GCSE History: Paper 2

Report
GCSE History: Paper 2
Outline of the Day
9.30-9.45am Overview of Paper 2
9.45-11.00am Section A, Topic 3 :USA 1918-29 &
exam technique
11.00-11.15am BREAK
11.15-12.15pm Section B, Topic 6: USA 1929-41
12.15-1.15pm LUNCH
1.15-2.15pm Section B, Topic 5: Nazi Germany,
1929-39
2.15-2.30pm BREAK
2.30-3.30pm Exam Technique
Depth Study!!!
3 topics – 1 from
section A and 2
from section B
Approx.
1.5mins/mark
Section A
The Roaring 20s: USA
1918-29
Section B
Hitler’s Germany,1929-39
&
Depression & the New
Deal: USA, 1929-41
Section A, Topic 3
Paper 2, Section A: The Roaring 20s: USA, 1919-29
Key Question: How
 Isolationism and its effects: American rejection of the Treaty of Versailles and refusal to join the League of Nations; the
and Why did the USA
consequences for the USA
achieve prosperity in
 Tariff policy: Fordney-McCumber Tariff, 1922
the 1920s?
 Mass Production(e.g. Ford and the Motor industry); consumer industries and advertising
 Hire purchase; purchase of shares; the stock market boom; Republican Government policies
 Developments in the entertainment industries, e.g.cinema, Jazz
Key Question: How far
 Rich versus poor: continuation of poverty for some – e.g. farmers
was the USA a divided
 Race: immigration controls; the quota system of 1921; National Origins Act of 1924; the Ku Klux Klan and its activities
society in the 1920s?
 Prohibition: groups for and against it; organised crime; the impact on society
 Young people: fashions, flappers
Key Question: Why
 The problems of the 1920s: over-production, lack of credit control; the effects of tariff policy; unequal distribution of wealth
did the US Stock
 The Wall Street Crash: events and immediate consequences
Exchange collapse in
1929?
NOT THE SAME
AS PAPER 1!!!!
Like in your controlled
assessment!!!! Think
CONTENT &
PROVENANCE
CONTENT
PROVENANCE
USES
LIMITS
How and Why did the USA achieve prosperity in the
1920s?
1920
US Senate rejected joining the LofN; Volstead Act
brought in PROHIBITION
1921
Herbert Hoover became President; Wall Street Crash
1922
Republican Warren Harding became President;
Immigration Quota Act
1923
First “talkies” in the cinema
1924
Fordney-McCumber Act
1927
First solo flight across the Atlantic by Charles
Lindbergh
1928
Republican Calvin Coolidge became President
1929
National Origins Act
How and Why did the USA achieve prosperity in the
1920s?
1920
1 US Senate rejected joining the LofN; Volstead Act
brought in PROHIBITION
1921
8 Herbert Hoover became President; Wall Street Crash
1922
2 Republican Warren Harding became President;
Immigration Quota Act
1923
7 First “talkies” in the cinema
1924
3 Fordney-McCumber Act
1927
6 First solo flight across the Atlantic by Charles
Lindbergh
1928
4 Republican Calvin Coolidge became President
1929
5 National Origins Act
How was the USA governed?
Who’s who?
Woodrow Wilson
Warren Harding
Calvin Coolidge
TASK: Use your textbook to explain how the USA was governed.
Explain the role of the President; Senate; House of Representatives;
The Federal System.
How was the USA governed?
Who’s who?
Woodrow Wilson
Warren Harding
Calvin Coolidge
What about the FWW?
• 1914-1918
• Britain, France, Russia Vs Germany, Austria
Hungary, Italy (1915) = MAIN ALLIANCES
• USA joined 1917
• Weapons
• Trench warfare
What impact did the FWW have on the
USA?
MEN
POLITICS
FWW
ATTITUDES
MONEY
FWW & the USA
•
•
•
•
•
Joined 1917
Conscripted 2.8 million men
Fought in the Western Front
109,900 dead and missing
US trade increased as they had no
European rivals during the war
• The US industries did well
supplying food and arms to
Europe
• The US took over Germany’s
chemical industry
– Making dyes, plastics, fertilisers,
etc.
• The interest from European loans
allowed investors to invest in US
industry
Using this source,
what do we learn
about American
attitudes to the
war by 1918?
The Treaty Of Versailles
But the Senate decided not to accept the Treaty
of Versailles and so didn’t join the League of
Nations
The League of Nations
Woodrow
Wilson's great
idea
• What did Woodrow Wilson want to happen
at the end of the FWW?
• Do ALL Americans believe the same as him?
Explain your answer.
• How many points?
• Formation of what?
"I can predict with absolute certainty that within another
generation there will be another world war if the nations of
the world do not concert the method by which to prevent it."
Immigration – what do these things
mean?
•
•
•
•
•
•
Laissez faire
anarchists
socialism
WASPS
Quota
Melting pot
What does this image tell you about immigration to the US in the late 19th/early
20th Century?
Immigration - USA
What was it?
Literacy Test
Emergency Quotas Act
National Origins Act
How did it restrict immigration?
Immigration - USA
Literacy Test
Emergency Quotas Act
National Origins Act
What was it?
Writing test – check levels of understanding in English
How did it restrict immigration?
Northern & western immigrants
3% of all immigrants from that country who were
resident in 1910
Northern and western immigrants favoured
2% of residents in 1890
European immigrants to 150,000
Limited the number from Italy Greece and
Russia
The Economic Isolation
1922
Fordney
McCumber
Tariff Act
•All non American goods had to pay a huge tariff or entry tax
•This produced a huge domestic budgetary surplus
•Most Americans could only therefore buy American goods
•Could be raised or lowered by the US President – Harding and
Coolidge = 32 times!
