Human Trafficking - College of Social Work Student Association At

Report
Rachel Tufano, BSSW Student
Dr. Jacquelyn Meshelemiah
CSWSA
February 27, 2012
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What Can You Do?
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What Can Social Work
Do?
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Our Experiences
TVPA
Definition
Tactics
Indicators
Correlation to Art Theft
Anti-Trafficking Organizations
Survivors
Local Organizations
Social Work & Human Trafficking
Human Rights Activity
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Buffalo, New York
 “Prostitutes”
 Johns
 Residents
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Columbus, Ohio
 “Prostitutes”
▪ Maryhaven
▪ The Streets
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Rachel Tufano
Ghana
 Roamers vs. Seaters
 Fishermen
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Reauthorizations in 2003, 2005, & 2008
Attempts to severely
criminalize trafficking
by enhancing existing
criminal penalties
 Focuses on awareness
and education
 Provides provisions
for organizations
working with SHT
victims
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Monitoring of 175
nations anti-trafficking
efforts
 Focus is on
international victims
and CSA
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Labor Trafficking
The recruitment,
harboring,
transportation,
provision, or obtaining
of a person for labor or
services, through the
use of force, fraud, or
coercion,
 for the purpose of
subjection to
involuntary servitude,
peonage, debt
bondage, or slavery.
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The recruitment,
harboring,
transportation, provision,
or obtaining of a person
for the purpose of a
commercial sex act
(CSA), in which a CSA is
induced by force, fraud,
or coercion,
or in which the person
induced to perform such
act has not attained 18
years of age.
Sex Trafficking
•Slavery
•Child Trafficking
•Organ Removal
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“Human trafficking affects every continent and every type of economy.”
(U.N. Global Initiative to Fight Human Trafficking, 2011)
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~1.3 to 2.8 million runaway and/or
homeless children live on the
streets; are vulnerable to being
trafficked (Random Facts, 2011).
There is a 90% chance that a
juvenile involved in “prostitution”
will be arrested when come into
contact with law enforcement
(OJJDP, 2004).
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In 2007, 1229 HT incidents were
identified; 83% were sex
trafficking (Bureau of Justice Statistics,
2007/2008).
Most DHT victims are not viewed
nor treated as victims.
~600k to 800k
trafficked across
international
borders
(Fedina, Trease, & Williamson, 2008;
U.S. Dept of State, 2010)
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~ 20K people are
trafficked annually
into the USA (Fair Fund,
2011).
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Most trafficked
victims into the USA
are from Asia, E.
Europe and Africa
(Global Initiative to Fight Human
Trafficking, 2011).
INTERNATIONAL
VICTIMS
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Domestic
 Happens within the borders of a country
 Strip clubs, street-based prostitution, escort services, and
brothels
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Transnational
 Where two different countries work together to transport
the victims to different countries
 “a young girl may be recruited in Nigeria and sold and
‘trained’ in Italy, with the Netherlands being the ultimate
destination” (Hodge & Leitz, 2007)
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International
 Domestic and transnational trafficking combined
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1.
Lure in target subjects by offering a loving and
stable relationship (i.e., marriage), work or school
Handsome young male used as bait
Used in industrialized nations
2.
Women have a history in prostitution
i.e., working at night clubs, strip clubs, karaoke bars
Unaware of the slavery and control
3.
Kidnapping
Usually young children
4.
Sold into the industry
Sometimes unaware of consequences
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Societal
 Poverty
 Uneducated
 Denial of existence
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Individual
 Choice to enter
▪ Either because of poverty
▪ Often unaware of the consequences
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 Race is said to be
an indicator for
trafficking victims
 Said to be easier
to control
 Approx. 77% of
victims have been
people of color
(Bell, 2010)
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Women are targeted the most
 Limited/no education, chronic unemployment,
discrimination & lack of economic opportunities
▪ (U.S. Department of State, 2000)
 While looking for job opportunities, may be lured
in with false promises as wives, nannies, maids,
dancers, factory workers, models, etc.
▪ (U.S. Department of State, 2000)
 Women can be easily controlled by fear and
violence
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Recent studies have
shown a link
between art theft
and human
trafficking.
 Art Theft “is a
looming criminal
enterprise with
estimated losses
running as high as
six billion annually”
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(Federal Bureau of
Investigation, 2010).
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Drug trade, weapons trade, human trafficking, and
art theft are all linked
Stolen art is “used as a collateral in drug
transactions and laundering schemes, as well as
financing terrorism” (Durney, 2010)
These connections could damage any efforts that
fight against human trafficking
 Hard to locate the exact destination of traffickers
 So intertwined that all must be fought against
simultaneously
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Free the Slaves (U.S./International)
The Polaris Project (U.S./International)
Not for Sale (U.S./ International)
International Justice Mission
(U.S./International)
US State Department: Office to Combat
Trafficking in Persons
Rahab’s Hideaway
Gracehaven
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Founders: Katherine Chon and Derek Ellerman
Mission Statement: “ Polaris Project is committed
to combating human trafficking and modern day
slavery and to strengthening the anti- trafficking
movement through a comprehensive approach”
(Polaris Project, 2010)
Values: “service, reality and impact centered,
empowerment, non-violence and respect,
transformative and innovation, [and] holistic
approach” (Polaris Project, 2010)
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Clients :
 Transitional housing, job
training, emergency
services, comprehensive
case management, group
therapy, and victim
outreach
Community:
 Policy advocacy, training
and technical assistance,
public outreach, national
human trafficking hotline,
and a fellowship program
1-888-3737-888
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Transitional Housing
 There is specific criteria to enter into the transitional
housing program
 “Must go through an extensive interview process and
thorough screening”
 Only can stay for 6 to 24 months
▪ Adherence to rules and situation
 Why?
