Warm-up for 03.09.10 PLEASE DO NOT COPY!!!! • Please take out your notecards, and lay out your Emancipation Proclamation and Sherman’s Atlanta Campaign cards to the side. • Next, create 2 new cards: Sherman’s March to the Sea and Andersonville, and begin working on the facts for the backsides of those cards. You will have 10-15 working min. of these in class today – that is all! SO, GET BUSY! : ) Warm-up for 03.09.10 PLEASE DO NOT COPY!!!! • Please take out your notecards, and lay out your Antietam, Gettysburg, Chickamauga, and Union Blockade cards to the side. • Next, create 2 new cards: Emancipation Proclamation and Sherman’s Atlanta Campaign, and begin working on the facts for the backsides of those cards. You will have 1015 working min. of these in class today – that is all! SO, GET BUSY! : ) The Anaconda Plan The Union Blockade • The Union Blockade - a massive effort by the Union Navy to prevent the passage of trade goods, supplies, and arms to and from the Confederacy on the Atlantic and Gulf Coast of the Confederate States of America. • President Abraham Lincoln proclaimed the blockade on April 19, 1861. • His strategy, part of the Anaconda Plan of General Winfield Scott, required the closure of 3,500 miles of Confederate coastline and twelve major ports – Port of Savannah – closed off after the surrender of Fort Pulaski in April 1862. UNION BLOCKADE SHIP The Union Blockade • Early in war, not enough Union ships Union pours millions into building new ships for blockade. • Ships that tried to evade the blockade, known as blockade runners, were mostly newly built, highspeed ships with small cargo capacity. – They were operated by the British (using Royal Navy officer on leave) and ran between Confederate-controlled ports and the neutral ports of Havana, Cuba; Nassau, Bahamas, and Bermuda, where British suppliers had set up supply bases. • Those ship owners that were able to break the blockade line made a FORTUNE! – Est. $200 mil. worth of merchandise and supplies made it through the blockade by end of war CONFEDERATE BLOCKADE RUNNER The Union Blockade • At first 5/6 attempts to slip through the blockade were successful; by 1864, only half were successful (which means the life expectancy of a blockade runner was one round trip). • Confederate cotton exports were reduced 95% from 10 million bales in the three years prior to the war to just 500,000 bales during the blockade period. OUCH! THAT HURTS, YO! The Union Blockade • Blockade causes prices of goods to dramatically increase in the South and makes certain items impossible to get. • Bacon = $6.60 (2010= $116) • butter = $2.00 a pound (2010 = $35) • tea = $7.00 a pound (2010 = $123) • Hit the hardest? • Food, medicine, and weapons. What do steam ships, cotton plants, and emancipation have in common? King Cotton Diplomacy • The political strategy for winning the war in the South was known as King Cotton Diplomacy. Factories in France and England Cotton Supply p. 263 DoES THE CONFEDERACY get the help IT needS? King Cotton Diplomacy • Instead of England and France supporting the South in the war, they turn to cotton markets in India and Egypt. HA! HA! BUT WHY? WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING SOUND RIGHT? 1.) Surplus of cotton in England = we don’t need your stinkin’ cotton! 2.) Not wanting to get involved in US affairs = maybe we won’t get pulled into war ourselves 3.) The outcome of the Battle of Antietam = The North laid out a mighty butt-whooping on the Confederacy AND announced the Emancipation Proclamation…its gotta’ be over for the Confederacy. Now, on to the Battle of Antietam… Where: Sharpsburg, Maryland near a stream called Antietam Creek When: September 17, 1862 Who: Commander of CSA = Robert E. Lee Commander of USA = George McClellan What happened: • Single bloodiest day of battle in the Civil War (and in US History). • 12 hour battle • 23,000 casualties (killed, wounded, missing) • Union victory • After long list of Confederate victories, the Union win at Antietam gives President Lincoln the confidence to issue the Emancipation Proclamation. Emancipation Proclamation CHANGES THE PURPOSE OF THE WAR! • From keeping the Union together to keeping the Union together AND freeing slaves in rebel states • Declares that all slaves “living in states in rebellion” will get their freedom on Jan 1, 1863 • A 100 day “grace period” will be given to “states in rebellion” so that they can make up their mind if they want to come back into the Union of not. • If a “state in rebellion” comes back to the Union within 100 days, it does not have to free its’ slaves! • After the President Lincoln issues this proclamation on Jan. 1, 1863, France and England (2 anti-slavery countries) had no choice but to “back” the North not the South. Now, on to the Battle of Gettysburg… Where: Gettysburg, Pennsylvania When: July 1-3, 1863 Who: Commander of CSA = Robert E. Lee Commander of USA = George Meade What happened: • Bloodiest battle of the Civil War • 3 day battle • 51,000 casualties • Union victory • Ended Lee’s 2nd attempt to invade the North. He will never press that far north again. Now, on to the Battle of Chickamauga… Where: near Chattanooga, TN near Chickamauga Creek IN GEORGIA When: September 19-20, 1863 Who: Commander of CSA = Braxton Bragg Commander of USA = William Rosecrans What happened: • Bloodiest 2-day battle of the Civil War • 34,624 casualties • Confederate victory • Kept Union army from invading GA and heading towards Atlanta for a few months.