The CSA GRC Stack - Cloud Security Alliance

Report
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
CSA Organization &
Operation
2
Where does the GRC Stack fit in?Steering
Board
Committee
Executive
Director
Membership
Individual
Working
Groups
Corporate
Research
Affiliate
Chapters
Special competencies …
Research
Director
...
Education
Security Guidance for
Critical Areas of Cloud
Computing
GRC Stack
(CCM, CAIQ,
CloudAudit, CTP)
CCSK
Cloud Controls Matrix
(CCM)
CSA Security, Trust, &
Assurance Registry
(STAR)
PCI
Consensus
Assessments Initiative
Questionnaire (CAIQ)
Trusted Cloud
Initiative
...
GRC Stack
We
We are
are here
here today
today …
…
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
3
Course Syllabus
1.
AM Session
2.
3.
4.
5.
PM
Sessio 6.
n
Session
Schedule
Speaker
Welcome and session orientation
15 minutes
Ron Knode
Introduction to the CSA GRC stack
•
The need for a cloud full GRC capability
•
The CSA GRC Value Equation
15 minutes
Ron Knode
CSA GRC Stack Overview (the “stack packs”)
•
Combining the Cloud Controls Matrix (CCM), the
Consensus Assessments Initiative Questionnaire (CAIQ),
CloudAudit, and the CloudTrust Protocol (CTP)
•
Service roles and boundaries
•
Complements and supplements
30 minutes
Ron Knode
Component Descriptions
a) CCM
b) CAIQ
c) CloudAudit
d) CTP
30 minutes
each
(2 hours)
Becky Swain (a/b)
Marlin Pohlman (c)
Ron Knode (d)
Where (and How) to Begin
•
Stack Pack combinations that make sense
•
Deployment techniques and architectures …
•
Connections to other CSA initiatives (explored more
fully in afternoon session) … and some references
30 minutes
Ron Knode
Marlin Pohlman
GRC Stack evolution and administration (+ “open mic” time
with Q&A)
30 minutes
Ron Knode
GRC stack connections and application in other initiatives
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
Becky Swain
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
The “big rocks” of cloud security, trust,
and control
Take care of the big rocks first …
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
5
Key Cloud Security
Problems
From CSA Top Threats Research:
–Trust: Lack of Provider transparency, impacts Governance,
Risk Management, Compliance, and the capture of real value
–Data: Leakage, Loss or Storage in unfriendly geography
–Insecure Cloud software
–Malicious use of Cloud services
–Account/Service Hijacking
–Malicious Insiders
–Cloud-specific attacks
6
7
Cloud Adoption Obstacles
Planning often neglects Information Risk Management
Transition & Transformation
Traditional
Neglected but Necessary
• Enterprise strategy
• IT and IT risk governance
• Business function (workload)
adaptation to cloud delivery
• Technical architecture
• Network connections
• Application standards
• Traditional sourcing?
• Cloud?
• Private? Community? Public? Hybrid?
• Traditional + cloud?
• How measured?
• Security policy
• Interoperability
• Uniform across all delivery methods?
• “Buying time” for current
compliance programs
• Cloud adjusted?
•
• Private? Community? Public? Hybrid?
• Risk/compliance management
standards/benchmarks
…
• Concept of Operations
• Cloud adjusted?
• Private? Community? Public? Hybrid?
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
The Value Equation in the
Cloud
Security Service + Transparency Service =
Compliance & Trust  VALUE Captured
…delivering evidence-based confidence …
…with compliance-supporting data & artifacts …
… using the best virtualization and cloud technologies …
… within quality processes …
… operated by trained
and certified staff
and partners …
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
8
The Roots of the Value Equation in the
Cloud
Impact
• The “Rebound Effect” between
Standards
security & interoperability
 Information risk management
transition & transformation
planning
• Policy
• Governance
• Compliance & Risk Management
Portability
Thresholds
Transparency
• Business model
• Downstream application of
reclaimed transparency
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
9
10
The GRC Stack
Solving the Value Equation in the Cloud
GRC Stack
Security
Requirements
and Capabilities
Security
Transparency
and Visibility
Delivering evidence-based confidence…
with compliance-supporting data & artifacts.
