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園藝分享, Home Gardening
• 我們的過程, 經驗
• 什麼時候種什麼菜, 果樹
• 肥料
• 堆肥 home composting
• 菜蟲的問題
• 果樹病蟲害的防治
• 果樹何時接枝
• 果樹何時剪枝
• East Bay garden club
Yola and Ming, 2014 Garden talk
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Gardening
• Books in the Library
• Internet
• Garden Clubs…..
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How did we start……In the beginning
Back Yard (original), no fruit tree, no veg garden
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Reengineer 改造
• 除掉不要,不好的樹, 改種果樹
– 開花結果, 好看又有得吃
• 草坪除掉,搬移及重舖小石頭, 加各式各樣園蒲,
– 沒草坪, 省水, 不必割草, 也不難看
– 小石頭加踏石塊, 可隨意搬動, 變樣
– 種各式各樣菜, 花; 有新鮮疏菜吃
• 落葉, 樹枝, 放 在樹下
– 雜草不生, 又是肥料 (dry compost)
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Statistics
• 26果樹
7 grape, 4 orange, 3 kumquat, 3 cherry, 3 pear, apricot, apple,
nectarine, jujube, pomegranate, plum, grapefruit,
goji berry bushes
(早知道該種別的品種, 學用接枝來改造)
• Vegetables
• 15 Trees
3 redwood 紅木, 2 spruce pines 松 , 3 cypress 柏, 大樹, 3 Wax Leaf Ligustrum plants,
holly bamboo,..
• Flowers …
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什麼時候種什麼
果樹 : 裸根樹苗 (bare root trees), 1~3 月
盆栽樹苗 (container trees), 任何時間, 最好在春天.
大小, 地方, 品種….
菜 (買的菜籽説明書, 菜苗)
•三, 四月: 芥蘭, 青岡菜, 油菜, 香菜, 雪裡紅, 芝麻菜 (Arugula),茴香
•四,五八, 九月:小芥菜, 青椒 (bell peppers ), 秋葵 (okra), 四季豆, 菜豆, 黃瓜
(Cucumber), 意大利瓜(Zucchini), 蕃薯葉, 甜菜(beets) ,蕃茄, 莧菜;
冬瓜 , 金瓜 (Kabocha), 菜瓜(Loofah), 葫瓜, sweet basil, 紫蘇, kale,
•八, 九, 十 月(過冬): 豌豆, 芥蘭, 青岡菜; 油菜, 香菜, 大蒜(leeks), white and
red Swiss chards,芹菜, 蠶豆(Fava Bean), 茴香, lettuce
•冬季 雨水到, 韮菜復生
•四季: 生菜(lettuce), 綠蔥.
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1.5’ 直徑
種菜地方不需大
1.5’ x 3 ‘
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陽光,
空氣,
水, 土壤
土壤裏必須有水和各種無機化學離子
:NH4+, NO3-, HPO42- , PO43- , SO42- ,
Mg2+
,
K+, Ca2+ …等植物才能成長,
這些離子經透析由水分佈到枝葉果實
.植物只認得水和離子含量的多少,
認不出來源是有機肥料或化學合成肥
料. 因此, 有機肥料和化學合成肥
料在土壤裏都必須轉化成這些無機化
學離子, 才能成為植物的營養素.
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肥料
• 氮(N, Nitrogen):
葉肥; 負責光合作用的葉綠素主要成份 .
足夠則葉光澤嫩綠, 不足則黃綠不長, 容易開花.
• 磷(P, Phosphorous):
增長開花結果;
足夠則花美, 水果豐盛,種子飽滿; 不足則成長不良, 葉莖呈現紫色.
• 鉀(K, Potassium):
根莖肥, 促進植物抗病及適應天氣變化, 以及從土壤
吸收營養素.
• 微量營養素: 鈣(Ca, Calicium), 鎂(Mg, Magnesium), 硫(S, Sulfur),
硼(B, Boron), 鋅(Zn, Zinc), 錳(Mn, Manganese ), 鐵(Fe, Iron), 銅(Cu,
Copper), 鉬(Mo, Molybdenum ), 氯(Cl, Chlorine).
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包裝肥料都標有三個數字
依次是氮(N), 磷(P), 鉀(K)的含量.
• 常用氮肥 (lawn fertilizer): 32-0-4 含32%氮,0%磷,4%鉀;
有些含10%亞甲基尿素(Methyleneurea,slow release), 7%
硫, 2%鐵
•一般肥料16-16-16: 含16%氮16%磷16%鉀;有些還含1%
鈣, 其中氮是3.66%聚合物包膜尿素(control release).
•肥料標有同樣的三個數字不一定有同樣的成份, 必須仔
細讀肥料的標籤.
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•青葉菜 主要用氮肥和微量磷肥, 鉀肥
•果樹 :用一般肥料 (16-16-16)或特別的花果肥
• 開花結果: 蕃茄,青椒,…
開始用氮肥促進成長, 開花時用一般肥料,
結果時如有底部萎爛的現象, 因為缺少鈣和鎂 . 加少量石膏粉 (Gypsum,
CaSO4 .2H2O)或瀉鹽(硫酸鎂, Mg SO4 ).