Consequences?
•
•
•
•
Republicans = Harding President (61% vote)
“normalcy”
War not officially over until August 1921
Poor relations with Europe as the US had taken over German chemical
companies and US businesses developed/used new materials e.g. plastics
• America never joined the League of Nations
• The Forney-McCumber tariff was used to protect US industry by putting
high duties on many imports
• Restrictions on immigration. Before the US had an ‘open door’ policy but
now restrictions were put on:
1. Total number was restricted from 1921
2. A quota system let in numbers of people according to their presence in the US
population. This favoured WASPS
3. A literacy test was imposed in 1917
• The US turned its back on Europe for nearly 20years as the Republicans
were in charge
“on the
margin”
Stock
market
boom
Mass
production
Consumer
Boom
Hollywood
Prosperity
in
The
1920s
Hire
Purchase
“Jazz Age”
Continuation
of
Poverty
Flappers
List the reasons for the boom in the
American economy in the 1920s.
Why was there a boom in the 1920s?
Laissez
Faire
Tariffs
Advertising/Credit
Boom
Confidence
Speculation
New
Industrial
Methods
First
World
War
Car Industry
The Cycle
of
Prosperity!
Car Industry
More jobs are
created in other
industries.
Steel
Glass
More Standardised
parts are needed
The Cycle
of
Prosperity!
Jobs in Diners,
Motels & Gas
Stations.
More Oil
is used.
Rubber
Leather
Mass productions &
Standardisation lead to
increased car sales.
More people with
jobs means that
they can afford to
buy a car!
More roads
are built.
The Model ‘T’ Ford
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Name of the car?
Cost in 1909?
Cost in 1929?
How many cars per min?
Method of production invented by
ford?
6. How many colours?
7. What was this called?
8. Give 2 other industries that boomed
because of car production.
The Model ‘T’ Ford
The attraction of the Model T Ford was
that its price never increased.
Costing $1200 in 1909, the price in 1928
was only $295.
By 1929 Ford was producing more than
one car per minute
Car production used up 20% of America's
steel, 80% of her rubber, 75% of her plate
glass and 65% of her leather.
By the end of the 1920s American cars
used seven billion gallons of petrol a year.
This helped to create jobs in the oil
industry and made the oil state of Texas
rich.
Car Production & Cycle of Prosperity
Car production used up 20% of America's steel, 80%
of her rubber, 75% of her plate glass and 65% of her
leather.
By the end of the 1920s American cars used seven
billion gallons of petrol a year.
This helped to create jobs in the oil industry and
made the oil state of Texas rich
Assembly line adopted across other industries
New industries…
• Electricity – 1930 10 companies controlled
72% or electricity
• Skyscrapers – Chrysler/Empire State
• Canned goods
• Synthetic materials
Advertising…
• Give 3 examples of new products developed
during this time
• Give 2 methods of advertising used
• What does hire purchase mean?
Entertainment: Roaring 20s!
Cinema
•
•
•
•
110million/ week by 1929
Hollywood – OSCAR
Warner Brothers & MGM
1927 – The Jazz Singer = “TALKIE”
JAZZ – POPULAR
MUSIC
Duke Ellington &
Louis Armstrong
Cotton Club in NY
ROARING?
Early 20th Century
• Segregation between blacks and whites
existed in the southern states
• Blacks had the worst jobs and houses
• Jim Crow Laws
• 1915 – KKK re-founded
The Origins of the KKK
• WHEN?
• WHO?
• WHAT?
• WHY?
• HOW?
KKK
•
WASPs (White Anglo-Saxon Protestants)
•
•
1915 William J. Simmons
Jews, Roman Catholics, socialists, communists and anybody they identified as
foreigners
1920s membership of the KKK grew from around 100,000 in 1920 to 5 million in
1925
Poor whites who felt that their jobs were threatened by black people and
immigrants who were willing to work for lower wages
“Klonverations”
Victims were beaten, whipped, tarred and feathered or lynched
State officials in Texas, Oklahoma, Indiana, Oregon and Maine.
November 1925 Klan leader, David C. Stephenson, was found guilty of kidnapping
and raping a secretary, Madge Oberholtzer.
Corruption by other members such as the governor of Indiana and the mayor of
Indianapolis, membership fell to around 30,000
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
What is the message of this
cartoon?
1. What was the law that introduced
prohibition?
2. What was prohibited?
3. What was a speak easy?
4. Name one group who supported prohibition.
5. Who was Al Capone?
What was ‘Prohibition’?
• A law called the Volstead Act introduced in
the USA in January 1920.
• It banned the manufacture, sale and
transport of alcohol.
• The federal government had the power to
enforce this law.
• It theory the USA became ‘dry’.
• It has since become known as the ‘noble
experiment’.
Why prohibition?
What does this source
suggest about why
prohibition was
introduced?
Why was prohibition introduced?
1. It already existed in many states
2. Moral reasons
3. Campaigners like the Anti-Saloon League of
America
4. The First World War
What were the effects of prohibition?
1.
2.
3.
4.
Speakeasies
Moonshine
Smuggling
Organised crime
What were the effects of prohibition?
•
Everyday, hardworking Americans were turned in
to criminals.
•
Encouraged a growth in black market alcohol
production (MOONSHINE) that could sometimes be
dangerous.
•
Illegal bars (SPEAKEASIES) started to emerge and
where often owned or ran by gangsters. By 1930 there
were an estimated 250,000 speakeasies across America,
32,000 of which were in New York.
