Safety Culture and Behavioral Safety Two Approaches & One Outcome Safety excellence Chris Goulart MS, CSP, ARM, CDT, CSHM Director of Consulting Services RCI Safety Session Guidelines… Don’t bother to take copious notes… Ask questions, but don’t develop extreme problems Feel free to stick around afterwards if you want further clarification or discussion This talk WILL challenge a number of commonly held beliefs about workplace safety Session Objectives Discuss the concepts of Safety Culture and Behavioral Safety Identify the Similarities and Differences Review a methodology that combines the both approaches Cover how you can maximize the effectiveness of both and how they compliment one another If you REALLY want to IMPROVE SAFETY You first have to understand the fundamental motivation that is required for persons to work safely……………….. and then work to change it!!!!!!!!!!!! Do you know what Safety Culture Means? 1. Yes 25% 25% 25% 2 3 25% 2. Somewhat 3. Not Really 4. I have NO IDEA 1 4 The Term Safety Culture Used over and over and over (47,000,000 Google Hits up from 23,000,000 only a year ago) Not well understood by many in the field of safety… Generally used to describe an overall sense of they way safety feels to employees, supervisors, and managers How do you know if you have a good safety culture or not? 6 Safety Culture Shared assumptions of safety in the workplace that drive motivation and behaviors based on values, traditions, and history Clearly a leading indicator and the one most closely linked with outcome performance (The relationship between employees’ perceptions of safety and organizational culture Michael O’Toole) (Journal of Safety Research 2002 #33 231-243) (Also, Petersen, 2001, Krause, 2004, and Cooper, 2009) What employees do when no one is watching…(Schien) Safety Culture Management Driven Set in motion by the founders of the organization Is very self sustaining and self reinforcing Not really separate from Organizational Culture (Constituent Component) Influenced by both local and industry cultural norms Common (false)Perceptions of Safety Culture Uncontrollable and driven by employees with no outside influence Set by Management Safety processes like Behavioral Safety will immediately improve the culture Culture can’t be controlled or changed, it just is… 9 How would you describe your Safety Culture 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Animal House Weak Lagging Solid Above Average World Class 17% 1 17% 17% 17% 2 3 4 17% 5 17% 6 How is Safety Culture Usually Evaluated? Safety Surveys Safety Cultural Interviews Behavioral and Situational Observation Each of these evaluates a slightly different manifestation of safety culture (perception, beliefs, and actions) 11 Safety Culture Surveys Result in immediate quantification of the Safety Culture Creates a Baseline Allows for the evaluation against other related organizations The Survey Itself immediately begins to engage employees (They Become Part of the Solution) How to Administer Surveys Offer to all Employees Ensure Confidentiality Make Sure to have a Plan to Act on the Results Safety Culture Interviews Validates the data from the survey Allows for the determination of primary and secondary causal factors Facilitates the gathering of more robust and worthwhile information… Can be done using focus groups Facilitated internally or externally… Safety Culture Observations Allows for validation or refuting of findings from surveys and interviews Helps to illustrate how Safety Cultural Norms are applied Allows for evaluation of importance of behaviors driven by the culture NOT THE SAME AS BEHAVIOR BASED SAFETY!!! What are the MOST Important Elements of a Strong Safety Culture? (pick-2) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Leadership Ownership Employee Engagement Industry Standards Solid Written Formal Programs A Professional Safety Department Well delineated Safety Communication A Culture Where Reporting is Paramount and Blame is Minimized A model where production demands are balanced with safety, quality, and environmental 12% 12% 1 2 12% 12% 12% 12% 3 4 5 6 12% 12% 7 8 What are some indicators of a Strong Safety Culture? Management that Consistently Sets the Example An Organization that is Willing to Ask and Answer Hard Questions An Empowered Workforce that is able to Make Meaningful Contributions to the Safety Process 17 Strong Safety Cultural Indicators Continued… Regular Formal and Informal Discussions Relating to Safety High-Functioning Safety Committees Well Written Safety Mission and Values Statements A Professional Safety Department 18 Strong Cultural Characteristics Continued… A Process of Self Auditing, Risk Assessment, or Formalized Hazard Identification Presence of a Plan for Mergers, Acquisitions, and Sale of Business Units Linkage of Safety to all Levels of the Business 19 Weak Cultural Characteristics Using only lagging indicators to measure performance These measure failure rates They manage safety by looking at what has happened not what will happen May encourage injury hiding Recordability or Severity is influenced by many factors AFTER the event If you want to make positive change be like a coach, they don’t watch the scoreboard, they watch the action on the field 20 Weak Characteristics cont… Use of Punishment Punishment does not reinforce anything Punishment becomes part of a repeating cycle Has the use of punishment ever inspired anyone? Stopping unsafe behaviors does not mean the desired behavior will immediately begin 21 Accountability vs Punishment Punishment can become an organizational value Punishment is needed under certain circumstances… however, it will only generate malicious compliance (at best) Balance is KEY! Weak Characteristics cont… Poor Incentive Programs outcomes not the process Too much safety training Accident Investigations that result in causal factors like “wasn’t paying attention, needs to be more careful” copyright 2006 free template from brainybetty.com A vigilant focus on the 23 Based on Our Experience Many Organizations Struggle with Culture’s of Blame Production vs. Safety is one of the Lowest Cultural Characteristics for most Organizations Employee Engagement is Usually High Leadership May/or May Not, have gaps in perceptions Is Safety Culture the Same thing as Behavior? No, but the interrelatedness is undeniable The culture of the workplace obviously drives the organization's behavior and influences the individual employee’s behavior Research shows that behavior also influences culture…. Culture 25 WHAT ABOUT CULTURE VERSUS BEHAVIOR? It is important to measure the culture so you know what characteristics exist A Behavioral Safety Process can enhance certain aspects of the culture A Behavioral Safety Process is more likely to be successful if the Safety Cultural opportunities/strengths are known 26 Do You Have or Use a Behavior Based Safety Program? 