GCSE History: Paper 2 Outline of the Day 9.30-9.45am Overview of Paper 2 9.45-11.00am Section A, Topic 3 :USA 1918-29 & exam technique 11.00-11.15am BREAK 11.15-12.15pm Section B, Topic 6: USA 1929-41 12.15-1.15pm LUNCH 1.15-2.15pm Section B, Topic 5: Nazi Germany, 1929-39 2.15-2.30pm BREAK 2.30-3.30pm Exam Technique Depth Study!!! 3 topics – 1 from section A and 2 from section B Approx. 1.5mins/mark Section A The Roaring 20s: USA 1918-29 Section B Hitler’s Germany,1929-39 & Depression & the New Deal: USA, 1929-41 Section A, Topic 3 Paper 2, Section A: The Roaring 20s: USA, 1919-29 Key Question: How Isolationism and its effects: American rejection of the Treaty of Versailles and refusal to join the League of Nations; the and Why did the USA consequences for the USA achieve prosperity in Tariff policy: Fordney-McCumber Tariff, 1922 the 1920s? Mass Production(e.g. Ford and the Motor industry); consumer industries and advertising Hire purchase; purchase of shares; the stock market boom; Republican Government policies Developments in the entertainment industries, e.g.cinema, Jazz Key Question: How far Rich versus poor: continuation of poverty for some – e.g. farmers was the USA a divided Race: immigration controls; the quota system of 1921; National Origins Act of 1924; the Ku Klux Klan and its activities society in the 1920s? Prohibition: groups for and against it; organised crime; the impact on society Young people: fashions, flappers Key Question: Why The problems of the 1920s: over-production, lack of credit control; the effects of tariff policy; unequal distribution of wealth did the US Stock The Wall Street Crash: events and immediate consequences Exchange collapse in 1929? NOT THE SAME AS PAPER 1!!!! Like in your controlled assessment!!!! Think CONTENT & PROVENANCE CONTENT PROVENANCE USES LIMITS How and Why did the USA achieve prosperity in the 1920s? 1920 US Senate rejected joining the LofN; Volstead Act brought in PROHIBITION 1921 Herbert Hoover became President; Wall Street Crash 1922 Republican Warren Harding became President; Immigration Quota Act 1923 First “talkies” in the cinema 1924 Fordney-McCumber Act 1927 First solo flight across the Atlantic by Charles Lindbergh 1928 Republican Calvin Coolidge became President 1929 National Origins Act How and Why did the USA achieve prosperity in the 1920s? 1920 1 US Senate rejected joining the LofN; Volstead Act brought in PROHIBITION 1921 8 Herbert Hoover became President; Wall Street Crash 1922 2 Republican Warren Harding became President; Immigration Quota Act 1923 7 First “talkies” in the cinema 1924 3 Fordney-McCumber Act 1927 6 First solo flight across the Atlantic by Charles Lindbergh 1928 4 Republican Calvin Coolidge became President 1929 5 National Origins Act How was the USA governed? Who’s who? Woodrow Wilson Warren Harding Calvin Coolidge TASK: Use your textbook to explain how the USA was governed. Explain the role of the President; Senate; House of Representatives; The Federal System. How was the USA governed? Who’s who? Woodrow Wilson Warren Harding Calvin Coolidge What about the FWW? • 1914-1918 • Britain, France, Russia Vs Germany, Austria Hungary, Italy (1915) = MAIN ALLIANCES • USA joined 1917 • Weapons • Trench warfare What impact did the FWW have on the USA? MEN POLITICS FWW ATTITUDES MONEY FWW & the USA • • • • • Joined 1917 Conscripted 2.8 million men Fought in the Western Front 109,900 dead and missing US trade increased as they had no European rivals during the war • The US industries did well supplying food and arms to Europe • The US took over Germany’s chemical industry – Making dyes, plastics, fertilisers, etc. • The interest from European loans allowed investors to invest in US industry Using this source, what do we learn about American attitudes to the war by 1918? The Treaty Of Versailles But the Senate decided not to accept the Treaty of Versailles and so didn’t join the League of Nations The League of Nations Woodrow Wilson's great idea • What did Woodrow Wilson want to happen at the end of the FWW? • Do ALL Americans believe the same as him? Explain your answer. • How many points? • Formation of what? "I can predict with absolute certainty that within another generation there will be another world war if the nations of the world do not concert the method by which to prevent it." Immigration – what do these things mean? • • • • • • Laissez faire anarchists socialism WASPS Quota Melting pot What does this image tell you about immigration to the US in the late 19th/early 20th Century? Immigration - USA What was it? Literacy Test Emergency Quotas Act National Origins Act How did it restrict immigration? Immigration - USA Literacy Test Emergency Quotas Act National Origins Act What was it? Writing test – check levels of understanding in English How did it restrict immigration? Northern & western immigrants 3% of all immigrants from that country who were resident in 1910 Northern and western immigrants favoured 2% of residents in 1890 European immigrants to 150,000 Limited the number from Italy Greece and Russia The Economic Isolation 1922 Fordney McCumber Tariff Act •All non American goods had to pay a huge tariff or entry tax •This produced a huge domestic budgetary surplus •Most Americans could only therefore buy American goods •Could be raised or lowered by the US President – Harding and Coolidge = 32 times! Consequences? • • • • Republicans = Harding President (61% vote) “normalcy” War not officially over until August 1921 Poor relations with Europe as the US had taken over German chemical companies and US businesses developed/used new materials e.g. plastics • America never