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
Compliance
and
Trust
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
12
The CSA GRC Stack
A suite of four integrated and reinforcing CSA initiatives (the
“stack packages”)
– The Stack Packs
•
•
•
•
Cloud Controls Matrix
Consensus Assessments Initiative
Cloud Audit
CloudTrust Protocol
Designed to support cloud consumers and cloud providers
Prepared to capture value from the cloud as well as support
compliance and control within the cloud
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
A Complete Cloud Security
Governance, Risk, and Compliance
(GRC) Stack
Delivering
 Stack Pack 
13
Description
Continuous monitoring …
with a purpose
• Common technique and nomenclature to
request and receive evidence and affirmation
of current cloud service operating
circumstances from cloud providers
Claims, offers, and the
basis for auditing service
delivery
• Common interface and namespace to
automate the Audit, Assertion, Assessment,
and Assurance (A6) of cloud environments
Pre-audit checklists and
questionnaires to
inventory controls
• Industry-accepted ways to document what
security controls exist
The recommended
foundations for controls
• Fundamental security principles in specifying
the overall security needs of a cloud
consumers and assessing the overall security
risk of a cloud provider
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
CSA GRC Value Equation
Contributions for Consumers and
Providers
• Individually useful
• Collectively powerful
• Productive way to reclaim
end-to-end information risk
management capability
What control requirements should I
have as a cloud consumer or cloud
provider?
How do I ask about the control
requirements that are satisfied
(consumer) or express my claim of
control response (provider)?
How do I announce and automate my
claims of audit support for all of the
various compliance mandates and
control obligations?
Static
claims &
assurances
Dynamic
(continuous)
monitoring and
transparency
14
How do I know that the controls I
need are working for me now
(consumer)? How do I provide actual
security and transparency of service
to all of my cloud users (provider)?
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
A Headstart for Control and
Compliance
15
Forged by the Global Marketplace; Ready for
All
Professional
Government
Commercial
Legend
 In place
 Offered
???
Deliver “continuous
monitoring” required
by A&A methodologies
???
• FedRAMP
• DIACAP
• Other C&A standards
SSAE SOC2
control
assessment
criteria
NIST 800-53, HITRUST CSF,
ISO 27001/27002, ISACA
COBIT, PCI, HIPAA, SOX,
GLBA, STIG, NIST 800-144,
SAS 70, …
Continuous monitoring …
with a purpose
• Common technique and
nomenclature to request and
receive evidence and affirmation
of controls from cloud providers
Claims, offers, and the
basis for auditing service
delivery
• Common interface and namespace
to automate the Audit, Assertion,
Assessment, and Assurance (A6) of
cloud environments
Pre-audit checklists and
questionnaires to
inventory controls
• Industry-accepted ways to
document what security controls
exist
A recommended
foundations for controls
• Fundamental security principles in
assessing the overall security risk
of a cloud provider
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
16
CSA Guidance Research
Cloud Architecture
Popular best practices
for securing cloud
computing
– governing & operating
groupings
Compliance and Audit
Information Lifecycle Management
Portability and Interoperability
Operating in the Cloud
13 Domains of
concern
Legal and Electronic Discovery
Governing the
Cloud
Governance and Enterprise Risk Management
Security, Bus. Cont,, and Disaster Recovery
Data Center Operations
Incident Response, Notification, Remediation
Application Security
Encryption and Key Management
Identity and Access Management
Virtualization
Guidance > 100k downloads: cloudsecurityalliance.org/guidance
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
17
CSA Guidance Research
Cloud Architecture
Popular best
practices for
securing cloud
computing
14?
governing &
operating groupings
Compliance and Audit
Information Lifecycle Management
Portability and Interoperability
Transparency
Operating in the Cloud
13 Domains of
concern
Legal and Electronic Discovery
Security, Bus. Cont,, and Disaster Recovery
Data Center Operations
Incident Response, Notification, Remediation
Application Security
Encryption and Key Management
Identity and Access Management
Virtualization
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
Governing the
Cloud
Governance and Enterprise Risk Management
Accepting the GRC Value Solution …
Reference Model Readiness??
?
?
Source: NIST SP500-291-v1.0, p. 42, Figure 12
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
Enough?
18
“Just not enough, baby …”
19
Transparency
(Barry White – “Can’t Get Enough of Your Love,
Babe”)
Source: NIST SP500-291-v1.0, p. 42, Figure 12
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
Now it’s
enough!