•
Speakeasies sold alcohol that was imported
illegally from Canada or the West Indies by “bootleggers”.
•
These illegal operations were organised by gangs
of criminals – ORGANISED CRIME.
Al Capone
• By 1927 he was earning
some $60 million a year
from bootlegging.
• His gang was like a private
army. He had 700 men
under his control.
• He was responsible for
over 500 murders.
• On 14th February 1929,
Capone’s men dressed as
police officers murdered 7
members of a rival gang.
This became known as the
‘Valentine’s Day
Massacre.’
Explain the effects of prohibition on
American society. (6marks)
• Level 1 (1-2)– Simple comment or one reason
listed
• Level 2 (3-4) – Lists several effects or explains
one in detail
• Level 3 (5-6) – Two effects in detail (do three
to be on the safe side)
Explain the effects of prohibition on
American society. (6marks)
•
•
•
•
•
•
What were the effects?
Everyday Americans = criminals
Illegal alcohol production
Illegal bars
Importation of illegal alcohol
Organised criminals – racketeering/
corruption/ violence
Why did Prohibition fail?
Alcohol = popular and profitable
Impossible to enforce the law – 1931 45,000 people
imprisoned for alcohol related offences.
100 million people to monitor.
4,000 agents employed to stop bootlegging and close
speakeasies – Elliot Ness.
Of these agents 10% were sacked for taking bribes.
29,000km of coastline to control.
1929 = Wall Street Crash. Other issues to focus on.
December 1933 – “Let’s all go out and have a drink.”
The Roaring 20s - RECAP
1. (Rep) Government policy of laissez faire.
2. US industry had been boosted by the war.
3. Protectionism - import duties raised
(1922).
4. Mass production: cars, radios,
refrigerators.
5. Hire Purchase - people could buy on
credit. There is massive consumer
spending.
Confidence!!
The Roaring 20s
 Farmers DID NOT prosper
new machines produced more which lowered prices.
 The black population DID NOT prosper
farmers laid them off, given low paid jobs and lived in
slums – 10% lived in squalor
 Recent immigrants DID NOT prosper
they were given low paid jobs and lived in slums.
 Workers in old industries DID NOT prosper (textiles, coal
and mining) – 2million 14-15 year olds worked in these
industries for 11 hrs/day
they were given low paid jobs and lived in slums.
•Prohibition saw a rise in crime: bootleggers & gangsters.
Really Roaring?
• With more money to spend people invested on
the stock market.
• President Hoover’s aim: “a chicken in every pot
and two cars in every garage”.
BUT
• 71% of American families earned less than
$2500 a year
• 2 million 14-15year old worked 11 hour days
• 1/3 of the country’s wealth was shared by 5%
of the population
• American Industry was producing too many
goods
Why did Wall Street
Crash?
29th October 1929
Why did the Wall Street Crash happen?
Some traditional
industries and farming
were not thriving.
Many Americans were not
sharing in the prosperity.
There was an unequal
distribution of wealth.
Mass production was
leading to over
production.
More and more American
people started to invest in
companies on the “stock
market”.
The Republican
Government had a
“laissez faire” attitude
towards business and
therefore did not regulate
it.
Banks were loaning
people up to 90% of the
money they needed to
buy shares in companies.
was known as “buying on
the margin”.
19th and 20th October 3.5
million shares sold and
stock prices fall.
The unhealthy tariff policy
of the USA meant that
businesses were not
selling things in foreign
countries.
29th October 1929 –
16million shares were
sold and there was no one
to buy them = CRASH!
24th October - “Black
Thursday” 13million
shares sold.
Big businesses borrowed
heavily in order to
expand. There was
insufficient credit control.
23rd October – 3 million
shares sold in the last
hour of trading
People were holding on to
stocks until their value
increased then sold them
quickly. This was known
as speculation.
Over production leads to
businesses cutting back
on production.
The cut back on
production results in an
increase in
unemployment.
What is speculation?
Speculation
 American industry booms, price of
shares move up
 Investors sell their shares at higher
prices and make huge profits
 Get Rich, Quick!!
 More people invest, pushing prices
higher
 People buy “on the margin”
 Let’s get RICH!!!!
Speculation
Speculation
20 million shareholders
by summer 1929
Car and Steel Production falls
Prices reach an all time high
Experts start to worry
Profits Fall
People start to Sell
CRASH!
Crash!
• Sat 19th Oct - 3.5 million shares sold.
Prices fall
• Sun 20th Oct - “Stocks driven down
as wave of selling engulfs market”
Crash!
• Mon. 21st Oct - Over 6 million shares
change hands. Prices fall then rise in
the afternoon. There are still buyers on
the market
• Tue 22nd Oct - Prices begin to rise
Crash
 Wed 23rd Oct
 3 million shares sold in the last hour of trading
 Margin buyers told to find more cash
 ‘Black’ Thursday
 13 million shares sold
 No buyers found
Panic!!
Crash!
• Fri 25th Oct - Top bankers decide to
support market
• Banking firms buy millions of shares for
more than they are worth
• Sat 26th Oct - President Hoover “The
fundamental business of the country, is
on a sound and secure basis”
Crash!
 Mon. 28th Oct - Massive selling
 3 million shares sold in the last hour of
trading, 9 million sold in total
 Banks stop supporting prices
 Tuesday 29th Oct
 16 million shares sold
 No buyers found
 Ticker tape machines break due to pressure,
many are ruined before they can act
What can we learn from this source about
Prohibition? (4 marks)
Q14. How useful is Source M to help explain why prohibition
was a difficult law to enforce?