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堆肥 Earthworm composting
改良土壤
• water, damp not flood
• food
• air
• dark
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Black Soldier Fly Larvae (BSFL)
• BSFL found in compose
• Benefits (non-pest):
– BSF prevent houseflies from
laying eggs
– BSFL convert wastes to
nutrients
– BSF (5-8 days life) stay away
from humans, don't eat and
no sting or venom, so really
have no way of harming
humans
• Not housefly (> 30 day life)
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菜蟲的問題
無殼蝸牛(Slug),
綠蝴蝶幼蟲,
蠼螋(Earwig),
龜蟲(Harlequin Bug),
瓜蟲(Squash bug),
Aphids
觀察和捕捉是我們保護蔬菜的方法.
• 帶 双 ,多層手套
• 抓蝴蝶幼蟲
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Slug, Earwig, life cycle
•
•
•
•
•
Active in dark night
1  30, 50, 100
1% ammonia spray (dilute ammonia cleaning solution)
hide in cracks in damp areas. live under rocks and logs
Find the source, kill the eggs
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果樹病蟲害的防治
桃葉捲曲病(Peach Curl).
梨和蘋果的火燒病(Fire Blight).
梨和蘋果的蛀蟲(Moth Codling).
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果樹病蟲害的防治
• 購買抗病的品種.
• UC Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program,
(IPM).
• 美國國家農業部(USDA)有機計劃(NOP)核准的可用與
禁止的物質名單(USDA National Organic Program,
Subpart G. The National List of Allowed and Prohibited
Substances). 名單列有包括化學合成及非合成的物質
使用規定.
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使用殺蟲劑及噴灑器材的安全措施
仔細讀說明書,遵照說明書使用和清潔處理.
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桃葉捲曲病(Peach Curl), 黴菌引起
1. 冬眠的時候 (12月到花開前噴兩,三次)
2. 有機農藥都是銅的化合物
• 硫酸銅銨的錯鹽:Kop R Spray Concentrate [Lilly Miller
brands] and Liqui-Cop [Monterey Lawn and Garden], 易被雨
水沖洗
• 銅肥皂液:Copper soap (10%copper octanoate).
只含1.8%銅, 效率低.
• 波爾多混合液(Bordeaux Mixture)不被雨水沖洗, 最有效.
必須用硫酸銅[CuSO4]和熟石灰(Hydrated lime),自己配製.
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梨和蘋果的火燒病(Fire Blight)細菌引起
1.
花盛開引來蜜蜂及其他昆蟲帶細菌入侵梨
和蘋果的花,嫩枝, 水果.
2. 沿樹皮內側輸水管往樹幹甚至到根
向下傳染, 一天可傳染二,三呎.
3. 措施: 經常觀察
•
用10%漂白劑消毒過的剪子或鋸子割掉一呎半.
•
接枝抗病品種的樹枝.
•
每星期噴銅的有機農藥 (看說明書), 直到花謝.
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梨和蘋果的火燒病(Fire Blight)
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梨和蘋果的火燒病(Fire Blight)
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梨和蘋果的蛀蟲, Moth Codling
1.
蠹蛾(Coldling Moth)的幼蟲是禍首.
2.
每年有三代. UC cooperative Extension利用網路
提供州民蠹蛾出現以及幼蟲孵出的大約時間.
3.
防治的方法有
•
包裹水果(Lunch Bag)
•
用賀爾蒙黏著劑或陷阱捕捉蠹蛾
•
利用UC cooperative Extension Biofix Day & accumlated Degree-Day[DD])噴
灑有機農藥, 將農藥的使用降到最低.
•
噴灑有機農藥, 窄幅油(Narrow Range Oils), 窒息破壞蠹蛾的卵.效果低.
•
賜諾殺(Spinosad) (Monterey Garden Insect Spray or Green Light Spinosad
Lawn & Garden Spray , Bonide Captain Jack‘s Deadbug Brew®)供家居的果
園用, 殺蠹蛾的幼蟲.效果長而且好.
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噴灑有機農藥的時間
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果樹何時接枝
1. 一月底到二月花開前接枝.
2. Ever green, anytime
3. 同種類才能接枝.
4. 嫩枝(Scion)和母枝(Rootstock)的形成層
(Cambium)要緊接著 用膠布或Parafilm
Tape 包裹接枝點.
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Whip and Tongue Grafting
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Bark or Stab Grafting
用膠帶
包好
切或刮新枝(Scion)的表皮讓它
的形成層(cambium)與母枝表皮
(Bark)的形成層緊密接觸
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果樹何時剪枝
1. 剪枝讓陽光照入與空氣流通, 促進生長結果. 控制高度
才容易採收與放網避免鳥和松鼠侵害.
2. 一般在冬眠剪枝 或採完水果後剪枝 .
3. 已成長的櫻桃 和橘樹不必修剪.可以修邊.
4. 杏子(Apricot)必須採完水果後剪, 不能在冬眠剪避開
disease eutypa dieback.
5. Peach, nectarine, grape, & kiwi bear on last year's
shoot growth and they grow a lot, so remove at least
50% of last years’ growth.
6. Persimmon, apple, pear, plum, plumcot, and apricot
which bear on spurs or less vigorous shoots, remove
about 20% of last years’ grow.
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East Bay Garden club
* 3 ~10月 每月一家主持.
* Potluck 每家帶一份餐食.
* 參觀和說明家園的蔬菜水果.
* 特別園藝討論.
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Enjoy Gardening
• Seeds
•
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