joined the League of Nations • The Forney-McCumber tariff was used to protect US industry by putting high duties on many imports • Restrictions on immigration. Before the US had an ‘open door’ policy but now restrictions were put on: 1. Total number was restricted from 1921 2. A quota system let in numbers of people according to their presence in the US population. This favoured WASPS 3. A literacy test was imposed in 1917 • The US turned its back on Europe for nearly 20years as the Republicans were in charge “on the margin” Stock market boom Mass production Consumer Boom Hollywood Prosperity in The 1920s Hire Purchase “Jazz Age” Continuation of Poverty Flappers List the reasons for the boom in the American economy in the 1920s. Why was there a boom in the 1920s? Laissez Faire Tariffs Advertising/Credit Boom Confidence Speculation New Industrial Methods First World War Car Industry The Cycle of Prosperity! Car Industry More jobs are created in other industries. Steel Glass More Standardised parts are needed The Cycle of Prosperity! Jobs in Diners, Motels & Gas Stations. More Oil is used. Rubber Leather Mass productions & Standardisation lead to increased car sales. More people with jobs means that they can afford to buy a car! More roads are built. The Model ‘T’ Ford 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Name of the car? Cost in 1909? Cost in 1929? How many cars per min? Method of production invented by ford? 6. How many colours? 7. What was this called? 8. Give 2 other industries that boomed because of car production. The Model ‘T’ Ford The attraction of the Model T Ford was that its price never increased. Costing $1200 in 1909, the price in 1928 was only $295. By 1929 Ford was producing more than one car per minute Car production used up 20% of America's steel, 80% of her rubber, 75% of her plate glass and 65% of her leather. By the end of the 1920s American cars used seven billion gallons of petrol a year. This helped to create jobs in the oil industry and made the oil state of Texas rich. Car Production & Cycle of Prosperity Car production used up 20% of America's steel, 80% of her rubber, 75% of her plate glass and 65% of her leather. By the end of the 1920s American cars used seven billion gallons of petrol a year. This helped to create jobs in the oil industry and made the oil state of Texas rich Assembly line adopted across other industries New industries… • Electricity – 1930 10 companies controlled 72% or electricity • Skyscrapers – Chrysler/Empire State • Canned goods • Synthetic materials Advertising… • Give 3 examples of new products developed during this time • Give 2 methods of advertising used • What does hire purchase mean? Entertainment: Roaring 20s! Cinema • • • • 110million/ week by 1929 Hollywood – OSCAR Warner Brothers & MGM 1927 – The Jazz Singer = “TALKIE” JAZZ – POPULAR MUSIC Duke Ellington & Louis Armstrong Cotton Club in NY ROARING? Early 20th Century • Segregation between blacks and whites existed in the southern states • Blacks had the worst jobs and houses • Jim Crow Laws • 1915 – KKK re-founded The Origins of the KKK • WHEN? • WHO? • WHAT? • WHY? • HOW? KKK • WASPs (White Anglo-Saxon Protestants) • • 1915 William J. Simmons Jews, Roman Catholics, socialists, communists and anybody they identified as foreigners 1920s membership of the KKK grew from around 100,000 in 1920 to 5 million in 1925 Poor whites who felt that their jobs were threatened by black people and immigrants who were willing to work for lower wages “Klonverations” Victims were beaten, whipped, tarred and feathered or lynched State officials in Texas, Oklahoma, Indiana, Oregon and Maine. November 1925 Klan leader, David C. Stephenson, was found guilty of kidnapping and raping a secretary, Madge Oberholtzer. Corruption by other members such as the governor of Indiana and the mayor of Indianapolis, membership fell to around 30,000 • • • • • • • What is the message of this cartoon? 1. What was the law that introduced prohibition? 2. What was prohibited? 3. What was a speak easy? 4. Name one group who supported prohibition. 5. Who was Al Capone? What was ‘Prohibition’? • A law called the Volstead Act introduced in the USA in January 1920. • It banned the manufacture, sale and transport of alcohol. • The federal government had the power to enforce this law. • It theory the USA became ‘dry’. • It has since become known as the ‘noble experiment’. Why prohibition? What does this source suggest about why prohibition was introduced? Why was prohibition introduced? 1. It already existed in many states 2. Moral reasons 3. Campaigners like the Anti-Saloon League of America 4. The First World War What were the effects of prohibition? 1. 2. 3. 4. Speakeasies Moonshine Smuggling Organised crime What were the effects of prohibition? • Everyday, hardworking Americans were turned in to criminals. • Encouraged a growth in black market alcohol production (MOONSHINE) that could sometimes be dangerous. • Illegal bars (SPEAKEASIES) started to emerge and where often owned or ran by gangsters. By 1930 there were an estimated 250,000 speakeasies across America, 32,000 of which were in New York. • Speakeasies sold alcohol that was imported illegally from Canada or the West Indies by “bootleggers”. • These illegal operations were organised by gangs of criminals – ORGANISED CRIME. Al Capone • By 1927 he was earning some $60 million a year from bootlegging. • His gang was like a private army. He had 700 men under his control. • He was responsible for over 500 murders. • On 14th February 1929, Capone’s men dressed as police officers murdered 7 members of a rival gang. This became known as the ‘Valentine’s Day Massacre.’ Explain the effects of prohibition on American society. (6marks) • Level 1 (1-2)– Simple comment or one reason listed • Level 2 (3-4) – Lists several effects or explains one in detail • Level 3 (5-6) – Two effects in detail (do three to be on the safe side) Explain the effects of prohibition on American society. (6marks) • • • • • • What were the effects? Everyday Americans = criminals Illegal alcohol production Illegal bars Importation of illegal alcohol Organised criminals – racketeering/ corruption/ violence Why did Prohibition fail? Alcohol = popular and profitable Impossible to enforce the law – 1931 45,000 people imprisoned for alcohol related offences. 100 million people to monitor. 4,000 agents employed to stop bootlegging and close speakeasies – Elliot Ness. Of these agents 10% were sacked for taking bribes. 29,000km of coastline to control. 1929 = Wall Street Crash. Other issues to focus on. December 1933 – “Let’s all go out and have a drink.” The Roaring 20s - RECAP 1. (Rep) Government policy of laissez faire. 2. US industry had been boosted by the war. 3. Protectionism - import duties raised (1922). 4. Mass production: cars, radios, refrigerators. 5. Hire Purchase - people could buy on credit. There is massive consumer spending. Confidence!! The Roaring 20s Farmers DID NOT prosper new machines produced more which lowered prices. The black population DID NOT prosper farmers laid them off, given low paid jobs and lived in slums – 10% lived in squalor Recent immigrants DID NOT prosper they were given low paid jobs and lived in slums. Workers in old industries DID NOT prosper (textiles, coal and mining) – 2million 14-15 year olds worked in these industries for 11 hrs/day they were given low paid jobs and lived in slums. •Prohibition saw a rise in crime: bootleggers & gangsters. Really Roaring? • With more money to spend people invested on the stock market. • President Hoover’s aim: “a chicken in every pot and two cars in every garage”. BUT • 71% of American families earned less than $2500 a year • 2 million 14-15year old worked 11 hour days • 1/3 of the country’s wealth was shared by 5% of the population • American Industry was producing too many goods Why did Wall Street Crash? 29th October 1929 Why did the Wall Street Crash happen? Some traditional industries and farming were not thriving. Many Americans were not sharing in the prosperity. There was an unequal distribution of wealth. Mass production was leading to over production. More and more American people started to invest in companies on the “stock market”. The Republican Government had a “laissez faire” attitude towards business and therefore did not regulate it. Banks were loaning people up to 90% of the money they needed to buy shares in companies. was known as “buying on the margin”. 19th and 20th October 3.5 million shares sold and stock prices fall. The unhealthy tariff policy of the USA meant that businesses were not selling things in foreign countries. 29th October 1929 – 16million shares were sold and there was no one to buy them = CRASH! 24th October - “Black Thursday” 13million shares sold. Big businesses borrowed heavily in order to expand. There was insufficient credit control. 23rd October – 3 million shares sold in the last hour of trading People were holding on to stocks until their value increased then sold them quickly. This was known as speculation. Over production leads to businesses cutting back on production. The cut back on production results in an increase in unemployment. What is speculation? Speculation American industry booms, price of shares move up Investors sell their shares at higher prices and make huge profits Get Rich, Quick!! More people invest, pushing prices higher People buy “on the margin” Let’s get RICH!!!! Speculation Speculation 20 million shareholders by summer 1929 Car and Steel Production falls Prices reach an all time high Experts start to worry Profits Fall People start to Sell CRASH! Crash! • Sat 19th Oct - 3.5 million shares sold. Prices fall • Sun 20th Oct - “Stocks driven down as wave of selling engulfs market” Crash! • Mon. 21st Oct - Over 6 million shares change hands. Prices fall then rise in the afternoon. There are still buyers on the market • Tue 22nd Oct - Prices begin to rise Crash Wed 23rd Oct 3 million shares sold in the last hour of trading Margin buyers told to find more cash ‘Black’ Thursday 13 million shares sold No buyers found Panic!! Crash! • Fri 25th Oct - Top bankers decide to support market • Banking firms buy millions of shares for more than they are worth • Sat 26th Oct - President Hoover “The fundamental business of the country, is on a sound and secure basis” Crash! Mon. 28th Oct - Massive selling 3 million shares sold in the last hour of trading, 9 million sold in total Banks stop supporting prices Tuesday 29th Oct 16 million shares sold No buyers found Ticker tape machines break due to pressure, many are ruined before they can act What can we learn from this source about Prohibition? (4 marks) Q14. How useful is Source M to help explain why prohibition was a difficult law to enforce? Source M: The National Gesture, 1924 USES CONTENT PROVENANCE LIMITS Section B Paper 2, Section B: Depression and the New Deal: The USA, 1929-41 Key Question: How The effects of the Wall Street Crash: the collapse of business and industry; unemployment and its effects serious were the The attempts of Hoover’s government to deal with the depression; economic failure effects of the The unpopularity of Hoover and the election of Roosevelt Depression on the American People? Key Question: How Roosevelt’s fireside chats; banking crisis; New Deal helping farmers, unemployed, home owners, workers, depressed areas did Roosevelt deal The main Alphabet Agencies: AAA, FERA, CWA, PWA, WPA, CCC and TVA with the Depression? Helping industry: the NRA The HOLC and Social Security Act Key Question: How The effectiveness of the New Deal in achieving its aims; its limitations; the Second New Deal far was the New Deal Criticisms and opposition to the New Deal from the Supreme Court and some politicians successful in ending The impact of the Second World War on American economic recovery, 1939-41: increase in US exports; policy of Lend-Lease; the Depression in the effects within the USA USA? Odd one out… 1. 