Unit II: Aboriginal Spirituality Part 2 • • • • • P. 35 – 49 Animism All things have spirits or souls Spirits return to the world after death All believe in a supreme Creator, but also in other personified spirits who guide human activity. Black Elk 1863 p. 35 • Sioux holy man • Great Plains • “We are all related and are one with all things of the heavens and the earth.” Native Rituals p.39 -40 • Morning Dance • Ojibwa • Dance pays homage to the “Tree of the Universe” • Fasting, ritual cleansing • Dance from dawn to noon around the tree • • • • The Sun Dance Great Plains Nations festival Cdn gov banned it in 1880 Cottonwood pole represents the “Tree of the Universe” • They endure pain as a sacrifice for their people to the Creator • Image Links • The Potlatch Ceremony • Northwest Pacific Coast nations • Cdn gov made it illegal in 1884 (lifted in 1954) • Feasting, distributing wealth, and sharing songs. • Image Links • Sweat Lodge p. 40 • Dome made of saplings covered with animal skins • Intense heat and steam perform a physical and spiritual cleansing. • Prayers and a sacred pipe are shared under direction of a Shaman. • Image Links • The Shaking Tent • From Subarctic to the Great Lakes • Wooden hoop around four to eight poles, a cylinder, wrapped in birch bark or animal hides. • The Shaman, a medicine man, enters the tent and asks the spirits for help. • Image Links Symbols and Icons: The Tree of Peace 1. What did the Peacemaker tell the Iroquois to do when the gathered by the Great Tree (the white pine?) P. 41 • “offer thanks to the earth, to the streams, maize and fruit, medicinal herbs and trees, to animals for pelts and clothes, to the messengers of the Creator who reveal his wishes and to the Great Creator, ruler of health and life.” • 2. What roles do trees play in other religions? P. 41 • Tree of Good and Evil , see Genesis 2:15 • Tree of Eternal Life see Genesis 2:8-9 • Yggdrasil Norse world tree • Sacred groves for Germanic tribes Faithkeepers • What is the role of Faithkeepers in the Iroquois nation? P. 42 • “They preserve and pass on the spiritual belief system by conducting ritual ceremonies.” • Usually one man and one woman Dorothy Green: Faithkeeper • 1. How did Dorothy Green fulfill her role as a Faithkeeper? P. 42 • “Attended ceremonies, sang songs, danced the dances” Vision Quest • Definition: p. 43 • A rite of passage to adulthood common to most aboriginal religions. • What is the purpose of the Vision Quest? • “They seek a message from a guardian spirit in animal or other form, after a period of fasting and prayer.” • Are there other religions that have rituals similar to Vision Quests? • Video Clip, “The idea of a Walkabout.” • Video clips about Vision Quests. Lame Deer’s Vision • Read about the Sioux medicine man Lame Deer’s vision. P. 44 • 1. What is the purpose of ritual purification before a spiritual quest? • “To prepare the soul to receive the vision.” • 2. Why does a Shaman or elder act as a guide? • “They have gone through the ritual and understand it.” • Lame Deer: Seeker of Visions at Amazon.com Oral Teachings • 1. How are prayers and stories passed on to the next generations? P. 45 • Oral Traditions • Elders and Shamans memorize stories and songs and pass them on to the next generation. (Like Homer’s Iliad and Oddyssey) Handsome Lake p. 45, 46 • 1. The “Good Message” of Handsome Lake. A.C. Parker’s transcription of a holder (faithkeeper) reciting the message of Handsome Lake. Film Preview. • P.46 What are the two main themes of the Good Message (or Gaiwiio)? • “You must change your ways or face disaster.” • “Those who are wicked will end up in the House of the Punisher, a brother of the Creator Sour Springs Longhouse • The concept of duality. P. 47 • Two main clan groupings: The Turtle and the Wolf. Elders • 1. What is the definition of ‘elder’ in the aboriginal community? P. 48 • 2. What is the role of elders in the aboriginal community? The False Face Society • 1. Who are they? P. 49 • “Iroquois medicine men knowledgeable in herbs and ritual prayers.” • 2. Why do members wear masks with broken noses? • “The Creator caused the Great False Face to break his nose after a contest.” • The story of False Face. Read on p. 49 • False Face Images.