Source M: The National
Gesture, 1924
USES
CONTENT
PROVENANCE
LIMITS
Section B
Paper 2, Section B: Depression and the New Deal: The USA, 1929-41
Key Question: How
 The effects of the Wall Street Crash: the collapse of business and industry; unemployment and its effects
serious were the
 The attempts of Hoover’s government to deal with the depression; economic failure
effects of the
 The unpopularity of Hoover and the election of Roosevelt
Depression on the
American People?
Key Question: How
 Roosevelt’s fireside chats; banking crisis; New Deal helping farmers, unemployed, home owners, workers, depressed areas
did Roosevelt deal
 The main Alphabet Agencies: AAA, FERA, CWA, PWA, WPA, CCC and TVA
with the Depression?
 Helping industry: the NRA
 The HOLC and Social Security Act
Key Question: How
 The effectiveness of the New Deal in achieving its aims; its limitations; the Second New Deal
far was the New Deal
 Criticisms and opposition to the New Deal from the Supreme Court and some politicians
successful in ending
 The impact of the Second World War on American economic recovery, 1939-41: increase in US exports; policy of Lend-Lease;
the Depression in the
effects within the USA
USA?
Odd one out…
1.
2.
3.
4.
Ford, BMW, Chrysler, General Motors
Valentino, Fairbanks, Lindbergh, Bow
Break-dancing, Charleston, Tango, Black-bottom
Babe Ruth, Bobby Jones, Jack Dempsey, Charlie
Chaplin
5. Bootlegging, Prohibition, racketeering,
speakeasies
6. Laissez-faire, New Deal, chicken in every pot,
rugged individualism
7. AAA, FBI, CCC, HOLC
What caused the WSC?
Speculation
tariffs
Farming
WSC
Fall in sale
of
consumer
goods
Old
Industries
Banking
Collapse of
business
and industry
Effects of
Depression
Failure of
Hoover
Unemployment
And it’s effects
Effects of the WSC
Between 1928 and 1933
wages fell by 60%
Between 1928 and 1933
farm production fell by 40%
Hoovervilles (shacks) were
set up around cities
Farmers migrated from the
mid-west to California to
try and get work as fruit
pickers
By 1933 14 million were
unemployed
The US share of world trade
fell from $10billion in 1929
to $3billion in 1933
Farmers were unable to
pay their mortgages
It cost more to transport
animals than what they
were worth
Total farm income had
fallen to $5billion
Some cities in the USA, like
Cleveland, had 50%
unemployment
Germany was badly
affected by the Wall Street
Crash due to the number of
US loans they had received
after the FWW
Japan was badly affected
by the decline in trade with
the USA
Over farming in the midwest of America had led to
a dustbowl being created
Countries badly affected by
the Great Depression
looked for alternative
methods to boost their
economy – Japan and
Manchuria
In New York 283 people
were admitted to hospital
with malnutrition or
starvation – 45 died
By 1931 2,224 banks had
gone bust
The USA introduced more
protection tariffs on goods
– this resulted in other
countries placing tariffs on
US goods
Adolf Hitler and the Nazi
party became the largest
party in the German
Government in July 1932,
promising to solve the
problems caused by the
Great Depression by
rearming and rebuilding
Germany
20,000 companies had
gone bankrupt
1 farmer in 20 was evicted
What impact did the WSC have…?
Cities
Countryside
• Banks/businesses = Bankrupt
(659 banks in 1929/Bank of US
1930 = 400,000 people)
• Wages reduced (down 60% 192833)
• People spent less money
• High unemployment – 14million
• Loss of confidence
• Cleveland = 50% workers
unemployed
• Toledo = 80%
• 238 – hospitalised with
malnutrition/starvation (45 die)
• Farm prices fallen by $7billion
in 1932
• Cost of transporting animals
more than the animals worth
• “Dust bowl” from overfarming
• Migration west to California to
pick fruit
• Farmers did not prosper in
1920 earning 50% less than
they did between 1900 and
1910
Effects of the Wall Street Crash
1) 12 million people out of work
2) 12,000 people being made unemployed every day
3) 20,000 companies had gone bankrupt
4) 1616 banks had gone bankrupt
5) 1 farmer in 20 evicted
6) 23,000 people committed suicide in one year - the highest ever
Hoover & the Depression
Hoovervilles
Hooverblankets
Hooverstew
•
•
•
•
•
Hooever Dam
$4,000million for building projects
Hawley-Smoot 1930 – 40%!
Emergency Relief Act - $300million
Reconstruction Finance Corporation - $1,500million to businesses
Why did Roosevelt win the 1932
Presidential Election?
Why did Roosevelt win the 1932
Presidential Election?
Roosevelt
Hoover
• “active government”
• “New Deal” for the forgotten
man
• Promised to help workers;
farmers; immigrant and black
workers
• Getting people back to work
• Travelled America – made
speeches and met a lot of
people
• 7 million more votes
• “prosperity is just around the
corner”
• “do nothing president”
• Tax cuts to boost businesses in
1930
• Relief Act - $2.1 billion to
create jobs
• Charities = relief
• “rugged individualism”
• Bonus Marchers – June 1932;
MacArthur;Tear Gas; Death of
infants
Source G
“Hoover happened to be in a bad spot the
Depression came on, and there he was. If Jesus
Christ had been there, he’d have had the same
problem. It’s too bad for poor old Hoover that
he happened to be there. This was a worldwide
Depression. It wasn’t Hoover’s fault. In 1932, a
Chinaman or a monkey could have been elected
against him, no question about it.”
