The Civil War (USHC 3.2)

Report
Summarize the course of the Civil
War and its impact on democracy,
including the major turning
points; the impact of the
Emancipation Proclamation; the
unequal Treatment afforded to
African American military units;
the geographic, economic, and
political factors in the defeat of
the Confederacy; and the
ultimate defeat of the idea of
secession.
“A House divided against
itself cannot stand.”
-- Abraham Lincoln
Secession
Indian
Territory
The “Upper South” waited…
(CSA)
The “Deep South” seceded
after Lincoln was elected.
DOCUMENT
Causes of
Southern Secession
• Conflicting views about federal authority and
states’ rights
• Economic and cultural differences between the
agricultural South and the industrializing North
• Debates over the expansion of slavery into the
western territories
• The election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860
Confederate States of America
(CSA)
1861-1865
First National Flag of the CSA
Jefferson Davis,
President
War-making
Capacity
of the
North
and
South
Confederate Advantages
• More Competent Generals
– Southern Military Tradition
• “Home Field Advantage”
• DEFENSE as objective
– NOT conquest
• HIGH STAKES
– Survival as objective
Population
Manufacturing
Money
Defense
Military
Leadership
Political
Leadership
UNION
CONFEDERATE
Advantage
Advantage
The “Anaconda Plan”
General
Winfield
Scott
(1860)
Decisive Battles
of the Civil War
Battle
Year
Fort Sumter
1861
Antietam
(Sharpsburg)
Gettysburg
(PA)
Vicksburg
(MS)
Appomattox
Court House
1862
Victor
Union
Confed.
X
Significance
Began the Civil War
Tactical Draw Bloodiest Single Day of War
Union Strategic Emancipation Proclamation
X
Lee’s first tactical defeat
1863
X
Confederates lose control of
Mississippi River
1865
X
Lee surrenders to Grant
1863
Antietam
September, 1862
Lee and McClellan
fought to a tactical
draw in the bloodiest
single day of the war.
Afterwards,
Lee retreated to VA.
STRATEGIC VICTORY
for the Union
CASUALTIES
USA
CSA
The Emancipation Proclamation
1/1/1863
"That on the first day of January, in the year of
our Lord one thousand eight hundred and
sixty-three, all persons held as slaves
within any State or designated part of a
State, the people whereof shall then be in
rebellion against the United States, shall be
then, thenceforward, and forever free….
“Now, therefore I, Abraham Lincoln, President
of the United States, by virtue of the power
in me vested as Commander-in-Chief, of
the Army and Navy of the United States in
time of actual armed rebellion against the
authority and government of the United
States, and as a fit and necessary war
measure for suppressing said rebellion…”
DOCUMENT
The Emancipation Proclamation
Areas affected
Areas specifically exempted
0
WHY, THEN?
Lincoln’s #1 War Aim
Preserve the Union
–All other goals were
secondary
–Emancipation a goal IN
ADDITION
1863
Decisive Engagements
Engagement
State Victory
Chancellorsville
VA
Confederate
Gettysburg
PA
Union
Vicksburg
MS
Union
Lee
In 1863, Lee won
his greatest victory
and suffered his
greatest defeat.
Conscription
aka, “The Draft”
Confederate
Union
(1862)
o Draftees could hire
substitutes
(1863)
o Draftees could hire
substitutes
o Planters* exempt
o $300 to exempt
*20 or more slaves
“Rich man’s war, poor man’s fight.”
-- Anti-draft slogan
Gettysburg
July 1-3, 1863
After his victory at
Chancellorsville, Lee
invaded Pennsylvania
in hopes of gaining a
decisive victory on
Northern soil.
Gettysburg
July 1-3, 1863
After three days of
fighting, Lee failed to
defeat the Union Army.
LEE’S FIRST
TACTICAL DEFEAT
CASUALTIES
UNION
CONFEDERATE
Siege of
Vicksburg
May 18 – July 4, 1863
Grant
A Turning Point...
The back-to-back losses at
Gettysburg and Vicksburg
were severe blows to the
Confederacy.
What effect did these battles have
on the Copperhead movement in
the North?
The
Gettysburg
Address
November 19, 1863
RHETORIC
Fourscore and seven
years ago…
Of the people, by
the people, and for
the people…
African-Americans
in the Civil War
About 180,000 African-Americans
enlisted in the Union Army in the
later years of the war.
– 10% of Union Army / 1% of Population
ALL VOLUNTEER
Only whites were drafted in the North.
54th Massachusetts
Volunteer Infantry
The film, Glory (1989),
is based on the story of
the 54th Massachusetts
Volunteer Infantry.
The Old Flag Never Touched the Ground, which depicts the 54th Massachusetts Volunteer
Infantry Regiment at the attack on Fort Wagner, South Carolina, on July 18, 1863.
Election of 1864
1856
1860
1864
Four
More
Years!
TOTAL WAR
Lincoln
Grant
Sherman
• After defeating McClellan, Lincoln was no longer
bound by political considerations.
Lee
vs.
Grant
Virginia
1864-1865
WAR OF ATTRITION
Sherman’s March
Gen. William T.
Sherman (USA)
1864-1865
Sherman’s March
1864-1865
Lincoln’s Second
Inaugural Address
Compare to
First Inaugural
March 4,
1865
Appomattox Court House
April 12, 1865
Lee Surrenders to Grant
Richmond, 1865

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