Slide 1

Report
DMAIC project template
Roberto lopez
LSSMBB
[email protected]
6 sigma steps (DMAIC)
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Define
Measure
Analyze
Improve
Control
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Define your business problem
Measure your process (Y) performance
Find the root causes (X’s) of the problem
Improve, implement new solution
Deliver Y performance over time
Define
Business Problem
1 Pb Statement
Description of the problem (what? where? since when? based on which data?
Based on which facts?)
Voice Of Customer (Customer perception)
Internal perception
Competitors benchmark
2 Goal
Statement
Develop Goal statement/opportunity or objective in clear, concise, measurable terms
Demonstrate alignment of the project with the company/business strategy
Define
Business Case
3
Business
Case
Why to do the project?
What if project not done?
Financial Business Case
What
Comment
Cost
K€
Project Labor
Project Materials
Project Contractors
Equipment investment
Yearly operation cost
TOTAL Costs
Incremental Revenues
Labor Savings
Material Savings
TOTAL Benefits (1 year)
ROI
0
0
0
Define
Project charter
4
Project
scope
Project: out of scope
Project: in scope
Green Belt/Black Belt role:
Team members/role:
5 Team
Manager:
Key stakeholders from Business team:
Customers:
Others:
Black Belt:
Master Black Belt:
VP Quality / Quality Manager:
6
Planning
D
Dates:
Gantt
M
A
I
C
Process map & CTQ’s
Define
7 (SIPOC)
process as felt by the customer
Supplier =
My Company
Input
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Output
My
Customer
measurement
CTQ*
Definition
Specification
limit
Performance
targets
*Critical To Quality
Measure
M-step 1:
Selected CTQs
CTQ details
Selected Project CTQ(s):
Discrete/continuous CTQ?
CTQ Operational Definition(s):
What is it (measurement starting point and end point) ?
How to measure it?
M-step 2:
Define
Performance
standard
What is a defect?
If applicable to your CTQ, LSL* contractual value or limit defined by customer:
If applicable to your CTQ USL* contractual value or limit defined by customer:
*LSL Lower Specification Limit
*USL Upper Specification Limit
Measure
M-step 3:
Measurement
System
Analysis
Gauge R&R
Measurement system analysis
Data Collection plan for Repeatability & Reproductibility study:
Data sample size =
Date of data collection:
Where data have been collected?
How data have been collected?
How many operators?
How many repeats per operator?
Gage R&R study – Continuous data:
-Tolerance (USL-LSL):
-Short method (yes/no):
-Gage R&R as %contribution:
Gage R&R as %tolerance:
Nb of distinct categories:
Gage R&R study – discrete data:
If we have a Known sample (a reference), then how was built the known sample?
Conclusion/decision taken (evidence that the measurement of our CTQ is reliable):
Measure
M-step 4:
Baseline
current (As Is)
process
capability
CTQ data collection plan
CTQ data collection plan
•Data sample size =
•Date of data collection:
•Where data have been collected?
•How data have been collected?
•Will you take the opportunity to collect obvious X’s when collecting your CTQ
measurements?
•If yes, which X’s:
•Display an extract of the data collected:
Measure
M-step 4:
Baseline
current (As Is)
process
capability
Photography of current performance
Continuous CTQ
•Sample size=
•Short term data or Long term data?
•Histogram with Normality test result and descriptive statistics:
•Type of the distribution (normal, other):
•Trend represented by its (m, median, Q1, Q3, other):
•Variability represented by its (s,
P95, Q1/Q3, other):
PROCESS CAPABILITY MEASURE:
NORMAL Distribution
Observed DPMO=
Potential DPMO=
ZLT =
ZST (ZLT+1.5)=
Conclusion
•Problem with trend, variability or both?
Non NORMAL Distribution
Observed DPMO=
Equivalent ZLT=
Equivalent ZST (ZLT+1.5)=
Measure
M-step 4:
Baseline
current (As Is)
process
capability
Photography of current performance
Discrete CTQ
•Sample size:
•Short term data or Long term data?
•Process capability
•Yield (%)=
•%defects=
•DPMO=
•Opportunities per unit=
•DPU=
•Equivalent ZLT=
•Equivalent ZST (ZLT+1.5)=
•95% confidence interval on DPMO:
Analyze
A-step 5:
As Is process
Graph Analysis
Graph analysis
Continuous CTQ
•Normal probability plot:
Conclusion (can we detect a true process and an unstable process?):
All type of CTQ
•Stability over time/Run chart:
Conclusion:
•Pb of technology (short term common causes)?