Demand
________
Companies
______
wages
People
start _______ their
money
_______goods
are sold.
The Spiral
Of
Depression
Demand
_____
_______
People lose
their jobs.
Even more people
______________
_______________
Companies cut costs
by ______________
________________
Causes of the Depression
Demand
drops.
In order to
stay in business
companies cut
wages
People lose their
confidence &
start saving their
money
Fewer goods
are sold.
People lose
their jobs.
The Spiral
Of
Depression
Even more people
Lose their confidence
And spend less money
Demand
drops even
further.
Companies are
forced to cut costs
by laying people off
Alphabet Agencies
AAA
CCC
PWA
WPA
CWA
TVA
HOLC
SSA
FERA
NRA
Roosevelt’s New Deal
• What?
•Programs meant to help the country by getting the
government involved in the economy

Meant to do 3 things
1. Relief - help people out in the short term
2. Recovery - get the economy back on its feet
3. Reform - keep this from everyhappening again
Bank Holiday - First Step
• Why?
•Many banks had failed,
wiping out families’
savings
•People lost confidence in the
banks
Depositors Congregate Outside Closed Bank
Bank Holiday - First Step
• How?
•Closed banks for four
days to reorganize
•President explains in a
“fireside chat”
•Confidence restored
Next Step - “Alphabet Soup”
Hundred Days
• In the first 100 days of his administration
Roosevelt passes tons of legislation
Alphabet Soup

The agencies he creates
(like AAA)
Next Step - “Alphabet Soup”
FDIC - Federal Department Insurance Corp.
• Insurance for the $
you put in banks

Bank Employee Checks Depositor's Account
Protected
people’s
savings
Next Step - “Alphabet Soup”
CCC - Civilian Conservation Corps
• 18-25 year
old guys get
jobs and
send money
home to
their families
CCC workers in Lassen National Forest, California
Next Step - “Alphabet Soup”
AAA - Agricultural Adjustment Administration
• Government pays
farmers not to farm

Meant to cause
prices to rise and
halt
overproduction
Next Step - “Alphabet Soup”
FERA - Federal Emergency Relief Admin.
• Gave direct relief ($) to
those who needed it

Beginnings of a
welfare program
Next Step - “Alphabet Soup”
Social Security
• Taxed people working now to
give payments to the elderly
Social Security Information Poster
Next Step - “Alphabet Soup”
TVA - Tennessee Valley Authority
• Government runs a
hydroelectric power plant

Provides cheap power &
fertilizer to the poor region
Construction at Norris Dam, which was being built
by the TVA on the Clinch River in Northeastern Tennessee
Election of
FDR
TVA, NRP,
WPA,
CCC, AAA
New Deal
and
Alphabet
Agencies
“Fireside
Chats”
Recovery
from
depression
Banking
Crisis
How successful was the New Deal?
During the New Deal
unemployment figures
went from 14million to 6
million
Support for Roosevelt
increased. In the 1936
Presidential Election the
Democrat control of US
states went up to 46
Government spending and
debt was very high
When the Government cut
back on spending
unemployment increased
to 10 million
The output of businesses
was 25% lower then it was
in 1929
Republican Party members
did not support the New
Deal and thought that
Roosevelt was acting like a
dictator
The Supreme Court ruled
that parts of the New Deal
went against the
Constitution of the US –
the NRA for example
Roosevelt was accused of
behaving like a dictator
Governor Huey Long
accused the Government
of not doing enough – he
wanted to introduce the
“Share our Wealth”
scheme. This would take
money from rich
Americans and share it out
to the poor
Republicans believed that
the Democrats were
encouraging people to be
lazy
Alphabet agencies like the
TVA provided valuable
resources and changes to
the USA – the TVA stopped
flooding; 93% of farms had
electricity; diseases like
malaria became easier to
control
The Alphabet Agencies
created jobs and
opportunities for people in
the US
How successful was the New Deal?
Success…
Failure…
How successful was the New Deal?
Success…
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Restored faith of the people back in the
Government – “fireside chats” and
Emergency Banking Act
Helped people on a large scale
NRA and Unions strengthened workers
position in large industries (e.g. Ford)
Created millions of jobs
Stabilized the banking system
Projects such as the TVA improved the
standard of living in deprived parts of
the USA
Provided the USA with valuable
resources such as roads and schools
200,000 black Americans benefited
from organisations such as the CCC and
also from slum clearance projects
Indian Reorganisation Act 1934
provided money to help Native
Americans buy and improve land
Failure…
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Divided the USA – Roosevelt accused of being
Communist
Huey Long – “Share Our Wealth” Scheme believed
that Roosevelt had not done enough (no one had
over $3million)
New Deal = too many codes and regulations
High taxes discouraged people from working hard
and gave money to people for doing nothing of
doing unnecessary jobs
Criticised for wasting money – WPA “boondoggles”
Parts of the New Deal declared unconstitutional –
NRA and AAA
Many large industries still remained very powerful
Strikes were often broken up by force
New Deal never solved the underlying economic
problems
6 million still unemployed in 1941
Only the entry in to WWII ended the problem of
unemployment
Black people were still discriminated against – paid
lower wages
Most of the New Deal agencies were for men
Native Americans remained poor and excluded from
society
How useful is this source to an historian to show opposition to the New Deal?
(8marks)
USES
CONTENT
(What is in
the
source?/Wha
t is not in the
source?)
PROVENANC
E (Who?
When?
Why?)
