Fighting Corruption in Afghanistan

Fighting Corruption in Afghanistan
By: Ahmad Hasib Farhan
Public Policy Program (MP1)
Affiliation: Sanayee Development
22 July 2011
Policy Design and Implementation
in Developing Countries
Contents of the Presentation
What is Corruption? Corruption in Afghanistan
 What does corruption mean to Afghans? Forms of corruption
in Afghanistan
 The Consequences of corruption from UN Convention’s
 The Consequences of corruption in Afghanistan
 Effects of Corruption on Aid management in Afghanistan
 Causes of Corruption in Afghanistan
 Afghan Government Anti Corruption Strategy
 Recommendations /Reform Plan
Fighting Corruption in
 Conclusion
What is corruption?
UNDP Anti–corruption papers “The misuse of the public
power ,office or authority for the private benefit-through
bribery ,extortion ,influence peddling, nepotism, fraud, speed
money or embezzlement”
(USAID) corruption defines a “the misuse of public office for
private gain .it encompasses abuses by government officials
such as embezzlement and nepotism, as well as abuses linking
public and private actors such as bribery, extortion, influence
peddling, and fraud”
World Bank provided a short and concise definition for the
corruption “The abuse of public office for private gain”
Corruption in Afghanistan
Corruption is largely the result of decades of war and instability
that damaged the government institutions, lack of a check and
balance system and the growth of the informal economy
“According to the transparency international 2009 CPI index
Afghanistan ranked to be a second the most corrupted country
after Somalia among 180 countries of the world”
(UNODC Jan, 2010) reported that “afghan paid 2.5 billion
dollars in bribe in over the last 12 months which is equal to
almost one quarter of legitimate GDP” a survey conducted over
7600 Afghans.
More than 60% of the afghan population are more concerned
about the corruption in the government system then insecurity
and unemployment
What does corruption means to Afghans?
UNODC 2010 Report: Population considering
different issues as most important problems in
UNODC 2010 : Percentage of population who paid
at least one bribe during the last 12 months by type
of public official requesting the bribe
UNODC 2010: Percentage of adult population
who paid at least one bribe to a public official
during the last 12 months, by region
Forms of the corruption in Afghanistan
Three General Types of Corruption in Afghanistan
1.Afghan Corruption
2.Foreign Corruption
3.Mixed, Afghan and Foreign Corruption (Most Dangerous)
Other types : Nepotism, influencing actions to gain personal
benefits ,corruption in public procurement ,illegal use of
government income ,not paying taxes ,money laundering ,theft
of the public properties, extortion ,cultivation and production of
opium, corruption in the delivery of the international aid…etc.
The Consequences of Administrative Corruption
from the UN Convention’s Viewpoint
Administrative corruption is a serious problem which creates
severe risks:
the security and stability of society weaker.
Destabilizes administrative structures and values of democracy
Harms ethical and social values.
Slows the economic growth of country
Disorders justice and governance of law
The Consequences of corruption in Afghanistan:
Government legitimacy and credibility has weakened
Mistrust between donors and Afghan government
Increased insecurity and instability
Influence of Taliban or Talibanization specially in rural areas
Low quality of services of GOA
Decrease in domestic revenues
large scale of drug production and trafficking
Effects of Corruption on Aid management in
Continued…UNODC 2010 Report: Summary
computation procedure of annual amount of
bribes paid
Link between terrorism, opium business,
corruption and instability
Causes of the corruption in Afghanistan
Insecurity/ instability
 Low wages
 Institutional capacity
 Discretionary/Complex procurement procedure
 Lack of the transparency /accountability
 Bureaucracy
 Informal economy (Drug trafficking)
Afghan Government Anti Corruption Strategy
The GOA signed United Nations Convention against
Administrative Corruption on 20 February 2004
 The GOA established a commission Under the leadership of
the Chief Justice and Chief of the Supreme Court of the
Islamic Republic of Afghanistan and with participation of
 Attorney General,
 Minister of Justice,
 Chief members of the Justice Commission,
 Administrative Reformers
 and the Commission of Parliamentary struggle against
Corruption and Senate Complaints Commission,
The Commission was assigned to codify strategy and
procedure of the administrative reform and struggle against
administrative corruption by using long term; mid-term and
short term practical planning. The commission will report the
results to the authorities of the Islamic Republic of
The General Department of Administrative affairs and the
Secretariat of the Ministers council have the responsibility of
being Secretariat of the Commission, independent ministers
and chiefs of the administrations are obliged to lend
multilateral cooperation with the mentioned commission.
High Office for Oversight and Anti-corruption
President Karzai in July 2008, issued a Decree establishing a
High Office for Oversight and Anti-corruption (HOOAC)
The creation of this Office has fulfilled the requirement of
Article 6 of the UN Convention against Corruption.
The High Office of Oversight and Anti-corruption (HOOAC)
is the highest office for the coordination and monitoring of the
implementation of the Anti-Corruption Strategy and for the
implementation of administrative procedural reform in the
The HOOAC is an independent commission which reports
directly to the President.
Organizational Structure of the HOOAC
Elements of Anti Corruption Strategy of
Recommendations /Reform Plan Fighting
Corruption in Afghanistan
A strong governmental and political commitment needed in
order to reduce the level of corruption in Afghanistan
The ongoing reform process should be enhanced, improved and
The international community should support the afghan
government to implement the Afghanistan National
development strategy (ANDS) particularly the current anticorruption strategy and follow up the progress the corruption in
The current high office of oversight and anti corruption
(HOOAC) should be strengthening in terms of leadership,
Management, Technology and independency.
All the government top officials should declare their asset
publically according the constitution of Afghanistan.
Afghan government needs to build the capacity of tax
administration by enhancing the physical, human, and
technological capacities for the efficient collection of the tax
 An independent external audit body should be established to
conduct the audit of the government institutions.
 Government should provide needed skills to its employees on
the government role and regulations particularly procurement
Law enforcement has to be enhanced; major reform
should take place in the security and justice sectors which
are the most vulnerable to corruption.
Corruption has slow down the ongoing reconstruction process , it
increased Insecurity and poverty. Moreover aid from
international community has been misused.
Now it’s time for actions, government of Afghanistan with the
help of international community should take an immediate step
with action to combat corruption within the government system.
Identify the causes of the corruption, detects the corrupt practices
and prosecute the corrupt individuals.

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