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Parts of Plant and Animal Cells
By:
Terrance Bailey
Precious Kirk
Marcelina Espinosa
Ellena Doran
Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells
Prokaryotic
• Small Cells
• Always unicellular
• No nucleus
• DNA is cirrcular,
without proteins
• Ribosomes are small
• No cytoskeleton
• Cell division is by binary
fission
• Huge variety of
metabolic pathways
• Reproduction is always
asexual
Eukaryotic
D
i
f
f
e
r
e
n
c
e
s
•
•
•
•
•
Larger cells
Often multicellular
Has a nucleus
Ribosomes are larger
Always has a
cytoskeleton
• Reproduction is
asexual or sexual
• Common metabolic
pathways
• Cell division is by
mitosis or meiosis
ORGANELLE
• Organelles-means little organs.
• Basically this means that organelles have specific roles to
play in how cells work just like organs help the body to
function properly as a whole.
Analogy:
ORGANELLES are like the
workers of the factory
F
l
a
g
e
l o Flagella are long, thread-like single cells with the ability
• Bacteria which have flagella are either rod or spiral-shaped
l and are known as bacilli. Which is found in the eukaryotic
cells.
a
-Cilia is an organelle found in the eukaryotic cells. There are two
a
types of cilia: motle cilia and non-motle cilia.
to
move.
Endoplasmic Reticulum
• A endoplasmic reticulum is an eukaryotic organelle
that forms an interconnected network of
tubules(small tubes), vesicles(bubble of liquid), and
cisternae(a flattened membrane disk) within cells.
• its funtions:
o Stores, separates, and serves as cell's
transport system
o manufactures and packs proteins
Analogy: The
endoplasmic reticulums
are the workers of a
factory who make and
pack the product.
Cytoskeleton
• A cyroskeleton (also known as CSK) is a cellular skeleton
contained within the cytoplasm and is made out of
protein. The cytoskeleton is present in all cells.
Cytoskeleton is found in plant and animal cells.
• Its functions:
o Supports cell and provides shape
o Aids movement of materials in and out of cells
Analogy: Cytoskeleton is like the
beams in the walls of the factory,
giving it support and structure.
Chromatin
• Chromatin is the combination of DNA and protein that makes
up chromosomes(organized structure of DNA).It is found
inside the nuclei of eukaryotic cells in plant and animal cells.
• Its functions:
o compacts the long DNA strands
 two meters of DNA is compressed in to a 10 micrometer
diameter
o packs genetic data
Analogy: Chromatin are
like manuals in a factory
to teach workers how to
make the product.
Cell Membrane
• A cell membrane is a thin membrane (a double layer of lipids)
enclosing the cytoplasm of a cell. Proteins in the membrane
control passage of ions (like sodium, potassium, or calcium) in
and out of the cell. Can be found in plant and animal cells.
• Its functions are:
o Gives shape to the cell
o Attaches cell to nonliving material outside of the cell so
that cell can group together to form tissue
o Transports material needed for the functioning of the cell
organelles
o Controls what goes in and out of the cell.
Analogy:
Cell mebrane is the
insulation of the factory
keeping the cold out the
warmth in.
Plant Cell
Animal Cell
Nucleolus
• A non-membrane bound structure composed of proteins and
nucleic acids found within the nucleus. Found in plant and
animal sounds.
• Its function:
o Production of subunits which together form the ribosomes.
Plant Cell
Animal Cell
Nucleus
• The nucleus is a membrane bound structure that
contains the cell's hereditary information and controls
the cell's growth and reproduction. Found usually in the
center of plant and animal cells.
• Its function:
o Regulates all cell activity
o Involved in cell division
o Controls the transfer and replication of hereditary
molecules
o Controls cell growth
Plant cell
Animal cell
Ribosomes
• An organelle in the cytoplasm of a living cell; they
attach to mRNA and move down it one codon at a time
and then stop until tRNA brings the required amino acid.
Ribosomes are found near the endoplasmic reticulum.
• Its function:
o Assemble amino acids to form specific proteins
Analogy:
Ribosomes are the
workers on the
assembly line,
putting together
specific peices.
Vacuole
Animal Cell
Structure -
• Vacuoles are essentially enclosed
compartments which are filled with water containing inorganic
and organic molecules. The Vacuoles belong to both cells.
• The functions are:
1. Isolating materials that might be harmful or a threat to the
cell
2. Containing waste products
Analogy: A garbage can. The garbage can holds all the waste
and disposal waste.
-Plant Cells Structure
Mitochondria
• Mitochondria- is the energy factories of
Animal cell structure
the cells. The ATP is produced in the
mitochondria using energy stored in the food. All living cells
have montochondria.
• The functions are:
o to produce energy in the main form adenosine
triphospate(ATP) .
o This main function helps perform the specific work
necessary for cell survival and function.
o Analogy: It is the powerhouse. It controls all the electricity
of the factory.
Plant cell structure -
Lysosome
• Lysosome are in white blood cells that eat bacteria,
lysosome contents are carefullreleased into the vacuole
around the bacteria and serve to kill and digest those bacteria.
o
o
Lysosomes are rarely located in the plant cells and mostly in
animal cells.
Functions are digesting foreign bacteria (or other forms of
waste) that invade a cell and helping repair damage to the
plasma membrane by serving as a membrane patch, sealing the
wound.
 Analogy- Lysosomes are the factory's garbage disposal
system.
Golgi Apparatus
The golgi apparatus is an organelle found in most
eukaryotic cells, plant cells, and animal cells.
o The golgi apparatus stores and later transports the
proteins manufactured in the endoplasmic reticulum.
 The primary fuction of the golgi apparatus is to
process the packages such as, proteins and lipids.
o
• Analogy~Golgi apparatus is
the package workers that
packs all the products for the
company.
Plant cells have
two organelles that
animals cells do
not.
CELL WALL
• The cell wall is tough and fexible but sometimes rigid layers
that surrounds some types cells.
• located outside the membrane
• Preventing over expansion when water entres the cell
Analogy:
Cell wall is the wall of the factory
keeping everything inside safe.
CHLOROPLAST
• CHLOROPLASTS are organells found in plant cells and
other eukaryotic organisms that conduct photosynthesis.
They are the central site of the photosynthesis process in
plants.
• Its functions:
o head quarters where photosynthesis takes place.
Analogy- Chloroplast are like
the lunch ladies. Someone
within the factory is there to
feed the workers. Chloroplast
is within the cell to feed,
provide energyor the other
organelles.

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