direction
• Funneling effects
Importance of “Micro-Siting”
Measuring Devices and
Parameters
• Anemometer
– Best indication of energy production
– Indicator of turbulence
– Provide information on wind shear
• Wind Vane
– Wind rose
– Siting
• Temp Sensor
– Identify icing events
– Air density
• Barometric Pressure
– Air Density
• Pyranometer
– Effectiveness of hybrid system
Estimation of Annual Energy Production
Power
Curve
Frequency of
Occurrence
(Rayleigh Distribution)
Annual
Energy
Production
SWI Anemometer Loan Program
SWI Anemometer Loan Program
www.wind.appstate.edu
SWI Anemometer Loan Program
www.wind.appstate.edu
•Four systems
•Application process
―15 this year
•One year
•Final Report
•Small wind
information
Thanks, For More Information
• www.wind.appstate.edu
• www.homepower.com
• www.nrel.gov/wind
• www.awea.org/smallwind.html
• www.eren.doe.gov/erec/factsheets/win
d.html

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