LIMITS
Section B – Nazi Germany
Paper 2, Section B: Hitler’s Germany, 1929-39
Key Question: How
 The impact of the Wall Street Crash and Depression in Germany; growth in support for the Nazis and other extremist parties
and why was Hitler
 The Weimar system of Government and the failure of democracy; the elections of 1930 and 1932; invitation to lead a coalition
able to become
government, 1933; reactions among German people
Chancellor in January
1933?
Key Question: How
 The Reichstag Fire; the election of March 1933; the enabling Act
did Hitler change
 The elimination of political opposition: political parties, trade unions; the Night of the Long Knives; the death of Hindenburg;
Germany from a
Hitler becomes Fuhrer
democracy to a Nazi
 One party law and order: SS and Gestapo; concentration camps; propaganda; censorship; the media; control of education; youth
dictatorship, 1933-34
movements; control of the churches
and then reinforce
this?
Key Question: To
 Economic policy: increased employment through public work programmes, rearmament and conscription; self-sufficiency
what extent did
(autarky)
Germans benefit from
 Social policy: standards of living; promises to the German people; effects of the Nazi policy on the lives of women ; effects on
Nazi Rule in the
culture
1930s?
 Racial persecution: the Jews and other alien groups, e.g. gypsies
What impact did the Wall Street
Crash have on Germany?
Source A – 1932 Nazi
Poster saying “Hitler –
Our Last Hope”
1. What happens to the number
of unemployed people in
Germany from 1929 to 1933?
2. Look at source B. Which group
produced this poster?
3. What does the poster depict
(show)?
4. Why do you think this poster
has been produced?
Weaknesses of Weimar?
Weaknesses of Weimar?
Article 48
Chancellor/President
PR
Weimar
Gov
Decision making/Depression
Coalition
How did these things help Hitler?
MAY 1928
SEPT. 1930
JULY 1932
NOV. 1932
MARCH 1933
Communists
54
77
89
100
81
Socialists
153
143
133
121
120
Centre Party
78
87
97
90
93
Nationalists
73
41
37
52
52
Nazis
12
107
230
196
288
Other
Political
Parties
121
122
22
35
23
Who were the Nazi Party?
Hitler and the National Socialist Party
 1913 – moved to Germany
 Joined the German Army
and fought in WWI
 Involved in politics at the
end of WWI
 Continued working for the
army after the war
 Asked to spy on a small
political party, the German
Worker’s Party
 Found that it held views
similar to his own, so he
joined it
Hitler and the National Socialist Party
 Soon Hitler took over the
leadership
 Changed name to
National Socialist German
Worker’s Party
 Nazi is an acronym for
the party in German
 Nationalsozialistische
Deutsche Arbeiterpartei,
NSDAP, 'Nazi' Party
Hitler and the National Socialist Party
 Aims
 End the agreements of the Treaty of
Versailles
 Redraw Germany’s borders to
include all German people
 Only Germans could be citizens of
Germany
 No Jewish people could be members
of this new Germany
 Additional territories (colonies) to
feed and settle surplus population
 The state to take over major
industries
How did Hitler establish control?
force
legal
control
compromise
support
Reichstag Fire
•
•
•
•
When?
Where?
What?
Who?
Reichstag Fire
• 4000 Communist officials and anti-Nazis
arrested.
• “Decree for the Protection of the People and
the State”
• 5th March 1933 = election = Nazi Party win
288 seats (44%)
The Enabling Law
Who?
When?
What?
Why?
How
EFFECT =
The Enabling Law
Who? = Introduced by Hitler and the Nazi Party, with
the help of the Nationalist Party.
When? = 23rd March 1933.
What? = Change the Constitution of Germany.
Why? = To gain control of Germany.
How? = ban 81 Communist members of Reichstag,
Social Democrats threatened by SA, other parties
pressured.
EFFECT = gave Hitler the power to pas any law without
consulting the Reichstag. Germany became a oneparty state.
The Removal of Opposition
June 1933 = Social Democrats banned
July 1933 = Law against the Formation of New
Parties.
Trade Unions abolished.
Leaders of political parties and trade unions
arrested and put in concentration camps.
Nazi officials, judges, ministers and civil
servants.
Night
of the
Long
Knives
Night of the Long Knives
• SA = threat to his control.
• Rohm = more socialist and control of German
army.
• Rohm/Army?
• 30th June 1934 = SS arrest SA.
• Von Schleicher murdered.
Death of Hindenburg
• Only person higher than Hitler in Germany=
Hindenburg.
• 2nd August 1933 = Hindenburg died.
• Hitler declared himself President and
Chancellor = Fuhrer and Reich Chancellor.
• German army = loyalty to Hitler.
Nazis increase seats from 12 to 107 and gain 6
million votes in national polling to emerge as the
second largest party in Germany.
Jan 30, 1933
Schleicher leaves office
Jan 28, 1933
General Kurt von Schleicher cabinet
Dec 3, 1932
Nov 6, 1932
Jul 31, 1932
Jun 1, 1932
Apr 10, 1932
Sep 15 1930
Reichstag elections: Nazi party loses votes
Reichstag elections: Nazi party becomes the largest
party.
Von Papen becomes Chancellor of Germany
Hindenburg reelected to Reichspresident with over
40% of the vote. Hitler gains 37% and the communist
candidate Thälmann gains 10.2%
President Hindenburg appoints Hitler chancellor of a
Nazi-DNVP coalition
Methods of Control
propaganda
SS/Gestapo
church
education
youth
Hitler Youth
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
1933 its membership stood at 100,000
1935, it became all but compulsory to join the Hitler Youth
1936, the figure stood at 4 million members
Hitler Youth catered for 10 to 18 year olds
Boys at 10, joined the Deutsches Jungvolk (German Young People) until
the age of 13
Hitler Jugend (Hitler Youth) until the age of 18.
