Safety Culture and Behavioral Safety

Report
Safety Culture and Behavioral Safety
Two Approaches & One Outcome
Safety excellence
Chris Goulart MS, CSP, ARM, CDT, CSHM
Director of Consulting Services RCI Safety
Session Guidelines…
 Don’t bother to take copious notes…
 Ask questions, but don’t develop
extreme problems
 Feel free to stick around afterwards if
you want further clarification or
discussion
 This talk WILL challenge a number of
commonly held beliefs about workplace
safety
Session Objectives
 Discuss the concepts of Safety Culture
and Behavioral Safety
 Identify the Similarities and Differences
 Review a methodology that combines the
both approaches
 Cover how you can maximize the
effectiveness of both and how they
compliment one another
If you REALLY want to
IMPROVE SAFETY
You first have to understand the
fundamental motivation that is
required for persons to work
safely………………..
and then work to change it!!!!!!!!!!!!
Do you know what Safety Culture Means?
1. Yes
25%
25%
25%
2
3
25%
2. Somewhat
3. Not Really
4. I have NO IDEA
1
4
The Term Safety Culture
 Used over and over and over
(47,000,000
Google Hits up from 23,000,000 only a year ago)
 Not well understood by many in the field
of safety…
 Generally used to describe an overall
sense of they way safety feels to
employees, supervisors, and managers
 How do you know if you have a good
safety culture or not?
6
Safety Culture
 Shared assumptions of safety in the
workplace that drive motivation and behaviors
based on values, traditions, and history
 Clearly a leading indicator and the one most
closely linked with outcome performance (The
relationship between employees’ perceptions of safety and organizational culture Michael
O’Toole) (Journal of Safety Research 2002 #33 231-243) (Also, Petersen, 2001, Krause,
2004, and Cooper, 2009)
 What employees do when no one is
watching…(Schien)
Safety Culture
 Management Driven
 Set in motion by the founders of the
organization
 Is very self sustaining and self reinforcing
 Not really separate from Organizational
Culture (Constituent Component)
 Influenced by both local and industry cultural
norms
Common (false)Perceptions of Safety Culture
 Uncontrollable and driven by employees
with no outside influence
 Set by Management
 Safety processes like Behavioral Safety
will immediately improve the culture
 Culture can’t be controlled or changed,
it just is…
9
How would you describe your
Safety Culture
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Animal House
Weak
Lagging
Solid
Above Average
World Class
17%
1
17%
17%
17%
2
3
4
17%
5
17%
6
How is Safety Culture Usually Evaluated?
 Safety Surveys
 Safety Cultural Interviews
 Behavioral and Situational
Observation
 Each of these evaluates a
slightly different manifestation
of safety culture (perception,
beliefs, and actions)
11
Safety Culture Surveys
 Result in immediate quantification of the
Safety Culture
 Creates a Baseline
 Allows for the evaluation against other
related organizations
 The Survey Itself immediately begins to
engage employees (They Become Part
of the Solution)
How to Administer Surveys
 Offer to all
Employees
 Ensure
Confidentiality
 Make Sure to
have a Plan to
Act on the
Results
Safety Culture Interviews
 Validates the data from the survey
 Allows for the determination of primary
and secondary causal factors
 Facilitates the gathering of more robust
and worthwhile information…
 Can be done using focus groups
 Facilitated internally or externally…
Safety Culture Observations
 Allows for validation or refuting of
findings from surveys and interviews
 Helps to illustrate how Safety Cultural
Norms are applied
 Allows for evaluation of importance of
behaviors driven by the culture
 NOT THE SAME AS BEHAVIOR
BASED SAFETY!!!
What are the MOST Important Elements
of a Strong Safety Culture? (pick-2)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Leadership Ownership
Employee Engagement
Industry Standards
Solid Written Formal Programs
A Professional Safety Department
Well delineated Safety
Communication
A Culture Where Reporting is
Paramount and Blame is
Minimized
A model where production
demands are balanced with
safety, quality, and environmental
12%
12%
1
2
12%
12%
12%
12%
3
4
5
6
12%
12%
7
8
What are some indicators of a Strong Safety Culture?