2. 3. 4. Ford, BMW, Chrysler, General Motors Valentino, Fairbanks, Lindbergh, Bow Break-dancing, Charleston, Tango, Black-bottom Babe Ruth, Bobby Jones, Jack Dempsey, Charlie Chaplin 5. Bootlegging, Prohibition, racketeering, speakeasies 6. Laissez-faire, New Deal, chicken in every pot, rugged individualism 7. AAA, FBI, CCC, HOLC What caused the WSC? Speculation tariffs Farming WSC Fall in sale of consumer goods Old Industries Banking Collapse of business and industry Effects of Depression Failure of Hoover Unemployment And it’s effects Effects of the WSC Between 1928 and 1933 wages fell by 60% Between 1928 and 1933 farm production fell by 40% Hoovervilles (shacks) were set up around cities Farmers migrated from the mid-west to California to try and get work as fruit pickers By 1933 14 million were unemployed The US share of world trade fell from $10billion in 1929 to $3billion in 1933 Farmers were unable to pay their mortgages It cost more to transport animals than what they were worth Total farm income had fallen to $5billion Some cities in the USA, like Cleveland, had 50% unemployment Germany was badly affected by the Wall Street Crash due to the number of US loans they had received after the FWW Japan was badly affected by the decline in trade with the USA Over farming in the midwest of America had led to a dustbowl being created Countries badly affected by the Great Depression looked for alternative methods to boost their economy – Japan and Manchuria In New York 283 people were admitted to hospital with malnutrition or starvation – 45 died By 1931 2,224 banks had gone bust The USA introduced more protection tariffs on goods – this resulted in other countries placing tariffs on US goods Adolf Hitler and the Nazi party became the largest party in the German Government in July 1932, promising to solve the problems caused by the Great Depression by rearming and rebuilding Germany 20,000 companies had gone bankrupt 1 farmer in 20 was evicted What impact did the WSC have…? Cities Countryside • Banks/businesses = Bankrupt (659 banks in 1929/Bank of US 1930 = 400,000 people) • Wages reduced (down 60% 192833) • People spent less money • High unemployment – 14million • Loss of confidence • Cleveland = 50% workers unemployed • Toledo = 80% • 238 – hospitalised with malnutrition/starvation (45 die) • Farm prices fallen by $7billion in 1932 • Cost of transporting animals more than the animals worth • “Dust bowl” from overfarming • Migration west to California to pick fruit • Farmers did not prosper in 1920 earning 50% less than they did between 1900 and 1910 Effects of the Wall Street Crash 1) 12 million people out of work 2) 12,000 people being made unemployed every day 3) 20,000 companies had gone bankrupt 4) 1616 banks had gone bankrupt 5) 1 farmer in 20 evicted 6) 23,000 people committed suicide in one year - the highest ever Hoover & the Depression Hoovervilles Hooverblankets Hooverstew • • • • • Hooever Dam $4,000million for building projects Hawley-Smoot 1930 – 40%! Emergency Relief Act - $300million Reconstruction Finance Corporation - $1,500million to businesses Why did Roosevelt win the 1932 Presidential Election? Why did Roosevelt win the 1932 Presidential Election? Roosevelt Hoover • “active government” • “New Deal” for the forgotten man • Promised to help workers; farmers; immigrant and black workers • Getting people back to work • Travelled America – made speeches and met a lot of people • 7 million more votes • “prosperity is just around the corner” • “do nothing president” • Tax cuts to boost businesses in 1930 • Relief Act - $2.1 billion to create jobs • Charities = relief • “rugged individualism” • Bonus Marchers – June 1932; MacArthur;Tear Gas; Death of infants Source G “Hoover happened to be in a bad spot the Depression came on, and there he was. If Jesus Christ had been there, he’d have had the same problem. It’s too bad for poor old Hoover that he happened to be there. This was a worldwide Depression. It wasn’t Hoover’s fault. In 1932, a Chinaman or a monkey could have been elected against him, no question about it.” Demand ________ Companies ______ wages People start _______ their money _______goods are sold. The Spiral Of Depression Demand _____ _______ People lose their jobs. Even more people ______________ _______________ Companies cut costs by ______________ ________________ Causes of the Depression Demand drops. In order to stay in business companies cut wages People lose their confidence & start saving their money Fewer goods are sold. People lose their jobs. The Spiral Of Depression Even more people Lose their confidence And spend less money Demand drops even further. Companies are forced to cut costs by laying people off Alphabet Agencies AAA CCC PWA WPA CWA TVA HOLC SSA FERA NRA Roosevelt’s New Deal • What? •Programs meant to help the country by getting the government involved in the economy Meant to do 3 things 1. Relief - help people out in the