What is LD Definition of LD : •Inability to modify behaviour as consequence of experience. •Approx 5-10% of paediatric Population is LD •Genetic study shows LD inheritance in 10%-20% cases Factors PRENATAL Decreased Foetalmovements malnourished mothers Multiple abortions Stress during pregnancy NATAL Forceps Delivery Induced Labor Delayed Birth Cry POSTNATAL ARDS LBW , VLBW Brain Tumours Do u Know if a child is LD Characteristics of Dyslexia Delayed spoken language. Errors in letter naming. Difficulty in learning and remembering printed words. Reversal of letters or sequences of letter In words. Repeated spelling errors . Cramped or illegible handwriting Slow rate of writing Difficulty in mathematical calculations Deficient written and oral language skills Dyslexia – Pre Schoolers Difficulty in pronunciation i.e. “ Duddle “ for “ Bubble “ , Shif for “ Fish “. Small vocab with difficulty in rhyming. Slow development of hand function. Motor Planning deficit. Early Signs In Young Children Hyperactive,impulsive,highlydistractable. Short attention spans. Low frustration level. Poor co-ordination and accident proneness. Difficulty in balancing , cutting ,pasting and writing. Speech delays/Gestural communication. Multitasking is difficult. Academics In Dyslexic Kids •Spelling is far worse than reading , and writing is beyond function. •Can read “Doodle” on first page but forgets as soon as the page is turned. •Vowels,phonetics a majaor issue. •Dysgraphia is commonly seen. Assessment •91 tests of learning disability are available. •Most commonly used are •Johnson ‘o’ conners LD scale. •ELAP- Early learning assessment profile. Treatment Different FOR like SENSORY INTEGRATION and NDT are practically used by occupational therapist worldwide. Providing knowledge to parents. Reduce home pressure for achievements. Give positive reinforcement. Avoid punishment. Special Ability & Skills Although LD kids have unique brain architecture and “unsual wiring” make reading,writing and spelling difficult most people with dyslexia have gifts in areas controlled by the right hemisphere of the brain.the right side controls. Artistic skill. Athetic ability. Musical ability. Mechanical ability.