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
22
Cloud Controls Matrix (CCM)
Leadership Team
Becky Swain – EKKO Consulting
Philip Agcaoili – Cox Communications
Marlin Pohlman – EMC, RSA
Kip Boyle – CSA
V1.0 (Apr 2010), v1.1 (Dec 2010, v1.2 (Aug 2011),
V2.0 (2012)
Controls baselined and mapped to:
COBIT
BITS Shared Assessments
HIPAA/HITECH Act
Jericho Forum
ISO/IEC 27001-2005 NERC CIP
NISTSP800-53
FedRAMP
PCI DSSv2.0
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
23
What is the CCM?
First ever baseline control framework specifically designed
for managing risk in the Cloud Supply Chain:
– Addressing the inter and intra-organizational challenges of persistent
information security by clearly delineating control ownership.
– Providing an anchor point and common language for balanced
measurement of security and compliance postures.
– Providing the holistic adherence to the vast and ever evolving
landscape of global data privacy regulations and security standards.
Serves as the basis for new industry standards and
certifications.
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
Optimal & Holistic
Compliance
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
24
CCM v1.1 Industry
Participation
This grass roots movement continues to grow with
over 100 volunteer industry experts in the recent
release of v1.2!
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
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26
CCM – 11 Domains
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
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CCM – 98 Controls
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
28
CCM – 98 Controls (cont.)
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
29
CCM – 98 Controls (cont.)
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
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CCM – 98 Controls (cont.)
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
Control Matrix >> Guidance >>
ISO
31
Cloud Supply Chain –
Information Security Risks
You can outsource business capability or function but you
cannot outsource accountability for information security 
do your due diligence to identify and address…
– Control Gaps (Shared Control)
•
•
•
•
•
Information Security (Access Controls, Vulnerability & Patch Management)
Security Architecture
Data Governance (Lifecycle Management)
Release Management (Change Control)
Facility Security
– Control Dependencies
•
•
•
•
Corporate Governance
Incident Response
Resiliency (BCM & DR)
Risk & Compliance Management
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
32
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
Consensus Assessments
Initiative Questionnaire (CAIQ)
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
34
Consensus Assessment
Initiative
35
A cloud supply chain risk management and due diligence questionnaire
~ 200 yes/no questions that map directly to the CCM, and thus, in turn, to many
industry standards.
can be used by both CSPs for self-assessment or by potential customers for the
following purposes
– to identify the presence of security controls and practices for cloud offerings
– procurement negotiation
– contract inclusion
– to quantify SLAs
For potential customers, the CAIQ is intended to be part of an initial assessment
followed by further clarifying questions of the provider as it is applicable to their
particular needs.
v1.1 available as of Sept 2011; v1.2 underway to map to CCM v1.2
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
36
CAIQ Guiding Principles
The following are the principles that the working group utilized as guidance when
developing the CAIQ:
The questionnaire is organized using CSA 13 governing & operating domains divided into
“control areas” within CSA’s Control Matrix structure
Questions are to assist both cloud providers in general principles of cloud security and
clients in vetting cloud providers on the security of their offering and company security
profile
CAIQ not intended to duplicate or replace existing industry security assessments but to
contain questions unique or critical to the cloud computing model in each control area
Each question should be able to be answered yes or no
If a question can’t be answered yes or no then it was separated into two or more questions
to allow yes or no answers.
Questions are intended to foster further detailed questions to provider by client specific to
client’s cloud security needs. This was done to limit number of questions to make the
assessment feasible and since each client may have unique follow-on questions or may
not be concerned with all “follow-on questions
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
37
The CAIQ Questionnaire
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
38
CAIQ Questionnaire
Control Group, Control Group ID (CGID) and Control
Identifier (CID) all map the CAIQ question being asked
directly to the CCM control that is being addressed.
Relevant compliance and standards are mapped line by line
to the CAIQ, which, in turn, also map to the CCM. The CAIQ
v1.1 maps to the following compliance areas – HIPPA, ISO
27001, COBIT, SP800_53, FedRAMP, PCI_DSS, BITS and
GAPP. V1.2 will additionally include mappings to Jericho
Forum and NERC CIP.
Each question can be answered by a provider with a yes or
no answer.
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
39
Sample Questions to Vendors
Compliance Independent Audits
Data Governance Classification
CO-02 CO-02a - Do you allow tenants to view your SAS70 Type II/SSAE 16 SOC2/ISAE3402 or
similar third party audit reports?