short term 2. Recovery - get the economy back on its feet 3. Reform - keep this from everyhappening again Bank Holiday - First Step • Why? •Many banks had failed, wiping out families’ savings •People lost confidence in the banks Depositors Congregate Outside Closed Bank Bank Holiday - First Step • How? •Closed banks for four days to reorganize •President explains in a “fireside chat” •Confidence restored Next Step - “Alphabet Soup” Hundred Days • In the first 100 days of his administration Roosevelt passes tons of legislation Alphabet Soup The agencies he creates (like AAA) Next Step - “Alphabet Soup” FDIC - Federal Department Insurance Corp. • Insurance for the $ you put in banks Bank Employee Checks Depositor's Account Protected people’s savings Next Step - “Alphabet Soup” CCC - Civilian Conservation Corps • 18-25 year old guys get jobs and send money home to their families CCC workers in Lassen National Forest, California Next Step - “Alphabet Soup” AAA - Agricultural Adjustment Administration • Government pays farmers not to farm Meant to cause prices to rise and halt overproduction Next Step - “Alphabet Soup” FERA - Federal Emergency Relief Admin. • Gave direct relief ($) to those who needed it Beginnings of a welfare program Next Step - “Alphabet Soup” Social Security • Taxed people working now to give payments to the elderly Social Security Information Poster Next Step - “Alphabet Soup” TVA - Tennessee Valley Authority • Government runs a hydroelectric power plant Provides cheap power & fertilizer to the poor region Construction at Norris Dam, which was being built by the TVA on the Clinch River in Northeastern Tennessee Election of FDR TVA, NRP, WPA, CCC, AAA New Deal and Alphabet Agencies “Fireside Chats” Recovery from depression Banking Crisis How successful was the New Deal? During the New Deal unemployment figures went from 14million to 6 million Support for Roosevelt increased. In the 1936 Presidential Election the Democrat control of US states went up to 46 Government spending and debt was very high When the Government cut back on spending unemployment increased to 10 million The output of businesses was 25% lower then it was in 1929 Republican Party members did not support the New Deal and thought that Roosevelt was acting like a dictator The Supreme Court ruled that parts of the New Deal went against the Constitution of the US – the NRA for example Roosevelt was accused of behaving like a dictator Governor Huey Long accused the Government of not doing enough – he wanted to introduce the “Share our Wealth” scheme. This would take money from rich Americans and share it out to the poor Republicans believed that the Democrats were encouraging people to be lazy Alphabet agencies like the TVA provided valuable resources and changes to the USA – the TVA stopped flooding; 93% of farms had electricity; diseases like malaria became easier to control The Alphabet Agencies created jobs and opportunities for people in the US How successful was the New Deal? Success… Failure… How successful was the New Deal? Success… • • • • • • • • • Restored faith of the people back in the Government – “fireside chats” and Emergency Banking Act Helped people on a large scale NRA and Unions strengthened workers position in large industries (e.g. Ford) Created millions of jobs Stabilized the banking system Projects such as the TVA improved the standard of living in deprived parts of the USA Provided the USA with valuable resources such as roads and schools 200,000 black Americans benefited from organisations such as the CCC and also from slum clearance projects Indian Reorganisation Act 1934 provided money to help Native Americans buy and improve land Failure… • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Divided the USA – Roosevelt accused of being Communist Huey Long – “Share Our Wealth” Scheme believed that Roosevelt had not done enough (no one had over $3million) New Deal = too many codes and regulations High taxes discouraged people from working hard and gave money to people for doing nothing of doing unnecessary jobs Criticised for wasting money – WPA “boondoggles” Parts of the New Deal declared unconstitutional – NRA and AAA Many large industries still remained very powerful Strikes were often broken up by force New Deal never solved the underlying economic problems 6 million still unemployed in 1941 Only the entry in to WWII ended the problem of unemployment Black people were still discriminated against – paid lower wages Most of the New Deal agencies were for men Native Americans remained poor and excluded from society How useful is this source to an historian to show opposition to the New Deal? (8marks) USES CONTENT (What is in the source?/Wha t is not in the source?) PROVENANC E (Who? When? Why?) LIMITS Section B – Nazi Germany Paper 2, Section B: Hitler’s Germany, 1929-39 Key Question: How The impact of the Wall Street Crash and Depression in Germany; growth in support for the Nazis and other extremist parties and why was Hitler The Weimar system of Government and the failure of democracy; the elections of 1930 and 1932; invitation to lead a coalition able to become government, 1933; reactions among German people Chancellor in January 1933? Key Question: How The Reichstag Fire; the election of March 1933; the enabling Act did Hitler change The elimination of political opposition: political parties, trade unions; the Night of the Long Knives; the death of Hindenburg; Germany from a Hitler becomes Fuhrer democracy to a Nazi One party law and order: SS and Gestapo; concentration camps; propaganda; censorship; the media; control of education; youth dictatorship, 1933-34 movements; control of the churches and then reinforce this? Key Question: To Economic policy: increased employment through public work programmes, rearmament and conscription; self-sufficiency what extent did (autarky) Germans benefit from Social policy: standards of living; promises to the German people; effects of the Nazi policy on the lives of women ; effects on Nazi Rule in the culture 1930s? Racial persecution: the Jews and other alien groups, e.g. gypsies What impact did the Wall Street Crash have on Germany? Source A – 1932 Nazi Poster saying “Hitler – Our Last Hope” 1. What happens to the number of unemployed people in Germany from 1929 to 1933? 