An All LED Theatre - Vincent Lighting Systems

Report
Photo ©David French. Used with permission.
AND THE ANSWER IS…
 IT CAN BE DONE!
 HOW MUCH MONEY YA GOT?
 FROM WHICH BUDGET?
THE PROGRESS OF LED TECHNOLOGY
HAS MADE THIS A VALID QUESTION
•IMPROVED LIGHT OUTPUT
•RGBAW AND MORE
•HOMOGENIZED BEAM
•REDUCED MATERIAL COST
•FOCUS ON LUMINAIRE DESIGN
•FINDING THE HOLY GRAIL
WHY LED IN THEATRE?
 REDUCING POWER DENSITY IS NOT THE DRIVING
FORCE AS IN ARCHITECTURAL LIGHTING; DUTY
CYCLE IS GENERALLY NOT THERE - STAGE
LIGHTING IS NORMALLY EXEMPTED BY ENERGY
CODES
 OPERATIONAL ADVANTAGES OF LED ARE THE
DRIVING FORCE FOR ADOPTION IN
ENTERTAINMENT LIGHTING AS MUCH AS
PAYBACK ISSUES, MAYBE MORE SO
OPERATIONAL ADVANTAGES
 No re-lamping means greater reliability, key halogen
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lamps in a theatre are still 300 hours life!!
No expendable color media hassle, gels burn out
Unlimited color selection, cue by cue
Fewer lighting sources required
Can use home made gobos
Cooler, therefore safer fixtures
Much more flexibility from a fixed repertory light plot
than a similar plot using conventional instruments
Fixture by fixture control, regardless of circuiting
The major traditional theatrical
lighting instrument types now have
LED counterparts
WASH LUMINAIRES
 USED FOR COLOR WASHES
 TRADITIONALLY PARS OR FRESNELS
 ONE OF THE FIRST TYPES TO HAVE A VIABLE LED
EQUAL
 RGB IS ACCEPTABLE HERE
Border Lights
 STILL USED FOR COLOR TONING AND
SOMETIMES FOR LIGHTING BACK DROPS
 TRADITIONAL SOURCES ARE HUGE WATTAGE
HOGS
 TRADITIONAL FIXTURES HAVE “PAR-LIKE”
DISTRIBUTION - EASY FOR LED
 SATURATED COLORS PREFERRED - EASY FOR LED
CYC LIGHTS
 TRADITIONAL EVOLUTION FROM BORDER
LIGHTS, THINK WALL WASH FIXTURE,
ASYMETRICAL REFLECTOR
 TRADITIONAL SOURCES ARE HUGE WATTAGE
HOGS AND REQUIRE MANY CIRCUITS
 SATURATED COLORS PREFERRED - EASY FOR LED
AUTOMATED LIGHTING
 MANY TYPES EXIST, BUT THE WASH
LUMINAIRES NOW HAVE VIABLE LED
EQUALS
 TRADITIONAL SOURCES ARE HID - VERY
HIGH LAMP COSTS, MAINTENANCE ISSUES
 SATURATED COLORS PREFERRED - EASY
FOR LED
“PROFILE” SPOTS (ERS)
 THE HOLY GRAIL, JUST NOW COMING ON THE MARKET FROM MANY
MANUFACTURERS
 HARD EDGE SOURCE WITH INTERNAL FOCAL POINT, TRADITIONALLY
ACHIEVED WITH ELLIPSOIDAL REFLECTOR
 USED FOR FRONT LIGHTING, LONGER THROWS AND PATTERN PROJECTION
THE WORK HORSE IN EVERY THEATRE
 ACHIEVING THE REQUIRED BEAM CHARACTERISTICS HAS BEEN A
CHALLENGE
 USED TO LIGHT ACTING AREAS - PASTELS AND FLESH TONES ARE MORE
IMPORTANT THAN SATURATED COLORS - THIS REQUIRES RGBA OR RGBAW
HOUSE LIGHTS
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FULL RANGE DIMMING REQUIREMENTS HAVE DICTATED HALOGEN SOURCES
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HOUSE LIGHTS ARE TYPICALLY VERY DIFFICULT TO SERVICE
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HALOGEN SOURCES DRIVE THE NEED FOR DIMMER CABINETS THAT OTHER-WISE MIGHT NOT BE
NECESSARY
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THERE ARE NOW LED SOURCES AVAILABLE FOR HIGH CEILING APPLICATIONS THAT ALSO
INCORPORATE FULL RANGE DMX DIMMING
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0-10 VOLT OR ELV DIMMING MAY BE ACCEPTABLE IN CAFETORIUMS OR OTHER VENUES WHERE
FULL DIMMING IS NOT AN EXPECTATION
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SOME FIXTURES TAKE ADVANGE OF RGBW TECHNOLOGY TO ALLOW HOUSE LIGHT COLORMIXING
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DMX CONTROL ALLOWS FLEXIBILITY IN CONTROL ZONES MUCH THE SAME WAY DALI AND
ADDRESSABLE BALLASTS ALLOW IT IN ARCHITECTURAL LIGHTING
HOW DOES LED AFFECT
SYSTEM DESIGN?
 THIS IS NOT YOUR DADDY’S
STAGE LIGHTING SYSTEM
 WE ARE ON THE EDGE, OR
MAYBE PAST, A SEISMIC SHIFT
IN SYSTEM DESIGN
 IS YOUR PROJECT A
CANDIDATE TO MAKE THE
LEAP?
