: what’s all the buzz about? http://nosql-database.org/ Next generation databases are: • Non-relational, • Distributed, • Open-source, • Horizontal scalable Often more characteristics: Schema-free, easy replication support, simple API, eventually consistent / BASE (not ACID), a huge data amount List of NoSQL databases [122+] • Wide Column Store / Column Families HBase, Cassandra, Hypertable, Cloudata, Cloudera, Amazon SimpleDB • Document Stores CouchDB, MongoDB, Terrastore, ThruDB, OrientDB, RavenDB, Citrusleaf, SisoDB • Key Value / Tuple Store Azure Table Storage, MEMBASE, Riak, Redis, Chordless, GenieDB, Scalaris, Tokyo Cabinet / Tyrant, Keyspace Berkeley DB, MemcacheDB, Faircom C-Tree, Mnesia, LightCloud, Hibari, HamsterDB, STSdb, Pincaster, RaptorDB • Eventually Consistent Key Value Stores Amazon Dynamo, Voldemort, Dynomite, KAI • Graph Databases Neo4J, Infinite Graph, Sones, InfoGrid, HyperGraphDB, Trinity, AllegroGraph, Bigdata, DEX, OpenLink, Virtuoso, VertexDB, FlockDB • Object Databases db4o, Versant, Objectivity, Gemstone, Progress, Starcounter, Perst, Caching, ZODB, NEO, PicoLisp, Sterling • More and more databases So what’s wrong with relational databases? Main principals of RDBMS • SQL • ACID • Atomic “all or nothing” • Consistent means that data moves from one correct state to another correct state, with no possibility that readers could view different values that don’t make sense together. • Isolated means that transactions executing concurrently will not become entangled with each other. • Durable once a transaction has succeeded, the changes will not be lost. Shortcomings of RDBMS • Transactions under heavy load • Complexities of vertical scaling • 2 phase commit (2PC) protocol Sharding If you can’t split it, you can’t scale it (Randy Shoup, distinguished architect, eBay) • Sharging approach • Feature-based shard or functional segmentation • Key-based sharding • Lookup table • Shared-nothing or Cassandra like sharding The real question is not “What’s wrong with relational databases?” but rather, “What problem do you have?” Brewer’s CAP Theorem Availability Consistency Partition Tolerance Brewer’s CAP Theorem Availability Relational: MySQL, Oracle, MSSQL Amazon Dynamo derivatives: Cassandra, Voldemort, Riak, CouchDB Partition Tolerance Consistency Neo4j, Google Big Table and its derivatives: MongoDB, Redis, Hypertable in 50 words or less Apache Cassandra is an open source, distributed, decentralized, elastically scalable, highly available, fault-tolerant, tuneably consistent, column-oriented database that bases its distribution design on Amazon’s Dynamo and its data model on Google’s Bigtable. Created at Facebook, it is now used at some of the most popular sites on the Web. Cassandra case studies Cassandra outlines • BASE (Basically Available Soft-state Eventual consistency) and not ACID (Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, Durability) • Distributed and decentralized • Elastic scalability • High availability and fault tolerance • Tunable consistency Use cases for Cassandra • • • • Large deployments Lots of writes, statistics and analysis Geographical distribution Evolving applications Writes Memtable Commit log Write Threshold SSTable SSTable • • • • • • • • No reads No seeks Fast Sequential disk access Atomic within a column family Any node Always writable (hinted hand-off) ≈ 0.2 ms Reads Memtable Read Bf Idx SSTable Bf Idx SSTable • Bloomfilter field to determine whether a provided key is in the SSTable • Index field for quick read • Any node • Read repair • ≈ 15 ms The tenets of column-oriented model • Keyspace Outer container, that contains column families (is sort of like a relational database) • Column Family Logical division that associates similar data (very roughly analogous to tables in the relational world) • Column Name/value pair (and a client-supplied timestamp of when it was last updated) • Super Column Family Container for super columns sorted by their names • Super Column Structure with name and set of dependent columns Column Family\Column Column A name value pair (contains also a time-stamp for conflict resolution on the server side) column name : byte column value : byte + timestamp : long Column Family A container for columns sorted by their names. Column Families are referenced and sorted by row keys. row key column name 1 column name n column value 1 column value n Super Column Family\Super Column Super Column A sorted associative array of columns. super column name column name 1 column name n column value 1 column value n Super Column Family A container for super columns sorted by their names. Like Column Families, Super Column Families are referenced and sorted by row keys. super column name 1 row key super column name m column name 1 column name n1 column name 1 column name nm column value 1 column value n1 column value 1 column value nm Addressing Column Family row key column name 1 column name n column value 1 column value n • Four-dimensional hash • [Keyspace][ColumnFamily][Key][Column] Addressing Super Column Family super column name 1 row key super column name m column name 1 column name n1 column name 1 column name nm column value 1 column value n1 column value 1 column value nm • Five-dimensional hash • [Keyspace][ColumnFamily][Key][SuperColumn][SubColumn] Cassandra client options Thrift (12 different languages) Avro (data serialization system) Java: Hector: http://github.com/rantav/hector (abstraction over thrift) Pelops: http://github.com/s7/scale7-pelops (abstraction over thrift) CQL: JDBC driver for Cassandra version starting from 0.8 (SQL like language) Hector JPA: https://github.com/riptano/hector-jpa (ORM client) Cassandrelle: http://demoiselle.sf.net/component/demoiselle-cassandra/ (documentation ???) Kundera: http://code.google.com/p/kundera/ (buggy ???) Python: Pycassa, Telephus Grails: grails-cassandra .NET: Aquiles, FluentCassandra Ruby: Cassandra PHP: phpcassa, SimpleCassie Cassandra\RDBMS query differences • • • • No update query Record-level atomicity on writes No duplicate keys Basic write properties: consistency level (ZERO, ANY, ONE, QUORUM, ALL) • Basic read properties: consistency level (ONE, QUORUM, ALL) Integrating Hadoop (http://hadoop.apache.org) is a set of open source projects that deal with large amounts of data in a distributed way. • Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS): a distributed file system that provides high-throughput access to application data. • Hadoop MapReduce: a software framework for distributed processing of large data sets on compute clusters. Other Hadoop-related projects at Apache include: • Cassandra™: a scalable multi-master database with no single points of failure. • Hive™: a data warehouse infrastructure that provides data summarization and ad hoc querying. • Mahout™: a Scalable machine learning and data mining library. • Pig™: a high-level data-flow language and execution framework for parallel computation. The end Questions?