2. Look at source B. Which group produced this poster? 3. What does the poster depict (show)? 4. Why do you think this poster has been produced? Weaknesses of Weimar? Weaknesses of Weimar? Article 48 Chancellor/President PR Weimar Gov Decision making/Depression Coalition How did these things help Hitler? MAY 1928 SEPT. 1930 JULY 1932 NOV. 1932 MARCH 1933 Communists 54 77 89 100 81 Socialists 153 143 133 121 120 Centre Party 78 87 97 90 93 Nationalists 73 41 37 52 52 Nazis 12 107 230 196 288 Other Political Parties 121 122 22 35 23 Who were the Nazi Party? Hitler and the National Socialist Party 1913 – moved to Germany Joined the German Army and fought in WWI Involved in politics at the end of WWI Continued working for the army after the war Asked to spy on a small political party, the German Worker’s Party Found that it held views similar to his own, so he joined it Hitler and the National Socialist Party Soon Hitler took over the leadership Changed name to National Socialist German Worker’s Party Nazi is an acronym for the party in German Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, NSDAP, 'Nazi' Party Hitler and the National Socialist Party Aims End the agreements of the Treaty of Versailles Redraw Germany’s borders to include all German people Only Germans could be citizens of Germany No Jewish people could be members of this new Germany Additional territories (colonies) to feed and settle surplus population The state to take over major industries How did Hitler establish control? force legal control compromise support Reichstag Fire • • • • When? Where? What? Who? Reichstag Fire • 4000 Communist officials and anti-Nazis arrested. • “Decree for the Protection of the People and the State” • 5th March 1933 = election = Nazi Party win 288 seats (44%) The Enabling Law Who? When? What? Why? How EFFECT = The Enabling Law Who? = Introduced by Hitler and the Nazi Party, with the help of the Nationalist Party. When? = 23rd March 1933. What? = Change the Constitution of Germany. Why? = To gain control of Germany. How? = ban 81 Communist members of Reichstag, Social Democrats threatened by SA, other parties pressured. EFFECT = gave Hitler the power to pas any law without consulting the Reichstag. Germany became a oneparty state. The Removal of Opposition June 1933 = Social Democrats banned July 1933 = Law against the Formation of New Parties. Trade Unions abolished. Leaders of political parties and trade unions arrested and put in concentration camps. Nazi officials, judges, ministers and civil servants. Night of the Long Knives Night of the Long Knives • SA = threat to his control. • Rohm = more socialist and control of German army. • Rohm/Army? • 30th June 1934 = SS arrest SA. • Von Schleicher murdered. Death of Hindenburg • Only person higher than Hitler in Germany= Hindenburg. • 2nd August 1933 = Hindenburg died. • Hitler declared himself President and Chancellor = Fuhrer and Reich Chancellor. • German army = loyalty to Hitler. Nazis increase seats from 12 to 107 and gain 6 million votes in national polling to emerge as the second largest party in Germany. Jan 30, 1933 Schleicher leaves office Jan 28, 1933 General Kurt von Schleicher cabinet Dec 3, 1932 Nov 6, 1932 Jul 31, 1932 Jun 1, 1932 Apr 10, 1932 Sep 15 1930 Reichstag elections: Nazi party loses votes Reichstag elections: Nazi party becomes the largest party. Von Papen becomes Chancellor of Germany Hindenburg reelected to Reichspresident with over 40% of the vote. Hitler gains 37% and the communist candidate Thälmann gains 10.2% President Hindenburg appoints Hitler chancellor of a Nazi-DNVP coalition Methods of Control propaganda SS/Gestapo church education youth Hitler Youth • • • • • • • • • • 1933 its membership stood at 100,000 1935, it became all but compulsory to join the Hitler Youth 1936, the figure stood at 4 million members Hitler Youth catered for 10 to 18 year olds Boys at 10, joined the Deutsches Jungvolk (German Young People) until the age of 13 Hitler Jugend (Hitler Youth) until the age of 18. Activities included "military athletics" (Wehrsport); marching, bayonet drill, grenade throwing, trench digging, map reading, gas defence, use of dugouts, how to get under barbed wire and pistol shooting. Girls, at the age of 10, joined the Jungmadelbund (League of Young Girls) Age of 14 transferred to the Bund Deutscher Madel (League of German Girls) Girls had to be able to run 60 metres in 14 seconds, throw a ball 12 metres, complete a 2 hour march, swim 100 metres and know how to make a bed. Women in Nazi Germany • • • • Mothers 1933 was the Law for the Encouragement of Marriage. 800,000 newly weds took up this offer. T% of the loan need not be paid back. Four children meant that the entire loan was cleared. "Take hold of kettle, broom and pan, Then you’ll surely get a man! Shop and office leave alone, Your true life work lies at home.