• making sure they are emotionally prepared
• not enough funding for everyone
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Education Means Protection
of Women Engaged in
Recreation
 Founded in 1984 Chantawipa
Apisuk
 A women’s rights group in
Thailand
 Supports women in
prostitution
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 Classes on different languages
 How to use a computer
 Public speaking
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Slogan: “Good girls go to heaven, bad girls go
everywhere”
 To show “many sex workers are genuinely
enjoying their lives”
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Apisuk fights to give rights to the prostitutes
instead of getting them out of the trade
“Damn the law. We have had anti-prostitution
legislation since 1960. The sex industry keeps
on growing. How useful is the law?”
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Apisuk claims “against forced prostitution”
but believes that there is no such thing
Believes police raids do not help
Very mistaken about the definition of human
trafficking
Giving women a false view of human
trafficking
There are other ways to help woman escape
poverty besides prostitution
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Theresa Flores
Marlene Carson
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Grew up in a suburban area of Detroit with her family
Taken from her house late at night and taken to their
basement while others paid to have sexual intercourse
with her
She tried to get help but the threats got worse
Physically, Mentally, and Emotionally Abused
 Tied to a bed and was raped by multiple men
 Taken to a hotel , was drugged, and then raped until
she blacked out
Turned to God and later counseling
“not a day goes by that I ever regret the decision to go
public, or show my face on television to tell what
happened to a normal kid from the suburbs”
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Columbus, Ohio
New York—Barbara
Streisand
 Linden Area
 Rahab’s Hideaway
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Gravehaven
Rahab’s
Hideaway
 Doma
 Second Chance
(Toledo)
 Salvation Army
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 CORRC
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Child Welfare
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Human trafficking violates almost all of the core
competencies
 Social justice: women have no rights, are unable to make
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decisions, forced into labor and sexual acts
Dignity and worth of person : treated as worthless and less
than people
Integrity: not helping is going against our strong moral
principles
Importance of human relationships: often taken away from
these women
Competence: women are told they are not worth anything
else and not competent to do anything else
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
Become Educated
 Half the Sky
 The Slave Across the
Street
 Terrified No More
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Get involved in the
community
 Gracehaven
 Rahab’s Hideaway
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Spread your
knowledge!
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What Can You Do?
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What Can Social Work
Do?
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Bell, J. (2010, May 10). Race and human trafficking in the U.S.: Unclear but undeniable « Book-of-Jamaal-articles. SoapBox.
Retrieved November 20, 2010, from http://blogs.alternet.org/jrbizzy/2010/05/10/race-and-human-trafficking-in-the-u-sunclear-but-undeniable/
Durney, M. (2010, April 20). Art Theft Has Surprising Ties to Illicit Drug Trade, Terrorism - Arts. The Tripod. Retrieved March 03,
2011, from http://media.www.trinitytripod.com/media/storage/paper520/news/2010/04/20/Arts/ArtTheft.Has.Surprising.Ties.To.Illicit.Drug.Trade.Terrorism-3909605.shtml
Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2010). FBI — Art Theft. FBI — Homepage. Retrieved March 03, 2011, from
http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/investigate/vc_majorthefts/arttheft/arttheft
Flores, T. L., & Wells, P. (2010). The slave across the street: the true story of how an American teen survived the world of human
trafficking. Boise, ID: Ampelon Pub.
National Association of Social Workers. (2011). Code of Ethics (English and Spanish). National Association of Social Workers.
Retrieved January 16, 2011, from http://www.naswdc.org/pubs/code/code.asp
Polaris Project. (2010). Polaris Project: For a World without Slavery. Polaris Project | Combating Human Trafficking and Modernday Slavery. Retrieved March 08, 2011, from http://www.polarisproject.org/
Popova, E., & Anguelov, I. (2009, April 13). Human Trafficking in Europe Outweighs Drug Smuggling, says Report | World |
Epoch Times. Epoch Times | National, World, China, Sports, Entertainment News | Epoch Times. Retrieved March 05, 2011, from
http://www.theepochtimes.com/n2/content/view/15305/
Smith, D. (2011, February, ?). Information on the National Association of Social Work’s Involvement with Human Trafficking
[Personal Interview].
Sukpanich, T. (2007, March 11). Thai-100.com Bangkok Post's Empower Foundation Article, March 11, 2007. Thai-100.com Top
Bars and Clubs in Thailand. Retrieved November 15, 2010, from http://www.thai-100.com/Empower_Foundation.html
United Nations. (2004, March). United Nations of Peacekeeping (United Nations, Department of Peacekeeping). Retrieved
November 15, 2010, from http://www.un.org/womenwatch/news/documents/DPKOHumanTraffickingPolicy03-2004.pdf
Urban Ministry. (2010). Human Trafficking: Definition, Prevalence, and Causes: Encyclopedia of Urban Ministry |
UrbanMinistry.org: Podcasts, MP3s, Grants, Jobs, Books on Christian Social Justice. UrbanMinistry.org: Podcasts, MP3s, Grants,
Jobs, Books on Christian Social Justice | Home. Retrieved November 16, 2010, from http://www.urbanministry.org/wiki/humantrafficking-definition-prevalence-and-causes
U.S. Department of State. (2000). Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000. U.S. Department of State.
Retrieved January 17, 2011, from http://www.state.gov/g/tip/laws/61124.htm
U.S. Department of State. (2005). Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2005.U.S. Department of State.
Retrieved March 03, 2011, from http://www.state.gov/g/tip/laws/61106.htm
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