TRADITIONAL
SYSTEMS
 CENTRALIZED DIMMER RACK
FEEDING DISCREET CIRCUITS
 CIRCUITS ARE DISTRIBUTED
BASED ON THE NEED FOR
CONTROL FLEXIBILITY AS MUCH
AS LOAD REQUIREMENTS
 QUANTITY OF CIRCUITS OFTEN
DROVE FEEDERS TO LARGER
SIZES OUT OF LINE WITH
ACTUAL LOADS
WHAT IS DIFFERENT
WITH LED?
 SMALLER FEEDS
 REDUCED NEED FOR
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CONVENTIONAL DIMMING
NEED TO TURN POWER SUPPLIES
OFF - PHANTOM POWER ISSUES
WHERE DIMMING IS REQUIRED IT
CAN BE ACCOMPLISHED USING
DISTRIBUTED DIMMING DEVICES
NO NEED FOR K-RATED
TRANSFORMERS
REDUCES LOAD ON AIRCONDITIONING SYSTEMS
CONTROL IS KEY
 EACH FIXTURE AND ITS ATTRIBUTES ARE
CONTROLLED DISCREETLY VIA DIGITAL
SIGNALS, TYPICALLY DMX
 DMX DATA NEEDS TO BE DISTRIBUTED
THROUGHOUT THE SPACE THROUGH
THE USE OF SPLITTERS OR ETHERNET
 EACH FIXTURE CAN TAKE MORE THAN A
DOZEN CHANNELS OF CONTROL
 CONTROL CONSOLES EXIST TO MAKE
CONTROLLING ALL OF THIS EASIER
WHAT ABOUT THE DOLLARS?
 SEVERAL FACTORS TO CONSIDER
 LUMINAIRE COST
 REDUCTION OF DIMMING EQUIPMENT
 INSTALLATION SAVINGS
 OPERATIONAL COST SAVINGS
LUMINAIRE COST
 20 – 30 % FEWER LUMINAIRES REQUIRED
 WASH FIXTURES:
 CONVENTIONAL: $100 - $300
 LED $500 - $1,500
 BORDER LIGHTS (not specified much now)
 6’ R40 - $600.00
 LED - $2,500 - $4,500
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Yes, really
 CYC LIGHTS
 CONVENTIONAL 1000w FOUR CELL UNIT- $1,400
 LED - SINGLE CELL - $1,200 - $1,800
LUMINAIRE COST
 AUTOMATED LIGHTING WASH FIXTURES
 CONVENTIONAL $1,500 - $10,000
 LED $2,000 - $10,000
 PROFILE
 CONVENTIONAL - 575 watt 19-50 degree - $350
 LED $1,000 - $3,500
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Yes, really
 HOUSE LIGHTS
 CONVENTIONAL 500W T4 $300 - $500.00
 LED $1,000 – 1,500.00
REDUCTION OF DIMMING AND RELATED
EQUIPMENT
•96 CIRCUIT DIMMER RACK - $20,000
•K-RATED TRANSFORMERS NOT REQUIRED
•ELIMINATION OF DIMMER ROOM
•DISTRIBUTED DIMMING AND RELAYS
•SMALLER FOOTPRINT
•LESS LOAD ON AIR-CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT
INSTALLATION SAVINGS
•REDUCED LOADS MEAN SMALLER FEEDERS
•FEWER CIRCUITS REQUIRED
•CAN USE COMMON NEUTRALS IN SOME
CASES
•NEED TO DISTRIBUTE DATA, BUT WE ARE
ALREADY DOING THAT
•MAY REDUCE THE NEED FOR ACCESS TO
EQUIPMENT
COMPARISONS
 Used 200 days per year, 6 hours per day, 60% diversity,
.15/kW hour
 Consumables such as lamps based on published hours
 TYPICAL HIGH SCHOOL - CONVENTIONAL
 EQUIPMENT COST - $139,000.00
 INSTALLATION AND YEAR ONE COST - $88,116
 TOTAL - $227,116
 ANNUAL OPERATING COSTS - $15,516
COMPARISONS
 Used 200 days per year, 6 hours per day, 60% diversity,
.15/kW hour
 Replacement lamps are not an issue
 TYPICAL HIGH SCHOOL - LED
 EQUIPMENT COST - $197,482
 INSTALLATION AND YEAR ONE COST - $37,954
 TOTAL - $235,436
 ANNUAL OPERATING COSTS - $2,104
SERVICE LIFE - LED
 Assume an L70 of 50,000 hours
 Assume usage at 6 hours per day, 200 days per year
 Life expectancy would be over 40 years!!
 Things break before that - LED equipment is more
expensive to replace which must be considered
 Annual Operating Savings pays for brand new
equipment in about 15 years at today’s dollars
CONCLUSIONS
 Very significant operational advantages to an LED
theatre lighting system
 If you have the budget you can do an all LED theatre
 Even if you have a “conventional” budget you can
incorporate LED to an extent that is significant enough
to drive your system design
 Provide for the future use of LED in your system
design
 Distribute Data
 Provide Capacity in the Control System
 Provide the ability to turn power supplies off
AN ALL LED THEATRE
 QUESTIONS
 DISCUSSION
 THANK YOU

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