Activities included "military athletics" (Wehrsport); marching, bayonet
drill, grenade throwing, trench digging, map reading, gas defence, use of
dugouts, how to get under barbed wire and pistol shooting.
Girls, at the age of 10, joined the Jungmadelbund (League of Young Girls)
Age of 14 transferred to the Bund Deutscher Madel (League of German
Girls)
Girls had to be able to run 60 metres in 14 seconds, throw a ball 12
metres, complete a 2 hour march, swim 100 metres and know how to
make a bed.
Women in Nazi Germany
•
•
•
•
Mothers
1933 was the Law for the Encouragement of Marriage.
800,000 newly weds took up this offer.
T% of the loan need not be paid back. Four children meant that the entire loan was cleared.
"Take hold of kettle, broom and pan,
Then you’ll surely get a man!
Shop and office leave alone, Your true life work lies at home.“
•
•
•
•
•
•
1943, a law was discussed among Nazi leaders that all women - married or single - should have 4 children
and that the fathers of these children had to be "racially pure".
Weimar Germany there had been 100,000 female teachers, 3000 female doctors and 13,000 female
musicians.
1937 a law was passed which meant women had to do a "Duty Year". This meant that they could work
'patriotically' in a factory etc. to help the Nazi's "Economic Miracle".
Women were not expected to wear make-up or trousers. The dyeing of hair was not allowed nor were
perms. Only flat shoes were expected to be worn. Women were discouraged from slimming as this was
considered bad for child birth.
Motherhood Cross Gold = 8 children; silver was for 6 children and bronze was for 4 children
Lebensborn’s which were buildings where selected unmarried women could go to get pregnant by a
"racially pure" SS man.
Church in Nazi Germany
• 1933 – Concordat
• Muller supported Hitler and in 1933 he was given the title
of "Reich Bishop".
• Those who opposed the views of Muller were called the
"Congressional Church". This was led by Martin Niemoller.
• Gestapo who arrested him for opposing Hitler. Niemoller
was sent to a concentration camp for 7 years
• 1936, the Reich Church was created. This did not have the
Christian cross as its symbol but the swastika. The Bible was
replaced by "Mein Kampf" which was placed on the altar.
By it was a sword. Only invited Nazis were allowed to give
sermons in a Reich Church.
Hitler and the National Socialist Party
 The SA (or brownshirts)
 Private army of the Nazi
Party
 Used terror against his
opponents
 The SS (or blackshirts)
 Hitler’s personal
bodyguard
 Also to make sure party
members stay loyal
Hitler and the National Socialist Party
 The Gestapo (secret police)
 Spied on people and persecuted people who did not follow
party line
 The Hitler Youth
 Recruited youths by telling them that to be patriotic to their
country, they had to support the Nazis
Hitler Youth Organisation Flag
Racial Persecution
1. What was the Nuremburg Law?
2. How did it affect Jews in Germany?
3. What does Kristallnacht mean?
4. When did it Kristallnacht happen?
5. Why did Kirstallnacht happen?
6. What were the results of Kristallnacht?
7. Which other groups did the Nazis target?
8. When, why and who was compulsory sterilisation
introduced?
Paper 2: Comprehension and inference
from a source.
Source E Education under the Nazis
The Nazis used their control over teachers to influence what
children learned at school. Many teachers were already very
nationalistic and accepted that they should teach Nazi ideas.
Those who did not were usually sacked. Many teachers
attended teachers’ camps which concentrated on
indoctrination and physical training. Ninety-seven per cent of
teachers joined the Nazi Teacher’s Association.
From Germany 1918-1945 by G. Lacey and K.Shephard, 1997.
How useful is source E in explaining how the Nazi Party gained support of the people?
USES
Content
Provenance
Limits
a) What does Source A suggest about
why the USA did not join the League of
Nations? (4marks)
Response A
Source E suggests that Americans did not like
immigrants and did not want any in their
country. It also says that there was a group
called WASPs (White Anglo-Saxon Protestants)
who wanted the Quota System to happen, the
quota system stopped some immigrants from
entering America.
Mark Scheme – 4 mark question
• Level 1 – copies from the source (1-2)
• Level 2 – explains what the source means (3-4)
Response A
Source E suggests that Americans did not like
immigrants and did not want any in their
country. It also says that there was a group
called WASPs (White Anglo-Saxon Protestants)
who wanted the Quota System to happen, the
quota system stopped some immigrants from
entering America.
Response B
Source J tells you that immigration is bad as lots of
southern and eastern europeans where let in the
country and seen as anarchists. The Quota system
was a victory for the WASPs (White Anglo Saxon
Protestants) as the amount of southern and eastern
europeans let in was limited reducing the amount
of undesirables. After 1921 most immigrants where
white and protestant as the quota system allowed
many immigrants from eastern europe to enter the
USA.
Mark Scheme – 4 mark question
• Level 1 – copies from the source (1-2)
• Level 2 – explains what the source means (3-4)
Response B
Source J tells you that immigration is bad as lots of
southern and eastern europeans where let in the
country and seen as anarchists. The Quota system
was a victory for the WASPs (White Anglo Saxon
Protestants) as the amount of southern and eastern
europeans let in was limited reducing the amount
of undesirables. After 1921 most immigrants where
white and protestant as the quota system allowed
many immigrants from eastern europe to enter the
USA.