CO-02b - Do you conduct network penetration tests of your cloud service infrastructure
regularly as prescribed by industry best practices and guidance?
CO-02c - Do you conduct application penetration tests of your cloud service infrastructure
regularly as prescribed by industry best practices and guidance?
CO-02d - Do you conduct internal audits regularly as prescribed by industry best
practices and guidance?
CO-02e - Do you conduct external audits regularly as prescribed by industry best
practices and guidance?
CO-02f - Are the results of the network penetration tests available to tenants at their
request?
CO-02g - Are the results of internal and external audits available to tenants at their
request?
DG-02 DG-02a - Do you provide a capability to identify virtual machines via policy tags/metadata
(ex. Tags can be used to limit guest operating systems from
booting/instanciating/transporting data in the wrong country, etc.?)
DG-02b - Do you provide a capability to identify hardware via policy
tags/metadata/hardware tags (ex. TXT/TPM, VN-Tag, etc.)?
DG-02c - Do you have a capability to use system geographic location as an
authentication factor?
DG-02d - Can you provide the physical location/geography of storage of a tenant’s data
upon request?
DG-02e - Do you allow tenants to define acceptable geographical locations for data
routing or resource instantiation?
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
41
CloudAudit Objectives
Provide a common interface and
namespace that allows cloud
computing providers to automate
collection of Audit, Assertion,
Assessment, and Assurance Artifacts
(A6) of their operating environments
Allow authorized consumers of services
and concerned parties to do likewise
via an open, extensible and secure
interface and methodology.
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
42
What CloudAudit Does
Provide a structure for organizing assertions and supporting
documentation for specific controls across different
compliance frameworks in a way that simplifies discovery by
humans and tools.
– Define a namespace that can support diverse frameworks
– Express compliance frameworks in that namespace
– Define the mechanisms for requesting and responding to
queries relating to specific controls
– Integrate with portals and AAA systems
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
43
How CloudAudit Works
Utilize security automation capabilities with existing
tools/protocols/frameworks via a standard, open and
extensible set of interfaces
Keep it simple, lightweight and easy to implement; offer
primitive definitions & language structure using HTTP(S) first
at a very basic level
Allow for extension and elaboration by providers and choice
of trusted assertion validation sources, checklist definitions,
etc.
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
44
Context for CloudAudit
CloudAudit is not designed to validate or attest “compliance”
Automates collection and presentation of data supporting
queries using a common set of namespaces aligned CSA
Cloud Control Matrix
Artifacts are accessible by a human operating a web
browser or a tool capable of utilizing CloudAudit over
HTTP(S).
The consumers of this information are internal & external
auditors, compliance teams, risk managers, security teams,
etc. & in the longer term, brokers
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
45
Aligned to CSA Control Matrix
Officially folded CloudAudit under the Cloud Security Alliance in October,
2010
First efforts aligned to compliance frameworks as established by CSA
Control Matrix:
–
–
–
–
–
PCI DSS
NIST 800-53
HIPAA
COBIT
ISO 27002
Incorporate CSA’s CAI and additional CompliancePacks
Expand alignment to “infrastructure” and “operations”
-centric views also
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
What Was Delivered in v1.0
The first release of CloudAudit provides for the scoped
capability for providers to store evidentiary data in welldefined namespaces aligned to the 5 CSA Control Matrix
Mappings (PCI, HIPAA, NIST800-53, ISO27002,COBIT)*
The data in these namespaces is arbitrary and can be
named and file-typed as such, so we need a way of dealing
with what can be one to hundreds of supporting files, the
contents of some of which are actually URIs to other
locations
* Update v1.1 packaging available to include CSA CCM Updates
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
47
Current Discussions*
Stack Providers with whom we have discussed CloudAudit:
– VMware, Citrix, Microsoft, OpenStack
Cloud Service Providers with whom we have discussed
CloudAudit:
– AWS, Google, Microsoft, Terremark, Savvis, Rackspace
Tool (GRC) solution providers with whom we are discussing
CloudAudit Implementation:
– Agiliance, RSA
Audit/Standards associations with whom we are discussing
CloudAudit:
– ISACA, ODCA, BITS, ISO, Open Group, DMTF, IETF
* NOTE: Discussions do not imply commitment to proceed or intent to support
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
What’s On The 6 Month
Roadmap
Extend ATOM in manifest.xml to provide for timestamps,
signatures and version control [need XML/ATOM expertise]
Version control and change notification in conjunction with…
…Architecture for registry services [cloudaudit.net] and
extensions of such (public and/or private)
Implementation architecture for “atomic queries” (e.g. “PCI
Compliant,” or “SAS-70 Certified”
Expand On Specific CloudAudit Use Cases:
– CloudAudit for Federal Government
– CloudAudit for Cloud Providers
– CloudAudit for Auditors/Assessors
Intensify and clarify connection between CloudAudit and the CTP
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
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49
CloudAudit – How it Works
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
50
Manifest.xml
Structured listing of control contents
Can be extended to provide contextual
information
Primarily aimed at tool consumption
In Atom format
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
CloudAudit –
Manifest.xml Example
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
51
52
index.html/default.jsp/etc.