“ • • • • • • 1943, a law was discussed among Nazi leaders that all women - married or single - should have 4 children and that the fathers of these children had to be "racially pure". Weimar Germany there had been 100,000 female teachers, 3000 female doctors and 13,000 female musicians. 1937 a law was passed which meant women had to do a "Duty Year". This meant that they could work 'patriotically' in a factory etc. to help the Nazi's "Economic Miracle". Women were not expected to wear make-up or trousers. The dyeing of hair was not allowed nor were perms. Only flat shoes were expected to be worn. Women were discouraged from slimming as this was considered bad for child birth. Motherhood Cross Gold = 8 children; silver was for 6 children and bronze was for 4 children Lebensborn’s which were buildings where selected unmarried women could go to get pregnant by a "racially pure" SS man. Church in Nazi Germany • 1933 – Concordat • Muller supported Hitler and in 1933 he was given the title of "Reich Bishop". • Those who opposed the views of Muller were called the "Congressional Church". This was led by Martin Niemoller. • Gestapo who arrested him for opposing Hitler. Niemoller was sent to a concentration camp for 7 years • 1936, the Reich Church was created. This did not have the Christian cross as its symbol but the swastika. The Bible was replaced by "Mein Kampf" which was placed on the altar. By it was a sword. Only invited Nazis were allowed to give sermons in a Reich Church. Hitler and the National Socialist Party The SA (or brownshirts) Private army of the Nazi Party Used terror against his opponents The SS (or blackshirts) Hitler’s personal bodyguard Also to make sure party members stay loyal Hitler and the National Socialist Party The Gestapo (secret police) Spied on people and persecuted people who did not follow party line The Hitler Youth Recruited youths by telling them that to be patriotic to their country, they had to support the Nazis Hitler Youth Organisation Flag Racial Persecution 1. What was the Nuremburg Law? 2. How did it affect Jews in Germany? 3. What does Kristallnacht mean? 4. When did it Kristallnacht happen? 5. Why did Kirstallnacht happen? 6. What were the results of Kristallnacht? 7. Which other groups did the Nazis target? 8. When, why and who was compulsory sterilisation introduced? Paper 2: Comprehension and inference from a source. Source E Education under the Nazis The Nazis used their control over teachers to influence what children learned at school. Many teachers were already very nationalistic and accepted that they should teach Nazi ideas. Those who did not were usually sacked. Many teachers attended teachers’ camps which concentrated on indoctrination and physical training. Ninety-seven per cent of teachers joined the Nazi Teacher’s Association. From Germany 1918-1945 by G. Lacey and K.Shephard, 1997. How useful is source E in explaining how the Nazi Party gained support of the people? USES Content Provenance Limits a) What does Source A suggest about why the USA did not join the League of Nations? (4marks) Response A Source E suggests that Americans did not like immigrants and did not want any in their country. It also says that there was a group called WASPs (White Anglo-Saxon Protestants) who wanted the Quota System to happen, the quota system stopped some immigrants from entering America. Mark Scheme – 4 mark question • Level 1 – copies from the source (1-2) • Level 2 – explains what the source means (3-4) Response A Source E suggests that Americans did not like immigrants and did not want any in their country. It also says that there was a group called WASPs (White Anglo-Saxon Protestants) who wanted the Quota System to happen, the quota system stopped some immigrants from entering America. Response B Source J tells you that immigration is bad as lots of southern and eastern europeans where let in the country and seen as anarchists. The Quota system was a victory for the WASPs (White Anglo Saxon Protestants) as the amount of southern and eastern europeans let in was limited reducing the amount of undesirables. After 1921 most immigrants where white and protestant as the quota system allowed many immigrants from eastern europe to enter the USA. Mark Scheme – 4 mark question • Level 1 – copies from the source (1-2) • Level 2 – explains what the source means (3-4) Response B Source J tells you that immigration is bad as lots of southern and eastern europeans where let in the country and seen as anarchists. The Quota system was a victory for the WASPs (White Anglo Saxon Protestants) as the amount of southern and eastern europeans let in was limited reducing the amount of undesirables. After 1921 most immigrants where white and protestant as the quota system allowed many immigrants from eastern europe to enter the USA. Explain the consequences of prohibition. (6marks) Some effects of prohibition for American’s in the 1920s was banned alcohol as alcohol was banned in the 1920s but this didn’t solve the problem infact it made it worse as people set up businesses such as speakeasies, bootlegging and moonshine (illegal alcohol). This was a problem for business because people were coming in to work hungover so they couldn’t get the job done. Secondly, people spent all there money on alcohol so they couldn’t afford to buy other products so businesses lost profit. March scheme – 6 marks • Level 1 – simple statement (1-2) • Level 2 – Lists the consequences or describes one in detail (3-4) • Level 3 – 2 consequences explained; both must be in detail to gain top of the level (5-6) Response A Some effects of prohibition for American’s in the 1920s was banned alcohol as alcohol was banned in the 1920s but this didn’t solve the