SSUSH 9 - LessonPaths

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SSUSH 9
SSUSH9 The student will identify key events,
issues, and individuals relating to the causes,
course, and consequences of the Civil War.
Signed in 1854: repealed
Missouri Compromise;
created territories of
Kansas and Nebraska;
would allow each
territory to decide on the
slavery issue by using
“popular sovereignty.”
 Led to the formation of
Republican Party which
supported keeping
slavery out of the
territories, and led to
“Bleeding Kansas”

What was the Kansas-Nebraska Act?
What was Bleeding Kansas?
Because Kansas would decide about slavery
through popular sovereignty, both the North
(antislavery) and the South (pro-slavery) sent
thousands of people into Kansas to sway the vote.
 Tensions between the two groups led to violence
and the destruction of property, including the
sacking of Lawrence.

How did the violence in Kansas
help demonstrate that popular
sovereignty was a failure?
What happened to Dred Scott?
With the help of an abolitionist
group Dred Scott, a slave, sued
for freedom (1847), claiming that
because he had lived in a free
state, he should be free.
 In 1857 the Supreme Court ruled
against Scott.
 Because slaves were not citizens
of the U.S., Scott could not sue in
Federal Court, ended popular
sovereignty and stated slavery is
protected everywhere under the
Constitution.
 Scott was eventually freed in
May 1857, but died nine months
later.

Why was John Brown’s Raid important to
Civil War?
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A abolitionist who used violence
(Potawatomie Creek, Kansas)
against those supporting
slavery.
In 1859, he and his followers
tried to support a slave uprising
in Virginia by seizing a federal
arsenal (guns and ammo) in
Harpers Ferry.
The uprising was quickly put
down Brown was executed.
He was viewed by many in the
North as a martyr.
How do you think he was viewed in the
South?
b. Describe President Lincoln’s efforts to preserve the Union as
seen in his second inaugural address and the Gettysburg
speech and in his use of emergency powers, such as his
decision to suspend habeas corpus.
c. Describe the roles of Ulysses Grant, Robert E. Lee,
“Stonewall” Jackson, William T. Sherman, and Jefferson Davis.
How did the Civil War (1861-1865)
begin?

The Civil War starts:
- increased tension between the North and
the South (Slavery and sectionalism issues).
-South Carolina secedes from the Union in
December 1860 after Lincoln is elected
President.
-By June 1861, ten Southern states had
seceded.
-Many of the early battles were Union loses,
or fought to a draw.
Who was Ulysses S. Grant (UnionNorth)?
-Had early success fighting in
the west (TN, LA, MS).
“Unconditional Surrender”
-Captured Vicksburg, MS giving
the Union control of the
Mississippi River.
-Lincoln promoted him to
commander of the entire
Union Army in 1864.
-Fights Lee in a series of
battles ending in Lee’s
surrender at Appomattox in
1865.
Who was Robert E. Lee (ConfederacySouth)?
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-
Resigned from the US Army to fight
for the Confederacy: was against
slavery.
Named commander of the Army of
Northern Virginia in 1862.
Invaded Maryland (1862) and lost a
major battle at Antietam.
After two major victories against
the Union, Lee again decided to
invade the North, this time into
Gettysburg (PA) where he lost a 3
day battle to the Union: after the
loss, CSA forces had to remain on
the defensive for the rest of the
war.
Who was Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson
(Confederacy-South)?
-Played a major role in defeating
the Union Army at the first
major battle of the war (First
Battle of Bull Run).
-Fought with Lee at Battle of
Antietam.
-Was accidently shot at night by
his own men at Battle of
Chancellorsville-eventually died
from his wounds.
Who was William Sherman (UnionNorth)?
Fought with Grant at
Vicksburg.
 In his March to the Sea, he
attacked and destroyed the
city of Atlanta, a major
southern railroad center, in
1864.
 The Atlanta victory helped
Lincoln secure the political
support that allowed him to
be reelected in 1864.