Index.html is for dumb browser consumption
– Typically, the direct human user use case
It can be omitted if directory browsing is enabled
(not recommended)
It contains JavaScript to look for the manifest.xml
file, parse it, and render it as HTML.
If no manifest.xml exists, it should list the directory
contents relevant to the control in question
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
53
Atom Specification (RFC4287)
http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc4287.txt
Atom is an XML-based document format that describes lists
of related information known as "feeds". Feeds are
composed of a number of items, known as "entries", each
with an extensible set of attached metadata. For example,
each entry has a title.
The primary use case that Atom addresses is the
syndication of Web content such as weblogs and news
headlines to Web sites as well as directly to user agents.
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
Sample Implementation –
CSA Compliance Pack
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
54
Sample Implementation –
CSA Compliance Pack
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
55
Sample Implementation –
CSA Compliance Pack
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
56
Sample Implementation –
CSA Compliance Pack
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
57
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
Why a CloudTrust Protocol?
59
Information Assurance is Cloud-Complicated … “Clouds are
cloudy”
Requirements
Amazon
Services
Microsof
t
As visibility is lost …
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Where is the data?
Who can see the data?
Who has seen the data?
Is data untampered?
Where is processing performed?
How is processing configured?
Does backup happen? How? Where?
Google
… Security, compliance, and value are lost as well
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
60
Cloud Processing
Three Big Obstacles to Value Capture
• Lack of standards
• Lack of portability
controls …, compliance …,
sustained payoff …, reliability
…, liability …, confidentiality
…, privacy …,
• Lack of transparency
• PCI DSS
• HIPAA
• ITAR
• ISO27001
• HITECH in
ARRA 2009
• DIACAP
• HMG Infosec
Standard 2
• GLBA
• NIST 800-53
and FISMA
and
FedRAMP
• U.K. Manual of
Protective Security
• FRCP
• SAS70
• SSAE16
Compliance
issues
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
Absent Transparency … Some Big
Problems
61
For example, … without transparency …
No confirmed chain of custody for information
No way to conduct investigative forensics
Little confidence in the ability to detect attempts or
occurrences of illegal disclosure
Little capability to discover or enforce configurations
No ability to monitor operational access or service
management actions (e.g., change management,
patch management, vulnerability management, …)
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
62
Relationship between Transparency and
Elastic Payoff Potential based on Deployment
Model
Potential Elastic Benefit
Transparency in Deployment
Seeking the
best (realistic)
enterprise
cloud strategy
on this
risk/reward
axis
Private
Community
Hybrid
Cloud Deployment Model
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
Public
Transparency Restores Information
Assurance
63
Working with a “glass cloud” delivers the elastic benefits of the
cloud
Requirements
Amazon
Services
As visibility is gained …
•
•
•
•
•
•
Configurations are known and verified
Data exposure and use is collected and
reported
Access permissions are discovered and
validated
Processing and data locations are exposed
Compliance evidence can be gathered and
analyzed
Processing risks and readiness become
known
Microsof
t
Google
… Security, compliance, and value are captured as well
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
64
Thoughtful progression …
inevitable conclusion
Reclaim
transparency
Continuous
monitoring
(with a
purpose)
Simple,
dynamic
information
request and
response
CloudTrust
Protocol
CloudTrust Protocol (CTP) to deliver
Transparency-as-a-Service (TaaS)
65
66
The CTP Today (V2.0)
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
67
Elements of Transparency in the CTP v2.0
• 6 Types
– Initiation
– Policy
Introduction
– Provider
assertions
– Provider
notifications
– Evidence
requests
– Client
extensions
• Families
Only 23
in total
in the
entire
protocol!
