United States History & The Constitution Unit 5.1: Reconstruction Ch. 12.1 Notes Politics of Reconstruction Today’s Lesson Standard / Indicator Standard USHC-3: The student will demonstrate an understanding of how regional and ideological differences led to the Civil War & an understanding of the impact of the Civil War and Reconstruction on democracy in America. USHC-3.3: Analyze the effects of Reconstruction on the southern states & on the role of the federal government, including the impact of the thirteenth, fourteenth, & fifteenth amendments on opportunities for African Americans. Ch. 12.1 Notes - Lincoln’s 10% Plan: - Lenient on the South. - Pardon Confederates except high-ranking officials/accused of crimes against prisoners of war = swear allegiance to the Union. - 10% of states eligible voters had to vote to re-enter the Union. - form new state government & get representation in Congress. - Radical Republicans (Goals): - Destroy ex-slaveowners power. - Give Af. Americans voting & citizenship rights. Wade-Davis Bill: - Proposed Congress, (not president) responsible for Reconstruction. - Proposed a majority, not 10%, of 1860 eligible voters, required to establish a state government. - Lincoln “killed” it (pocket veto). Radical Republican Leader Thaddeus Stevens (R. – PA) Ch. 12.1 Notes - Pres. Johnson’s Plan (Presidential Reconstruction): - Aim: punish ex-confederate leaders (military & landowners): - Remaining 7 CSA states had to: 1.) Withdrawal secession. 2.) swear allegiance to the Union. 3.) annul Confederate war debts. 4.) ratify the 13th Amendment. - Failed (like Lincoln’s) to help ex-slaves: land, voting, legal protection. - Freedmen’s Bureau Act: - Helped ex-slaves & poor whites (clothing & food) - 40 hospitals, 4,000 schools, 61 ind. institutes, & 74 teachertraining centers. - Civil Rights Act of 1866: - Af-Americans citizenship. - Banned discriminatory “black codes”. - Pres. Johnson vetoed the Freedmen’s & Civil Rights Acts: Ch. 12.1 Notes - Radical Republicans overrode Johnson’s veto. - Reconstruction Amendments: - 13th amendment = abolished slavery. - 14th Amendment = - Persons born/naturalized in the U.S. are citizens. - Equal protection of the law. - Constitutional basis for Civil Rights Act of 1866. - 15th Amendment = suffrage to African Americans (males). - Reconstruction Act of 1867 (Radical Reconstruction): 1.) Abolished governments in former CSA states. 2.) Divided states into 5 military districts. 3.) Set up readmission requirements to the Union. Reconstruction Military Districts Daily “Bell Ringer” Warm Up 2nd Nine Weeks Bell Ringer #6 (5 & 6 Dec) 6.) Despite the passage of the Reconstruction Amendments (13th, 14th, & 15th), why did African Americans experience continued discrimination? a.) Southern governors declared the amendments null & void. b.) Southern state legislatures passed a series of Jim Crow Laws. c.) State governments were now aware these amendments were ratified. d.) The amendments did not address political rights. CORRECT ANSWER: B Today’s Lesson Standard / Indicator Standard USHC-3: The student will demonstrate an understanding of how regional and ideological differences led to the Civil War & an understanding of the impact of the Civil War and Reconstruction on democracy in America. USHC-3.4: Summarize the end of Reconstruction, including the role of anti– African American factions & competing national interests in undermining support for Reconstruction; the impact of the removal of federal protection for freedmen; & the impact of Jim Crow laws & voter restrictions on African American rights in the post-Reconstruction era. United States History & The Constitution Unit 5.2: Reconstruction Ch. 12.2 & 12.3 Notes Reconstructing Society & The Collapse of Reconstruction Political Terms: - Republicans in the South: a.) Carpetbaggers – northern Republican (missionaries, teachers, or entrepreneurs) = moved South after the war. b.) Scalawags – white southerners; didn’t participate in the