Explain the consequences of
prohibition. (6marks)
Some effects of prohibition for American’s in the 1920s
was banned alcohol as alcohol was banned in the 1920s
but this didn’t solve the problem infact it made it worse
as people set up businesses such as speakeasies,
bootlegging and moonshine (illegal alcohol).
This was a problem for business because people were
coming in to work hungover so they couldn’t get the job
done.
Secondly, people spent all there money on alcohol so
they couldn’t afford to buy other products so businesses
lost profit.
March scheme – 6 marks
• Level 1 – simple statement (1-2)
• Level 2 – Lists the consequences or describes
one in detail (3-4)
• Level 3 – 2 consequences explained; both
must be in detail to gain top of the level (5-6)
Response A
Some effects of prohibition for American’s in the 1920s
was banned alcohol as alcohol was banned in the 1920s
but this didn’t solve the problem infact it made it worse
as people set up businesses such as speakeasies,
bootlegging and moonshine (illegal alcohol).
This was a problem for business because people were
coming in to work hungover so they couldn’t get the job
done.
Secondly, people spent all there money on alcohol so
they couldn’t afford to buy other products so businesses
lost profit.
Response B
Prohibition had many consequences one of these where speakeasies.
Speakeasies where illegal bars that sold drink illegally to the public.
Speakeasies where usually in back alleys or peoples basements. Speakeasies
where very popular and there was 32,000 speakeasies in New York alone.
This was a consequence as it meant that even though alcohol above 0.5% was
banned it was still being sold on mass.
Another consequence is moonshine, where alcohol was made cheaply.
Moonshine was where people manufactured alcohol in there home, or
somewhere else cheaply and in an unhealthy way. Moonshine was not safe
to drink as it could cause blindness if too much was drank. Moonshine was a
consequence as people where manufacturing alcohol above the legal limit
and selling it and moonshine was causing health problems in the public.
Also gang warfare was a consequence as many gangs earned money by
illegally smuggling and selling alcohol and if a gang proved competition then
this could start a gang war. Gang warfare was a common thing to happen in
America as gangs where in most cities. An example of gang warfare was the
St. Valentine’s Day massacre on the 14th February 1929 where 3 members of
Al Capone’s gang “The Outfit” shot and killed 7 members of the Bugs Moran
Gang. This is a consequence because prohibition banned alcohol over a
certain volume and this caused competition in gangs to earn money, then
leading to violence.
March scheme – 6 marks
• Level 1 – simple statement (1-2)
• Level 2 – Lists the consequences or describes
one in detail (3-4)
• Level 3 – 2 consequences explained; both
must be in detail to gain top of the level (5-6)
Response B
Prohibition had many consequences one of these where speakeasies.
Speakeasies where illegal bars that sold drink illegally to the public.
Speakeasies where usually in back alleys or peoples basements. Speakeasies
where very popular and there was 32,000 speakeasies in New York alone.
This was a consequence as it meant that even though alcohol above 0.5% was
banned it was still being sold on mass.
Another consequence is moonshine, where alcohol was made cheaply.
Moonshine was where people manufactured alcohol in there home, or
somewhere else cheaply and in an unhealthy way. Moonshine was not safe
to drink as it could cause blindness if too much was drank. Moonshine was a
consequence as people where manufacturing alcohol above the legal limit
and selling it and moonshine was causing health problems in the public.
Also gang warfare was a consequence as many gangs earned money by
illegally smuggling and selling alcohol and if a gang proved competition then
this could start a gang war. Gang warfare was a common thing to happen in
America as gangs where in most cities. An example of gang warfare was the
St. Valentine’s Day massacre on the 14th February 1929 where 3 members of
Al Capone’s gang “The Outfit” shot and killed 7 members of the Bugs Moran
Gang. This is a consequence because prohibition banned alcohol over a
certain volume and this caused competition in gangs to earn money, then
leading to violence.
How useful is Source M for studying reasons why the USA did
not join the League of Nations in 1919? Use source M and your
own knowledge to explain your answer. (10marks)
Response A
Source M is quite useful to show the attitudes of Americans in 1919
towards USA joining the League of Nations because it says/shows that
the Republicans do not wan to join the LofN, also it says it will destroy
the USA by getting involved in other problems. It is also useful
because it is wrote in the 1919 when it was happening, also because
the person who wrote this was a person who wrote this was a person
of the government.
Secondly it has limits because Wilson was the President at the time
and he was a Deomcrat and he was opposite to a lot of people also he
was on both sides of the argument so he couldn’t choose, and there
was a vote soon so he could choose to be in and then there would be a
knew president who didn’t want to be in it. Also this was a speech and
was his opinion so it isn’t facts it just one persons opinion.
Mark Scheme – 10 marks
• Level 1 – uses the source to make comments
about joining the League (1-2)
• Level 2 – gives some simple explanations (3-4)
• Level 3 – Looks at the uses or limits using their
own knowledge or information from the
source (5-7)
• Level 4 – Looks at uses or limits of the source
using the source and their own knowledge (810)
Response A
Source M is quite useful to show the attitudes of Americans in 1919
towards USA joining the League of Nations because it says/shows that
the Republicans do not want to join the LofN, also it says it will destroy
the USA by getting involved in other problems. It is also useful
because it is wrote in the 1919 when it was happening, also because
the person who wrote this was a person who wrote this was a person
of the government.
Secondly it has limits because Wilson was the President at the time
and he was a Democrat and he was opposite to a lot of people also he
was on both sides of the argument so he couldn’t choose, and there
was a vote soon so he could choose to be in and then there would be a
knew president who didn’t want to be in it. Also this was a speech and
was his opinion so it isn’t facts it just one persons opinion.

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