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Functions 1 ENGR 1181 MATLAB 14 User-defined Functions in Real Life Using available built-in functions in our calculators and MATLAB is great, but often we encounter situations for which there is no pre-defined function. Like adding a quadratic equation solver program to our calculators, we can create our own functions in MATLAB to perform all sorts of calculations. Today's Learning Objectives After today’s class, students will be able to: • Demonstrate the proper use of functions in their programs. • Explain how functions can be used in multiple places and as an organizational tool. • Describe purpose and structure of a function definition line. What is a function? MATLAB has built-in functions that we have been using all semester such as sum,length,mean, and others. We will now learn how to create our own functions; these are called user-defined functions. It is also referred to as a subroutine or a procedure in other programming languages. What is a function? MATLAB functions can be used to make programs easier to read and reduce the lines of code. Allows multiple people to work on the same project seamlessly • Ex: One person's function can be referenced in another person's script file. What is a function? Just like a built-in function, a user-defined function can be used within the command window or your script file. In order to do this, the function must be saved in your active directory. Opening a function file Open a function file (not a script file) Basic function structure function[output variable(s)] = function_name(input variables) typical code as compared to a script file end **Function definition line Required if using nested functions, optional otherwise **Must follow this format or MatLab will think it’s a script file and/or you will get an error Saving a function file function[fun,outputs] = eng_fun(math,science,physics) Function files MUST be saved as the name it is called out as in the function definition line as highlighted above. Also, it must be saved as a .m file. For example, this function file would be saved as: eng_fun.m Example: One input & output Let’s calculate how many Oreo® cookies are left in a box using a function file: 1. Open a new function file 2. Complete the function definition line Function[oreos_left]=oreos(hrs_of_HW) 3. Save file – oreos.m Example: One input & output Now that we have the function file defined, we can carry out the calculations to determine how many Oreo® cookies we will eat: eat_yum=ceil(1/2*exp(hrs_of_HW)); %calculates the number of oreos % Typical oreos in a package is 30 package=30; oreos_left= package-eat_yum; %This line calculates the output Example: One input & output Let’s test our file now; be sure to save your function file. Go to your command window and type this: oreos(hrs_of_HW) What happens? >> oreos(hrs_of_HW) Undefined function or variable 'hrs_of_HW'. Example: One input & output Now try this in the command window: oreos(3) What happens? How about this: ans = 19 x=3; box=oreos(x) Example: Two inputs & one output Let’s modify our oreo code to account for stress of the number of midterms that week: function[oreos_left]=oreos_rev(hrs_of_HW,exams) SAVE YOUR FILE! oreos_rev.m Modify our equations: eat_yum=ceil(1/2*exp(hrs_of_HW)); package=30; bonus_yum=exams*3; oreos_left= package-eat_yum-bonus_yum; Example: Two inputs & one output Run from the command window where you did 1 hour of homework and have 2 midterms this week: HW=1; %Hours of homework MT=2; %Number of midterms this week box=oreos_rev(HW,MT) box = 22 Create a script file using oreos_rev.m Script file clc clear hrs=input(‘How many hours of homework have you done today? ’); midterms=input(‘How many midterms do you have this week? ’); box=oreos_rev(hrs,midterms); fprintf(‘\nYou have %i oreos left, you better do more homework!’,box) Output How many hours of homework have you done today? 2 How many midterms do you have this week? 1 You have 23 oreos left, you better do some more homework! Functions with multiple inputs & outputs Suppose we want to calculate the stress and deflection of a cantilever beam like the one in lab, let’s create a function file for this: = 3 = 12 3 = 3 Function definition line function [stress, deflection] = beam_lab(w, t , F, L, E) Functions with multiple inputs & outputs Write a function file to calculate stress and deflection • Hint: When using more than one output, you must assign the function to multiple outputs. Ex: [s,d]=beam_lab(inputs) w = .05 meters t = .01 meters F = 100 newtons L = 1 meter E = 70 x 109 N/m2 What do you get? Then write a script file that calls the function file and uses these values. stress = 200,000 N/m2 deflection = 0.1143 m Functions Example function v = freefall(t,m,cd) %freefall: bungee velocity with second-order drag %v=freefall(t,m,cd) computes the free-fall velocity of an object with %second-order drag %input: %t=time (s) %m=mass(kg) %cd = second-order drag coefficient(kg/m) %output: %v=downward velocity (m/s) g = 9.81; %acceleration due to gravity v=sqrt(g*m/cd)*tanh(sqrt(g*cd/m)*t); Command Window Output: >>freefall(12,68.1,.25) ans = 50.6175 Now try changing the argument values Important Takeaways User-defined functions in MATLAB improve readability and reduces overall amount of code. They can be used to accomplish calculations or perform subroutines within a program. Function files must be saved in the same directory as the script file that uses them. Preview of Next Class Functions 2 • Having to share many function files along with your script file can be tedious • MATLAB offers a way to condense all this into a single file What’s Next? Review today’s Quiz #14 Open the in-class activity from the EEIC website and we will go through it together. Then, start working on MAT-14 homework. Prepare for the next class by reading about MATLAB Functions 2.