Sherman’s capturing Atlanta was
important for what two major reasons?
Who was Jefferson Davis?
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Former Senator from
Mississippi and Sec of War.
Was the first and only
President of the Confederate
States of America (18611865).
Appointed Robert E. Lee
commander of Army of
Northern Virginia in 1862.
Held little authority as
President of CSA.
Captured in Georgia, in 1865
d. Explain the importance of Fort Sumter, Antietam,
Vicksburg, Gettysburg, and the Battle for Atlanta.
e. Describe the significance of the Emancipation
Proclamation.
What is important about Fort Sumter,
Charleston (SC)?
Fort Sumter, a Union fort in Charleston
Harbor, is surrounded after South Carolina
secedes in 1860.
 The Union refused to
surrender the fort and
J. Davis ordered
Southern troops to
bombard the fort.
 The fort surrenders,
starting the Civil War
(April 1861).

What is important about the battle of
Antietam (1862)?
Lee marched into Maryland hoping that a Southern victory
would convince the North to settle for peace, gain support
from the British, and find food for his men.
 The two armies fought at Antietam, which became the
bloodiest one-day battle in American history (over 22,000
casualties).
 Lee is forced to retreat back into Virginia.
 The Union victory led
Lincoln to issue the
Emancipation
Proclamation.

What might have happened if
Lee defeated the Union Army
at Antietam?
What is important about the battle of
Vicksburg ((MS) July 4th 1863)?
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By 1863, Vicksburg was the last major Confederate
stronghold on the Mississippi River.
Grant launched a siege of the city cutting off its food
supply and placing it under constant bombardment.
The Confederate forces surrender
July 4th 1863, which gave the
Union complete control of the
Mississippi River and cut the
Confederacy in half.
Which Confederate states were isolated
from the rest of the South with the fall of
Vicksburg?
What is important about the battle of
Gettysburg (PA): July 1st - 3rd 1863?
Lee again decided to invade the North in hope that the
North would settle for peace
 On July 2nd, Lee ordered an
attack, known as “Pickett’s Charge”
against Union forces.
-The South loses 7,000 men in
under 30 minutes of fighting.
 Lee retreated on July 4th, having
lost 1/3 of his entire fighting force.
 The loss forces the South to fight a
defensive war and strengthened the
will of the North to continue the fight.

Which state did Lee invade the first time he attacked
the North?
What were the results?
What is important about the battle for
Atlanta: August 1864?
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Sherman marched his army south towards Atlanta,
a major railroad center in the South.
He ordered all civilians out of the city and then
began to burn and destroy everything of military
value.
Atlanta was the beginning of Sherman’s “March to
the Sea” and helped the Republican Party gain
political strength.
Why did Lincoln suspend habeas corpus
(1862) ?
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Habeas corpus is a person’s right not to be imprisoned
unless charged with a crime and given a trial.
Lincoln suspended these common rights in an effort to
stop anyone from supporting the Confederate cause in
border states, and to prevent those who encouraged
others to resist the draft (conscription).
The suspension of habeas corpus was the result of
draft riots in many
northern cities.
Why is the Gettysburg Address
important?
In November 1863, Lincoln
gave his now famous speech
at Gettysburg to dedicate the
Gettysburg National
Cemetery.
 In a speech just over 2
minutes, Lincoln reiterated
the principles of human
equality expressed in the Dec
of Ind.
 Lincoln used the speech to
redefine the purpose of
fighting the war: the
reunification of the Union.
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http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/ge
ttysburgaddress.htm
What helped Lincoln win a 2nd Term?
Sherman’s capture of Atlanta helped Lincoln
win a 2nd term.
 Lincoln reiterates his message from the
Gettysburg Address when in his Second
Inaugural speech he states “With malice
towards none, with charity for all.”
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Who do you think Lincoln was talking about
in his Second Inaugural Speech? Do you think
this was his only option by 1865?
What is significant about the
Emancipation Proclamation?
Lincoln, amid growing war
casualties, used the Union victory
at Antietam to issue the
Emancipation Proclamation in
September 1862.
 EP changed the purpose of the war
and ensured Britain would not
support CSA.
 The Proclamation:
-freed only those slaves in the
states in rebellion.
-did not free the slaves in the
border states.
-gave the Union Army another
reason
to fight: the liberation of slaves.

Population: North 22 million vs. 5.5 million
free whites, North also had 800,000
immigrants during the war who in large
numbers enlisted in the Union cause.
 Railroads: 70% of functioning RRs in North.
 Industrial output: 85% of factories and
manufactured goods in North.
 North had 65% of farmland and the US Navy.

What were some of the
differences between the North and
South at the beginning of the war?
Northern and Southern
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