 Management that Consistently Sets
the Example
 An Organization that is Willing to Ask
and Answer Hard Questions
 An Empowered Workforce that is able
to Make Meaningful Contributions to
the Safety Process
17
Strong Safety Cultural Indicators Continued…
 Regular Formal and
Informal
Discussions
Relating to Safety
 High-Functioning
Safety Committees
 Well Written Safety
Mission and Values
Statements
 A Professional
Safety Department
18
Strong Cultural Characteristics Continued…
 A Process of Self
Auditing, Risk
Assessment, or
Formalized Hazard
Identification
 Presence of a Plan for
Mergers, Acquisitions,
and Sale of Business
Units
 Linkage of Safety to all
Levels of the Business
19
Weak Cultural Characteristics
 Using only lagging
indicators to measure
performance





These measure failure rates
They manage safety by looking at
what has happened not what will
happen
May encourage injury hiding
Recordability or Severity is
influenced by many factors AFTER
the event
If you want to make positive
change be like a coach, they don’t
watch the scoreboard, they watch
the action on the field
20
Weak Characteristics cont…
 Use of Punishment
 Punishment
does not reinforce
anything
 Punishment becomes part of a
repeating cycle
 Has the use of punishment ever
inspired anyone?
 Stopping unsafe behaviors does
not mean the desired behavior will
immediately begin
21
Accountability vs Punishment
 Punishment can become an organizational
value
 Punishment is needed under certain
circumstances… however, it will only generate
malicious compliance (at best)
 Balance is KEY!
Weak Characteristics cont…
 Poor Incentive Programs
outcomes not the process
 Too much safety training
 Accident Investigations that
result in causal factors like
“wasn’t paying attention,
needs to be more careful”
copyright 2006 free template from
brainybetty.com
 A vigilant focus on the
23
Based on Our Experience
 Many Organizations Struggle with
Culture’s of Blame
 Production vs. Safety is one of the
Lowest Cultural Characteristics for most
Organizations
 Employee Engagement is Usually High
 Leadership May/or May Not, have gaps
in perceptions
Is Safety Culture the Same thing as Behavior?
 No, but the
interrelatedness is
undeniable
 The culture of the
workplace obviously
drives the organization's
behavior and influences
the individual employee’s
behavior
 Research shows that
behavior also influences
culture….
Culture
25
WHAT ABOUT CULTURE VERSUS BEHAVIOR?
 It is important to measure the culture
so you know what characteristics exist
 A Behavioral Safety Process can
enhance certain aspects of the culture
 A Behavioral Safety Process is more
likely to be successful if the Safety
Cultural opportunities/strengths are
known
26
Do You Have or Use a Behavior
Based Safety Program?
25%
1. In the Past, but not Presently
25%
2. Not Now and Not Ever
25%
3. Currently, but it isn’t working well
25%
4. Yes and it’s the BOMB!!
Behavioral Safety
 Founded on the principles of Operant
Conditioning.
 It is known that Reinforcement is the best way
to manage behavior.
 Positive Reinforcement has been shown to
be most effective.
Understanding Behavior in the Workplace
 What is it that causes
employees to exhibit certain
behaviors?
 What is it within the systems
of the workplace that lead to
employee behaviors?
 Can we understand the
systems of the workplace
better?
 Unsafe behavior by
employees is a symptom of
poorly defined and
understood workplace
systems, not the fault of the
individual.
Whose idea of a trench safety system is this???
A
Antecedent
B
Behavior
C
Consequence
ANTECEDENTS
 Occur before
behavior
 Communicate
expectations
 Provide
instructions
 Cue behavior
Two types of antecendents
Natural
 Beyond
an external locus of control
 Occur as a result of environmental events
 Adaptive and governed by our systems
Deliberate
 Artificial
 Intended
to control or influence behavior
 Often unsolicited
Antecedents in the workplace
not a strong influence behavior ~ 20%
have short term effects
work best when paired with consequences
are overused (ex: train and re-train)
Some examples of antecedents
You Can Say That Again
Are You Thinkin’ What I’m Thinkin’?