– Configuration
– Vulnerabilities
– Anchoring
– Audit log
– Service Management
– Service Statistics
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
• Elements
– Geographic
– Platform
– Process
68
CloudTrust Protocol Pathways
Mapping the Elements of Transparency in
Deployment
Admin and
Ops
Specs
Transparency Requests
Assertions
Configuration
definition: 20
SCAP
Session
start: 1
Session
end: 2
Alerts: 18
Users: 19
Anchors: 21
Quotas: 22
Alert
conditions: 23
Evidence
Configuration and
Security capabilities
vulnerabilities:
and operations: 17
3,4,5,6,7
CloudAudit.org
SCAP
Extensions
Affirmations
Anchoring: 8, 9, 10
(geographic,
platform, process)
Sign/sealing
Violation: 11
Audit: 12
Access: 13
Incident log: 14
Config./control: 15
Stats: 16
23
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
Consumer/
provider
negotiated: 24
1
CloudTrust Protocol (CTP) Sample
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
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CloudTrust Protocol V2.0
•
Syntax
 Based on XML
 Traditional RESTful
web service over
HTTP
Legend:
 New in V2.0
 SCAP / XCCDF query &
response structure
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
71
Elastic Characteristics of the CTP
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
72
Multiple Styles of Implementation
The CTP is machine and human readable
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
Scope of a TaaS Implementation of
CTP
Enterprise or Client-specific
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
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CTP Transaction Response Codes
CTP Transaction Response Codes
HTTP Response
Code
Meaning
200
‘OK’ (with data) or ‘YES’
204
Request received, but cloud vendor chooses
not to respond
401
Unauthorized request
404
‘NO’
Example XML Document Types
Mimetype
Description
ctp/resources+xml
A list of all IT resources
ctp/resource+xml
Details of one resource
ctp/resourcecount+xml
Count of all resources to date
ctp/update+xml
When the resources were last updated
ctp/tags+xml
A list of all tags
ctp/tag+xml
Details of one tag
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
Current Configuration
Discovery/Reporting
75
EoT 3
Description
Poll the Cloud provider for details of current configuration data, within the provider’s
inventory of technology (real and virtual) being used on behalf of the cloud consumer.
Resource configuration information is returned using the Extensible Configuration
Checklist Description Format (XCCDF) and Open Vulnerability and Assessment (OVAL)
languages, within the Common Configuration Enumeration (CCE) specifications.
Method
GET
URL
https://cloudtrust.csc.com/ctp/[custID]/resources/cce/[platformID]
Filter by tag
tag=
Querystring
OS=
Filter by operating system
loc=
Filter by location
start=
The number of the first resource to return
end=
The number of the last resource to return
200 OK and XML data
Returns
204 Decline to respond
401 Unauthorized
404 Not Found
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
CTP Implementation
Architecture
76
Configuration Item Relationships
 Identification, authorization,
accounting, flow control, CTMB
interface, response and reporting
TaaS (CTP) U/I and Cloud
service director Consumer
 The storage of user
authorizations and
credentials, request status,
result histories, specifications,
and commentary;
management of the CTMB
 Cloud consumer
or service broker
 Cloud provider
 CTP request /response
CloudTrust
Management Base
(CTMB)
Automated
translation, packaging,
and brokering
CTP request &
response stack
Manual
 CTP request queuing
Cloud
Providers
RE
and execution in a
conforming cloud
CSC
(RE) CTP
Response
Engine
Cloud that
acknowledges CTP
(CTP conforming)
Legend
Savvis
Microsoft
IBM
Others …
Google
RE
RE
RE
Salesforce
Amazon
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
RE
77
Transparency-as-a-Service (TaaS)
Turn on the lights you need … when you need them
Authorized
TaaS Users
...
• What does my cloud
computing configuration
look like right now?
• What audit events have
occurred in my cloud
configuration?
• Who has access to my
data now?
• Who has had access
to my data?
• Where are my data and
• What vulnerabilities exist in
processing being performed?
my cloud configuration?
...
