Trust in e-learning systems

Report
TOWARDS A TRUST MODEL
IN E-LEARNING:
ANTECEDENTS OF A
STUDENT’S TRUST
W Wongse-ek, G B Wills, L Gilbert
Outline
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•
•
•
•
Objective
Motivation
Related Works
What is Student’s trust
The Learning Outcome-based Trust (LOT)
Model
• Conclusion & Future work
Objective
• Explore antecedents of trust from
perspective of student.
• Contribute new conceptual trust model for
calculating a degree of student’s trust in a
learning activity.
Motivation: Why trust model is
needed?
• Trust model is needed
– to determine antecedents which significantly
influence decision making to student’s trust.
– to support machine accessible for calculating
degree of student’s trust in learning activity.
Related Works
•
•
•
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Student’s uncertainty
Concept of Trust
Learning Activity Structure
Intended Learning Outcome (ILO)
Related Works (cont.):
Student’s uncertainty
• Students face with uncertainty when
– Encountering with new curricula.
– Having variety choices of learning activities and materials
• Student’s uncertainty can be reduced by
increasing student’s trust in both learning activities
and materials (Barnett, 2007)
• Trust building maybe intended as a strategy to avoid
unintended consequences of learning (Farini, 2012).
Related Works (cont.):
Concept of Trust
– Trust is an individual expectation of outcome
(Butler and Cantrell, 1984; McKnight et al., 1998).
– Trust should be proportional to degree of quality
and relevance of evidence of trustworthiness, or
trust propensity (Larzelere and Huston, 1980;
Wheeless, 1978).
– Decision to trust can be split into two ways based
on the trustor’s mental processes: predicting
trust based on
• (i) dispositional trust, and
• (ii) rational trust.
Related Works (cont.):
Learning Activity Structure
• A learning activity is how students act to extend
their ability in order to achieve the desired
learning outcome (dILO).
• A learning activity can be written as a statement
that consists of two main elements: a capability
verb and the keywords.
– The capability verb relates to a performance at one
of the levels of Merrill’s CDT.
– The keywords could be categorised based on the
subject matter type in Merrill’s CDT.
Related Works (cont.):
Intended Learning Outcome (ILO)
• Intended Learning Outcome (ILO)
– ILO is intened learning outcome that expresses student's ability
to perform activity by the end of the course (Kennedy, 2007).
– ILO statement is presented as, “By the end of the course, the
student will be able to X , where X is a
performance”(Gilbert and Gale, 2008).
– ILO consists of two primary elements: subject matter and
capability
– According to Merrill’s Component Display Theory (CDT)
(Merrill, 1983), subject matter is classified into four kinds: Fact,
Concept, Procedure, and Principle. The capability can also be
classified into three kinds by using Merrill’s CDT: Find, Use, and
Remember
– ILOs diagram is used to represent learning tasks of student and
guide teacher in planning the learning objectives for courses.
(Tangworakitthaworn et al., 2013).
Analysis of situation of student’s trust
• situation of student’s trust in learning transaction
– student is challenged with ambiguous learning activity in
specific pedagogical situation.
– student’s expectation is to achieve a desired learning
outcome
– student is willing to trust learning activity based on
positive expected value of learning activity.
– positive expected value could also be considered as
perceived usefulness of learning activity or
trustworthiness information of learning activity.
– However, student’s prior competences and student’s trust
propensity also influence the willingness to trust the
learning activity.
What is student’s trust in learning activity?
• Our definition of student’s trust is
“student’s trust is student’s own assumption to
believe in learning trustworthiness, based on
student’s own expectation of desired learning
outcome in given pedagogical context”.
LOT Model
• The Learning Outcome-based Trust (LOT)
Model
– Student’s Assumption to trust
– Student's Perception of Learning Activity’s
Trustworthiness
– Structure of Learning Context
LOT Model (cont.)
Student s Assumption to Trust
Student's Perception of Learning
Activity s Trustworthiness
Student s Trust in
Learning Activity
Pedagogy Context
Composed of
LOT Model (cont.): Type of ILOs
•
The types of ILO and the learning task are defined in this research. The usage of
ILOs and the learning task as source of trust will be shown in this proposed
trust model.
Types of ILO
Descriptions
Student’s desired learning
The student’s desired competence is represented by
outcome (dLO)
using the desired learning outcome.
Student’s familiar learning
The student’s existing competence is represented by
outcome (fILO)
using the familiar learning outcome.
Learning task
e learning task is defined as a sequence of learning to
achieve the desired learning outcome. An example of
the learning task, which is represented by using a direct
acyclic graph of ILOs, is shown in below figure.
LOT Model(cont.):
Student’s Assumption to trust
‘student’s assumptions to trust’ is defined as a notion of trust that a student
considers to be true by themselves.
• Student’s trust propensity is estimation of student position on
‘propensity to trust’ scale.
• Student’s prior competence is the existing student’s ability or knowledge
to do something successfully.
• The student’s existing competence is represented by using the familiar
learning outcome (fLO).
Students' Trust
Propensity
Student s Assumption
to trust
Students' familiar
Learning Outcome (fLO)
Type of
LOT Model(cont.):
Trustworthiness of Learning activity
The learning activity is analysed based on three properties:
integrity, competence and benevolence, as shown in below figure.
Integrity:
Degree of all possible relations between the
learning activity and the learning task
Competence:
Degree of the relation between the learning
activity and the student s dLO
Student's Perception of Learning
Activity s Trustworthiness
Benevolence:
Degree of the relevance between the learning
activity and the fLO
Type of
LOT Model (cont.):
Structure of Pedagogy Context
The pedagogy context is constructed based on the student’s desired
learning outcome, the student’s exiting competencies, and the specific
learning task.
For What?:
Distinguishing what student expects or wants to
achieve
For Whom?:
Distinguishing characteristics of student by
recognising pILOIdentifying student s existing
competencies
For Where?:
Identify learning task and recognising where
potential of student could be.
For When?:
Identifying readiness of student s existing
competencies to accept knowledge in teaching
activities at each stage.
Pedagogy Context
Composed of
Conclusion & Future work
• This research is aimed to focus on the new
contribution
– trust model in student’s perspective by considering
trustworthiness based on the properties of the teaching
activity, the student’s assumption and the pedagogical
context.
– trust model could be provided a measureable aspect of
learning situation to compare the trustworthiness of the
learning activity.
• Future Work
– to assists students to assess the trustworthiness of the
learning activities for the selection of a suitable one
– to gives artificial agents the ability to reason about trust.
Students' Trust Propensity
Student s Assumption to Trust
Students' familiar Learning Outcome (fLO)
Integrity:
Completeness of Subject Matter If fILO with the
Intended Learning Outcomes Schema (sILO).
Competence:
Weighting the Relevance between Student s
Expectation of ILO (eILO) and Facilitating ILO
of each Teaching Activity (fILO).
Benevolence:
Weighting the Relevance between Student s
Prior Competencies (pILO) and Facilitating
ILOs of each Teaching Activity (fILO).
Student's Perception of Teaching
Activity s Trustworthiness
Student s Trust
For What?:
Distinguishing what student expects or wants to
achieve
For Whom?:
Distinguishing characteristics of student by
recognising pILOIdentifying student s existing
competencies
For Where?:
Identify learning task and recognising where
potential of student could be.
For When?:
Identifying readiness of student s existing
competencies to accept knowledge in teaching
activities at each stage.
Pedagogy Context
Type of
Composed of
QUESTIONS?
&
THANK YOU

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