25% 1. In the Past, but not Presently 25% 2. Not Now and Not Ever 25% 3. Currently, but it isn’t working well 25% 4. Yes and it’s the BOMB!! Behavioral Safety Founded on the principles of Operant Conditioning. It is known that Reinforcement is the best way to manage behavior. Positive Reinforcement has been shown to be most effective. Understanding Behavior in the Workplace What is it that causes employees to exhibit certain behaviors? What is it within the systems of the workplace that lead to employee behaviors? Can we understand the systems of the workplace better? Unsafe behavior by employees is a symptom of poorly defined and understood workplace systems, not the fault of the individual. Whose idea of a trench safety system is this??? A Antecedent B Behavior C Consequence ANTECEDENTS Occur before behavior Communicate expectations Provide instructions Cue behavior Two types of antecendents Natural Beyond an external locus of control Occur as a result of environmental events Adaptive and governed by our systems Deliberate Artificial Intended to control or influence behavior Often unsolicited Antecedents in the workplace not a strong influence behavior ~ 20% have short term effects work best when paired with consequences are overused (ex: train and re-train) Some examples of antecedents You Can Say That Again Are You Thinkin’ What I’m Thinkin’? For the Dyslexic Brought to you by PETA (People for the eating of tasty animals) Better Advice!!! See how much they care Don’t drink and write signs WHAT??????? BEHAVIOR Desirable Behavior job behavior which meets expectations and requirements complies with all safety rules all of the time Undesirable Behavior job behavior which does not meet expectations and requirements fail to comply with all safety rules Consequences CONSEQUENCES Are either Positive or Negative for the behaviors Predict the probability of future behavior Occur after the behavior Are too powerful to be left to chance Not used often enough The Role of Consequences Consequence Exercise SPEEDING Analyze this Event Based on Consequences Learned History = Habit = Behavior Antecedent Behavior Consequence A B C Learned History (Habit) What is a Habit… How does it work for us in Safety? How does it work against us? What Comes First… Culture or Behavior Organizational (Safety) Culture drives behavior …. Behaviors, over time, can influence culture and become normative The relationship is organic and formative in both directions How are Safe Behavior and Safety Culture Related As mentioned earlier, they are clearly interrelated… Cultural Norms drive behaviors Behaviors can influence culture and become normative Both aspects of safety require effort to improve Behaviors can typically change more quickly but are sustained by culture Combining Both Creates a Behaviorally Driven Culture that focuses on accomplishment… What are the elements of a traditional Safety Culture? Typically focused on the person Motivation by avoidance Based on rules and regulations Failure oriented Management owned and driven Generally looks for unsafe acts to punish People work safely because they have to… An Example of Why “Traditional” Safety is Not Optimal http://www.cnn.com/2012/03/14/travel/faanonpunitive-reporting/ FAA says new 'safety culture' will stress solutions, not blame OSHA Letter of Interpretation Safety Accountability Safety Incentives REMOVE THE CULTURE OF BLAME! The elements of a Behavioral Safety Culture are… Focusing on behavior as a leading indicator Paying attention to the workplace as a system Not blaming the individual Making improvements through the use of positive feedback Creating an ongoing safety system that is owned by management and driven to success by employees Carefully managing data to yield positive results In a Behavioral Safety Culture Focuses on accomplishment Success oriented People work safely because they want to Becomes self sustaining and continuously improving Is truly doing something different It WILL happen to someone Maximizing the Potential Combine a Cultural Approach with a Behavioral Approach Conduct a safety cultural evaluation (survey, observations, interviews) Identify Strengths and Gaps Build a Behavioral Safety Process that capitalizes on Strengths and Fills Gaps Re-Evaluate the Culture What Kind of Results can be Expected Literature supports a 25% reduction in injuries with the use of a Behavioral Safety Process (Krause) Literature further supports a 40% reduction when Safety Cultural Interventions are combined with a Behavioral Approach to Safety. (Cooper) RCI Safety Results with clients range from 40% to 90% reductions in injuries in 12 months… Safety Management System Safety Culture Behavioral Safety Enter question text... 100% 1. Enter answer text... Did you find this session worthwhile 1. Not at all 2. A little, but not much 3. It was OK 4. It was very good 5. It was excellent! 20% 20% 20% 20% 20% 1 2 3 4 5 Conclusion Safety Culture and Behavioral Safety are not the same thing They are closely related and drive one another When combined in a seamless and harmonized manner, the safety process is solidified with INTEGRITY! W HEN S AFETY LACKS INTEGRITY , EVERYONE LOSES !!!