•Pb of control (long term shift due to special causes)?
•Both pbs?
Analyze
A-step 6:
Define
Performance
Objectives of
To Be process
Set expected performance
Improvement Goal
Target (from benchmark) for:
Trend:
Variability:
LT DPMO or LT %defects=
Yield (%)=
ZLT=
ZST=(ZLT+1.5)=
Gap (Improvement – Actual)
DPMO gap or Defect reduction factor:
Z gap=
6 Sigma tools necessary to meet performance objectives:
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Ground fruit: Logic and Intuition
•
Low hanging fruit: Basic tools (Process Map, CE/CNX fishbone
diagram, SOP, FMEA, Pareto, Histogram, Box plot)
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Bulk of Fruit Process Characterization and Optimization
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Sweet Fruit: Transform the project into a DFSS project
Analyze
A-step 7:
Identify X’s
(root causes)
Process analysis
Process (AS IS) detail analysis:
•Detailed process map
Conclusion
•CTQ Intermediate distribution plot (continuous CTQ only)
Conclusion
Standard Operation Procedures analysis:
•Exist:
•Are applied:
•Incitation to apply them exist:
•Training has been given to operators:
Policy analysis:
•Exist
•Are applied
Analyze
A-step 7:
Identify X’s
(root causes)
Potential root causes
List of potential significant X’s
Label C/N/X on your fishbone, then rate every X impact vs implementation (table below)
Fishbone diagram of my Y
Measurements
Materials
Men
Y/CTQ Output
Impact
Environment
Methods
Machines
High
Low
Implementation
Easy
1
2
Hard
3
4
Analyze
A-step 7:
Identify X’s
(root causes)
Segmentation analysis
Results of segmentation (continuous CTQ only) :
(Box plots, Scatter plots, Distributions per X)
Conclusion:
Analyze
A-step 7:
Identify X’s
(root causes)
Pareto analysis
Pareto chart of the CTQ categories:
Conclusion:
Pareto chart of the defect categories:
Conclusion:
FMEA:
Conclusion:
Analyze
A-step 7:
Identify X’s
(root causes)
Hypothesis testing
Test
Statistical Tests Performed
X Factors
p value
one sample or two sample T-test
Annova one way
Homogeneity of variance
Chi square test
Simple regression
Non parametric data test
ANOVA 2 ways
GLM
DOE screening
Conclusion/Prioritized list of significant X’s:
Financial benefits confirmation (Update your Business case):
%contribution
conclusion
Improve
I-step 8:
Screen potential
causes.
List improvement
actions/projects
Improvement actions
List of Vital few Xs (screening DOE):
Improvement action plan
(Who What When):
Improve
I-step 9:
Discover
Variable
relationships
(if necessary)
Improved performance
Transfer function:
Proposed Solution: Optimal Settings
Confirmation runs capability:
I13
I-step 10:
Establish
Operating
Tolerances
(if necessary)
X tolerance settings:
Control
C-step 11:
Define and
Validate
Measurement
System on X’s
(if necessary)
Gage R&R on X’s
Control on one X (yes/no):
If yes, X measurement system analysis:
•Data Collection plan for Repeatability & Reproductibility study:
Data sample size =
Date of data collection:
Where data have been collected?
How data have been collected?
How many operators?
How many repeats per operator?
•Gage R&R study – Continuous data:
-Tolerance (USL-LSL):
-Short method (yes/no):
-Gage R&R as %contribution:
categories:
Gage R&R as %tolerance:
Nb of distinct
•Gage R&R study – discrete data:
If we have a Known sample (a reference), then how was built the known sample?
•Conclusion/decision taken (evidence that the measurement of our X is reliable):
Control
C-step 12:
Determine new
Process
Capability
Confirmation of improved performance
Process or Product new capability:
Continuous CTQ:
NORMAL Distribution
Observed DPMO=
Potential DPMO=
ZLT =
ZST (ZLT+1.5)=
Non NORMAL Distribution
Observed DPMO=
Equivalent ZLT=
Equivalent ZST (ZLT+1.5)=
Discrete CTQ:
•Sample size:=
•Short term data or Long term data?
•Process capability
•Yield (%)=
•%defects=
•DPMO=
•Opportunities per unit=
•DPU=
•Equivalent ZLT=
•Equivalent ZST (ZLT+1.5)=
•95% confidence interval on DPMO
Statistical Confirmation of Improvement (by statistical test):
Control
C-step 13:
Implement
Process
Control
Process controls
Control Charts (SPC) in place/review mechanisms:
Mistake Proofing action taken:
FMEA control actions in place:

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