Confederacy - Supported Republicans views on economic growth & public schools. c.) Freedmen – former slaves. - Southern Democrats: a.) Redeemers (redemption): ex- planters/ ex-confederates = “redeemed” the South by removing the Republicans & returning “home rule”. African Americans in Congress Sen. Hiram Revels, First African American Congressman (Republican – Mississippi) First black Senator & Representatives: Sen. Hiram Revels(R-MS), Rep. Benjamin S. Turner(R-AL), Robert DeLarge(R-SC), Josiah Walls(R-FL), Jefferson Long(R-GA), Joseph Rainey(R-SC), Robert B. Elliott (R-SC) The Rise of Vigilante Groups The Goals of the Ku Klux Klan, the Riflemen, & the Red Shirts - Intimidate carpetbaggers & freedmen = force away from voting polls & southern politics = hope they return north. - Forced closing of freedmen’s schools through intimidation & violent tactics. - Lynching, beatings, & cross-burnings = used to achieve Klan objectives. - Ku Klux Klan Act = sent troops to the South to protect freedmen. (weakly enforced). Freedmen & Reconstruction Freedmen in the Post-War South - Est. 2.3 million slaves freed by the 13th Amendment (displaced & liberated). - Most freedmen couldn’t read or write; jobs were scarce. - Thousands left plantations = started fresh in cities or searched for family members. - Problems = hunger, disease, & lack of shelter. - Some remained on plantations to work for wages. Freedmen in Post-Civil War Richmond, VA Freedmen & Reconstruction Creation of the Freedmen’s Bureau (1865): - Operated by the US Army (federal gov’t) - Provided food, clothing, medical supplies, etc. - Supervised work contracts & helped find jobs. - Set-up schools & military courts. Freedmen’s Bureau The Freedmen’s Bureau Cont. Failures of the Freedmen’s Bureau: - 2+ million freedmen needed help; very limited resources. - Issues working with resentful cash-poor planters. - “Forty Acres & a Mule” - Bureau promised more than it could deliver. “Freedmen’s Bureau” Economic Changes in the South Sharecropping: main job & lifestyle for poor southern whites & blacks. - Ex-planters re-gained old role as “master”. - Poor farmers economically dependent on the land owner = cycle of debt. - Worked land for a share of the crop (landowner supplied land, tools & seeds). - Poor farmers relied on crop liens. Post-Reconstruction Era Sharecropping in the South Exodusters Leaving the South Election of 1876 & Compromise of 1877 - Rutherford B. Hayes (Rep) v. Samuel Tilden (Dem) - Compromise of 1877: Deal struck over 20 contested electoral votes. - Democrats cede election to Hayes, in exchange… …federal troops pulled out of the South in 1877 = Reconstruction ended (1865-1877). - Power returned to Southern Democrats (redeemers). Successes & Failures of Reconstruction Successes Failures - Blacks played a role in politics through Reconstruction’s end. - Race relations didn’t improve. (increased) black/white tensions. - Public schools opened by the Freedmen’s Bureau = open to all. - Ku Klux Klan grew. - Thousands of free blacks learned to read & write. - Gov’t corruption increased. - Race riots occured in the South. - “Redeemers” (Ex-Confederate Democrats) regained control) Beginnings of “Jim Crow” - 1877: Conservative-Democrat’s control of the South. - Disfranchised (took away) the black vote. - Eight Box Law (1881): had to put your vote in the right ballot box. - Poll Taxes: pay a tax to vote. - Literacy Tests: read part of the Constitution & answer questions.. Poll Tax Receipt “Jim Crow” Cont. - Tactics designed to stop poor & illiterate blacks & whites from voting. - 1876 = ex: 90,000 people in SC voted Republican. - 1888 = less than 14,000 voted Republican. - Had to own land in some states in order to vote. “Jim Crow” Cont. - Grandfather Clause: If grandfather voted before the Civil War, then you could. - Plessy vs. Ferguson (1896): Supreme Court; established principle of “separate but equal” facilities for blacks & whites (rarely equal). - Led to de jure segregation.