For the Dyslexic
Brought to you by PETA (People for the
eating of tasty animals)
Better Advice!!!
See how much they care
Don’t drink and write signs
WHAT???????
BEHAVIOR
Desirable Behavior
 job
behavior which meets expectations and
requirements
 complies with all safety rules all of the time
Undesirable Behavior
 job
behavior which does not meet
expectations and requirements
 fail to comply with all safety rules
Consequences
CONSEQUENCES
 Are either Positive or Negative for the
behaviors
 Predict the probability of future behavior
 Occur after the behavior
 Are too powerful to be left to chance
 Not used often enough
The Role of Consequences
Consequence Exercise
SPEEDING
Analyze this Event Based on Consequences
Learned History = Habit =
Behavior
Antecedent
Behavior
Consequence
A
B
C
Learned History
(Habit)
What is a Habit…
 How does it
work for us in
Safety?
 How does it
work against
us?
What Comes First… Culture or Behavior
 Organizational (Safety) Culture drives
behavior ….
 Behaviors, over time, can influence culture
and become normative
 The relationship is organic and formative in
both directions
How are Safe Behavior and Safety
Culture Related
 As mentioned earlier, they are
clearly interrelated…
 Cultural Norms drive behaviors
 Behaviors can influence culture
and become normative
 Both aspects of safety require
effort to improve
 Behaviors can typically change
more quickly but are sustained
by culture
Combining Both
Creates a Behaviorally Driven Culture that
focuses on accomplishment…
What are the elements of a traditional
Safety Culture?
 Typically focused on the person
 Motivation by avoidance
 Based on rules and regulations
 Failure oriented
 Management owned and driven
 Generally looks for unsafe acts to
punish
 People work safely because they
have to…
An Example of Why “Traditional”
Safety is Not Optimal
http://www.cnn.com/2012/03/14/travel/faanonpunitive-reporting/
FAA says new 'safety
culture' will stress
solutions, not blame
OSHA Letter of Interpretation
 Safety Accountability
 Safety Incentives
REMOVE THE CULTURE OF BLAME!
The elements of a Behavioral Safety Culture are…
 Focusing on behavior as a leading indicator
 Paying attention to the workplace as a system
 Not blaming the individual
 Making improvements through the use of
positive feedback
 Creating an ongoing safety system that is
owned by management and driven to success
by employees
 Carefully managing data to yield positive
results
In a Behavioral Safety Culture
 Focuses on accomplishment
 Success oriented
 People work safely
because they want to
 Becomes self sustaining and
continuously improving
 Is truly doing something
different
 It WILL happen to someone
Maximizing the Potential
 Combine a Cultural Approach with a
Behavioral Approach
 Conduct
a safety cultural evaluation
(survey, observations, interviews)
 Identify Strengths and Gaps
 Build a Behavioral Safety Process that
capitalizes on Strengths and Fills Gaps
 Re-Evaluate the Culture
What Kind of Results can be Expected
 Literature supports a 25% reduction in injuries
with the use of a Behavioral Safety Process
(Krause)
 Literature further supports a 40% reduction when
Safety Cultural Interventions are combined with a
Behavioral Approach to Safety. (Cooper)
 RCI Safety Results with clients range from 40%
to 90% reductions in injuries in 12 months…
Safety
Management
System
Safety
Culture
Behavioral Safety
Enter question text...
100%
1. Enter answer text...
Did you find this session worthwhile
1. Not at all
2. A little, but not
much
3. It was OK
4. It was very good
5. It was excellent!
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Conclusion
 Safety Culture and Behavioral Safety are not the
same thing
 They are closely related and drive one another
 When combined in a seamless and harmonized
manner, the safety process is solidified with
INTEGRITY!
W HEN S AFETY
LACKS INTEGRITY ,
EVERYONE LOSES !!!

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