CloudTrust Protocol (CTP) Elements of Transparency
1
23
CTP
CTP
Amazon
CTUI
Host
(Cloud)
CTUI
Microsoft
CTP
CTP
Transparency-as-a-Service
(TaaS)
Google
CTP
Salesforce
CTP
Others …
The CSA CTP Working Group
Agenda
78
Moving toward CTP V3.0
•
•
•
•
Degree of automatic correlation with
other elements of GRC stack
Final namespace
Identity store for transparency service
authorizations; IAM for federated or
“chained” identity needs across
multiple cloud service providers
Evidence Request category “integrity
and liability verification technique”
–
–
Attest to the content, provenance, and
imputability of the response (with legal
import)
Transmission integrity not sufficient;
storage integrity not sufficient; require
legal liability of intent to provide response
as delivered
•
•
•
•
CTMB structure/schema
Trust package correlation with all
contributing (traditional) security
services
EoT extension technique
–
–
–
•
•
•
Characteristics of specification
Degree of automation
API
Priority/relative value of each
Element of Transparency
SLA foundation
Transparency operator training and
operations monitoring
E.g, Surety AbsoluteProof, (Kinamik
Secure Audit Vault)
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
• Look for opportunities to join the
working group!
• Ask CSA for help in pilot
implementations!
• Get started now!
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
Using the GRC Stack
80
Making the Stack Pack Approach Work for You
Easy to get started
Many successful combinations
Benefits accrue with each stack pack addition
Multiple alternatives to application and
deployment
Mapped across multiple compliance
mandates
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
GRC Stack Pack Combinations
that Deliver a Payoff
GRC Stack Payoff Combinations
Other CSA Related
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
81
Security, Trust, and Assurance
Registry (CSA STAR)
• CSA STAR (Security, Trust and Assurance Registry)
• Public Registry of Cloud Provider self assessments
• Leverages GRC Stack Projects
– Consensus Assessments Initiative Questionnaire
– Provider may substitute documented Cloud Controls Matrix
compliance
• Voluntary industry action promoting transparency
• Free market competition to provide quality assessments
• Available October 2011
82
83
Security, Trust, and Assurance
Registry (CSA STAR)
Expose
control
claims
Compete to
improve GRC
capabilities
GRC
Stack
Encourage transparency of security practices within cloud providers
Documents the security controls provided by various cloud computing
offerings
Free and open to all cloud providers
Option to use data/report based on CCM or the CAIQ
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
84
STAR Listing Process
• Provider fills out CAIQ or customizes CCM
• Uploads document at /star
• CSA performs basic verification
• Authorized listing from provider
• Delete SPAM, “poisoned” listing
• Basic content accuracy check
• CSA digitally signs and posts at /star
85
FAQ
• Where? www.cloudsecurityalliance.org/star/
• Help? Special LinkedIn support group and private mailbox
moderated by CSA volunteers, online next week
• Costs? Free to post, free to use
• Is this a new hacker threat vector? No, it is responsible
disclosure of security practices
• Will CSA police STAR? Initial verification and maintenance of
“Abuse” mailbox
• Do listings expire? Yes, 1 year limit
• Full FAQ to be posted at /star next week
Why not certification or
assessment?
3rd
party
86
• Complex to do certification right
– Many uses of cloud, many customer needs
– Different risk profiles for each
• CSA supporting broad industry consortia and
standards bodies
– ISO, ITU-T
– Common Assurance Maturity Model (CAMM – 3rd Party assessment)
– GRC Stack aligns with common requirements (e.g. PCI/DSS, HIPAA, FedRAMP,
27001, CoBIT, etc)
• Self assessment & transparency complements all
– STAR could be part of SSAE 16 SOC II report (SAS 70 replacement)
Is CSA STAR temporary or the
ultimate assurance solution?
87
• Neither
• Permanent effort to drive transparency, competition,
innovation and self regulation with agility – crowdsourcing
cloud security
• Does not provide automation, 3rd party assessment,
relative/absolute scoring, real-time controls monitoring, etc
• Ultimate assurance is real time GRC (enabled by CloudAudit)
complemented by CSA STAR and 3rd party attestation. Will
look to solution providers to deliver this integration
88
Trusted Cloud Initiative (TCI)
CSA certification criteria and seal program for cloud
providers
Initial focus on secure & interoperable identity in the
cloud, and its alignment with data encryption
Assemble with existing standards
Reference models & Proof of concept
Outline responsibilities for Identity Providers,
Enterprises, Cloud Providers, Consumers
www.cloudsecurityalliance.org/trustedcloud.html
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
89
TCI Mission
“To create a Trusted Cloud reference architecture for cloud use cases that leverage
cloud delivery models (SaaS, PaaS, IaaS) in the context of operational models
(Public, Private, Hybrid) to deliver a secure and trusted cloud service.”