problem infact it made it worse as people set up businesses such as speakeasies, bootlegging and moonshine (illegal alcohol). This was a problem for business because people were coming in to work hungover so they couldn’t get the job done. Secondly, people spent all there money on alcohol so they couldn’t afford to buy other products so businesses lost profit. Response B Prohibition had many consequences one of these where speakeasies. Speakeasies where illegal bars that sold drink illegally to the public. Speakeasies where usually in back alleys or peoples basements. Speakeasies where very popular and there was 32,000 speakeasies in New York alone. This was a consequence as it meant that even though alcohol above 0.5% was banned it was still being sold on mass. Another consequence is moonshine, where alcohol was made cheaply. Moonshine was where people manufactured alcohol in there home, or somewhere else cheaply and in an unhealthy way. Moonshine was not safe to drink as it could cause blindness if too much was drank. Moonshine was a consequence as people where manufacturing alcohol above the legal limit and selling it and moonshine was causing health problems in the public. Also gang warfare was a consequence as many gangs earned money by illegally smuggling and selling alcohol and if a gang proved competition then this could start a gang war. Gang warfare was a common thing to happen in America as gangs where in most cities. An example of gang warfare was the St. Valentine’s Day massacre on the 14th February 1929 where 3 members of Al Capone’s gang “The Outfit” shot and killed 7 members of the Bugs Moran Gang. This is a consequence because prohibition banned alcohol over a certain volume and this caused competition in gangs to earn money, then leading to violence. March scheme – 6 marks • Level 1 – simple statement (1-2) • Level 2 – Lists the consequences or describes one in detail (3-4) • Level 3 – 2 consequences explained; both must be in detail to gain top of the level (5-6) Response B Prohibition had many consequences one of these where speakeasies. Speakeasies where illegal bars that sold drink illegally to the public. Speakeasies where usually in back alleys or peoples basements. Speakeasies where very popular and there was 32,000 speakeasies in New York alone. This was a consequence as it meant that even though alcohol above 0.5% was banned it was still being sold on mass. Another consequence is moonshine, where alcohol was made cheaply. Moonshine was where people manufactured alcohol in there home, or somewhere else cheaply and in an unhealthy way. Moonshine was not safe to drink as it could cause blindness if too much was drank. Moonshine was a consequence as people where manufacturing alcohol above the legal limit and selling it and moonshine was causing health problems in the public. Also gang warfare was a consequence as many gangs earned money by illegally smuggling and selling alcohol and if a gang proved competition then this could start a gang war. Gang warfare was a common thing to happen in America as gangs where in most cities. An example of gang warfare was the St. Valentine’s Day massacre on the 14th February 1929 where 3 members of Al Capone’s gang “The Outfit” shot and killed 7 members of the Bugs Moran Gang. This is a consequence because prohibition banned alcohol over a certain volume and this caused competition in gangs to earn money, then leading to violence. How useful is Source M for studying reasons why the USA did not join the League of Nations in 1919? Use source M and your own knowledge to explain your answer. (10marks) Response A Source M is quite useful to show the attitudes of Americans in 1919 towards USA joining the League of Nations because it says/shows that the Republicans do not wan to join the LofN, also it says it will destroy the USA by getting involved in other problems. It is also useful because it is wrote in the 1919 when it was happening, also because the person who wrote this was a person who wrote this was a person of the government. Secondly it has limits because Wilson was the President at the time and he was a Deomcrat and he was opposite to a lot of people also he was on both sides of the argument so he couldn’t choose, and there was a vote soon so he could choose to be in and then there would be a knew president who didn’t want to be in it. Also this was a speech and was his opinion so it isn’t facts it just one persons opinion. Mark Scheme – 10 marks • Level 1 – uses the source to make comments about joining the League (1-2) • Level 2 – gives some simple explanations (3-4) • Level 3 – Looks at the uses or limits using their own knowledge or information from the source (5-7) • Level 4 – Looks at uses or limits of the source using the source and their own knowledge (810) Response A Source M is quite useful to show the attitudes of Americans in 1919 towards USA joining the League of Nations because it says/shows that the Republicans do not want to join the LofN, also it says it will destroy the USA by getting involved in other problems. It is also useful because it is wrote in the 1919 when it was happening, also because the person who wrote this was a person who wrote this was a person of the government. Secondly it has limits because Wilson was the President at the time and he was a Democrat and he was opposite to a lot of people also he was on both sides of the argument so he couldn’t choose, and there was a vote soon so he could choose to be in and then there would be a knew president who didn’t want to be in it. Also this was a speech and was his opinion so it isn’t facts it just one persons opinion.