Parts of Plant and Animal Cells By: Terrance Bailey Precious Kirk Marcelina Espinosa Ellena Doran Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells Prokaryotic • Small Cells • Always unicellular • No nucleus • DNA is cirrcular, without proteins • Ribosomes are small • No cytoskeleton • Cell division is by binary fission • Huge variety of metabolic pathways • Reproduction is always asexual Eukaryotic D i f f e r e n c e s • • • • • Larger cells Often multicellular Has a nucleus Ribosomes are larger Always has a cytoskeleton • Reproduction is asexual or sexual • Common metabolic pathways • Cell division is by mitosis or meiosis ORGANELLE • Organelles-means little organs. • Basically this means that organelles have specific roles to play in how cells work just like organs help the body to function properly as a whole. Analogy: ORGANELLES are like the workers of the factory F l a g e l o Flagella are long, thread-like single cells with the ability • Bacteria which have flagella are either rod or spiral-shaped l and are known as bacilli. Which is found in the eukaryotic cells. a -Cilia is an organelle found in the eukaryotic cells. There are two a types of cilia: motle cilia and non-motle cilia. to move. Endoplasmic Reticulum • A endoplasmic reticulum is an eukaryotic organelle that forms an interconnected network of tubules(small tubes), vesicles(bubble of liquid), and cisternae(a flattened membrane disk) within cells. • its funtions: o Stores, separates, and serves as cell's transport system o manufactures and packs proteins Analogy: The endoplasmic reticulums are the workers of a factory who make and pack the product. Cytoskeleton • A cyroskeleton (also known as CSK) is a cellular skeleton contained within the cytoplasm and is made out of protein. The cytoskeleton is present in all cells. Cytoskeleton is found in plant and animal cells. • Its functions: o Supports cell and provides shape o Aids movement of materials in and out of cells Analogy: Cytoskeleton is like the beams in the walls of the factory, giving it support and structure. Chromatin • Chromatin is the combination of DNA and protein that makes up chromosomes(organized structure of DNA).It is found inside the nuclei of eukaryotic cells in plant and animal cells. • Its functions: o compacts the long DNA strands two meters of DNA is compressed in to a 10 micrometer diameter o packs genetic data Analogy: Chromatin are like manuals in a factory to teach workers how to make the product. Cell Membrane • A cell membrane is a thin membrane (a double layer of lipids) enclosing the cytoplasm of a cell. Proteins in the membrane control passage of ions (like sodium, potassium, or calcium) in and out of the cell. Can be found in plant and animal cells. • Its functions are: o Gives shape to the cell o Attaches cell to nonliving material outside of the cell so that cell can group together to form tissue o Transports material needed for the functioning of the cell organelles o Controls what goes in and out of the cell. Analogy: Cell mebrane is the insulation of the factory keeping the cold out the warmth in. Plant Cell Animal Cell Nucleolus • A non-membrane bound structure composed of proteins and nucleic acids found within the nucleus. Found in plant and animal sounds. • Its function: o Production of subunits which together form the ribosomes. Plant Cell Animal Cell Nucleus • The nucleus is a membrane bound structure that contains the cell's hereditary information and controls the cell's growth and reproduction. Found usually in the center of plant and animal cells. • Its function: o Regulates all cell activity o Involved in cell division o Controls the transfer and replication of hereditary molecules o Controls cell growth Plant cell Animal cell Ribosomes • An organelle in the cytoplasm of a living cell; they attach to mRNA and move down it one codon at a time and then stop until tRNA brings the required amino acid. Ribosomes are found near the endoplasmic reticulum. • Its function: o Assemble amino acids to form specific proteins Analogy: Ribosomes are the workers on the assembly line, putting together specific peices. Vacuole Animal Cell Structure - • Vacuoles are essentially enclosed compartments which are filled with water containing inorganic and organic molecules. The Vacuoles belong to both cells. • The functions are: 1. Isolating materials that might be harmful or a threat to the cell 2. Containing waste products Analogy: A garbage can. The garbage can holds all the waste and disposal waste. -Plant Cells Structure Mitochondria • Mitochondria- is the energy factories of Animal cell structure the cells. The ATP is produced in the mitochondria using energy stored in the food. All living cells have montochondria. • The functions are: o to produce energy in the main form adenosine triphospate(ATP) . o This main function helps perform the specific work necessary for cell survival and function. o Analogy: It is the powerhouse. It controls all the electricity of the factory. Plant cell structure - Lysosome • Lysosome are in white blood cells that eat bacteria, lysosome contents are carefullreleased into the vacuole around the bacteria and serve to kill and digest those bacteria. o o Lysosomes are rarely located in the plant cells and mostly in animal cells. Functions are digesting foreign bacteria (or other forms of waste) that invade a cell and helping repair damage to the plasma membrane by serving as a membrane patch, sealing the wound. Analogy- Lysosomes are the factory's garbage disposal system. Golgi Apparatus The golgi apparatus is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells, plant cells, and animal cells. o The golgi apparatus stores and later transports the proteins manufactured in the endoplasmic reticulum. The primary fuction of the golgi apparatus is to process the packages such as, proteins and lipids. o • Analogy~Golgi apparatus is the package workers that packs all the products for the company. Plant cells have two organelles that animals cells do not. CELL WALL • The cell wall is tough and fexible but sometimes rigid layers that surrounds some types cells. • located outside the membrane • Preventing over expansion when water entres the cell Analogy: Cell wall is the wall of the factory keeping everything inside safe. CHLOROPLAST • CHLOROPLASTS are organells found in plant cells and other eukaryotic organisms that conduct photosynthesis. They are the central site of the photosynthesis process in plants. • Its functions: o head quarters where photosynthesis takes place. Analogy- Chloroplast are like the lunch ladies. Someone within the factory is there to feed the workers. Chloroplast is within the cell to feed, provide energyor the other organelles.