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
90
Holistic approach
around controls…
https://cloudsecurityalliance.org/research/projects/cloud-controls-matrixccm/
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
… and Architecture best
practices
https://cloudsecurityalliance.org/research/projects/cloud-controls-matrixccm/
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
91
92
Reference model structure
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
93
How to use the architecture?
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
94
How to use the architecture?
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
95
How to use the architecture?
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
Use Cases and Patterns
Trusted Cloud Initiative
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
96
97
CAMM
The Common Assurance Maturity Model (CAMM) is designed to provide
trustworthiness (safety, security and reliability) of the supply chain working
within and across the Internet in the new information world. It offers the
following benefits to customer and service provider organizations:
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
98
CAMM Objectives
Purpose
– Provide a framework to provide the necessary transparency in attesting the
Information Assurance Maturity of a third party (e.g. Cloud provider).
– Allow the publication of results to be performed in an open and transparent manner,
without the mandatory need for third party audit functions.
– Allow for data processors to demonstratively publicise their attention to Information
Assurance over other suppliers that may not take it as seriously.
– Avoid the subjective and bespoke arrangements that customers of such services
are currently faced with.
Method
– Utilise existing standards such as ISO 27001, BS 25999, NIST SP 800-53, etc to
develop a series of control questions specific to the organisation.
– Responses to such questions (and the subsequent detail) to be published and
available.
– Output to also include a score that details the providers Common Assurance
Maturity score
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
CAMM: New business assurance
barometer
CAMM is built on existing
standards, so need for massive
re-investment.
Provides a genuine
USP to organisations
that have higher levels
of information risk
maturity
Measures maturity against
defined controls areas, with
particular focus on key
controls.
Business
Assurance
Risk management
maturity is open for
stakeholders to view,
using appropriate
language and detail.
A business benefit that
creates consumer trust
that is both meaningful
and understandable
99
How it Works: A Simplified
View
Risk
Appetite
1. Business sets level of risk they are
willing to tolerate (number of levels
depending on the data). Maturity will
include CAMM plus possible bespoke
modules.
3. Evidence of compliance may be
uploaded to central repository that can
be used by numerous customers.
Third Party
Assurance Centre
2.Level of risk
management maturity is
communicated to
business partners (and
possible partners)
Maturity

Maturity

Maturity

100
Third party requesting access
Cloud provider
Internal hosting provider
4. Leverage existing expenditure
and remove need for duplicate
verification (note: May remove
audit requirement altogether)
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
102
GRC Stack Planned Evolutions
Steering
Committee
Board
Executive
Director
Membership
Individual
Working
Groups
Corporate
Research
Affiliate
Chapters
Special competencies …
Research
Director
...
Education
Security Guidance for
Critical Areas of Cloud
Computing
GRC Stack
(CCM, CAIQ,
CloudAudit, CTP)
CCSK
Cloud Controls Matrix
(CCM)
CSA Security, Trust, &
Assurance Registry
(STAR)
PCI
Consensus
Assessments Initiative
Questionnaire (CAIQ)
Trusted Cloud
Initiative
Legal perspectives
and alterations…a
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
...
GRC Stack
103
The GRC Stack Evolution Plan
What is the current
expansion/evolution
plan for the GRC
stack?
Evolution 2
• Content
• Timeframe
• Content
• Timeframe
• Content
• Timeframe
Evolution 1
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
Evolution 3
What’s Happening Now?
Research Work Groups Underway
 CCM update
A great time to move the
security ecosystem
forward in the cloud
 CAIQ update
 CloudAudit update
 CloudTrust Protocol update and integration into CSA GRC stack
•
Trusted Cloud Initiative
•
CloudSIRT
 Cloud data governance
 Cloud metrics
•
Security as a service (SecaaS)
Education
•
CCSK update
•
GRC stack training
•
PCI compliance in the cloud
Legend
 Current planned
sources of evolution
for the GRC stack
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
104
105
of AM presentation
questions & dialogue
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
106
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.
© 2011 Cloud Security Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved.

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