4 - Civil War Part 1

Discuss with the person
next to you…
What are the 7 basic principles of the U.S.
(Hint: Unit 2 - #3)
1) Explain with details which
side (N or S) was more
prepared for war.
2) Describe and detail the
North’s “Anaconda Plan”.
By February 1861, SEVEN southern states had seceded. My March, only 2 forts in the
south remained controlled by the Union (north). One is Fort Sumter in Charleston
Harbor. Soldiers at Fort Sumter are in need of supplies. President Lincoln is presented
with his first major dilemma…
President Lincoln did not want to provoke a full out war, so he decided to send in FOOD supplies only!
This forced Jefferson Davis into action. Remember, he is the President of the Confederacy.
(the Confederate States of America or CSA)
Davis made the first move on April 12, 1861.
Davis ordered for the southern troops to begin firing on Fort Sumter, which fell very quickly.
Lincoln reacted by calling for volunteers to sign up for war. This caused Virginia to secede.
By May of 1861, there were 11 members of the CSA (Confederate States of America).
Most citizens (in the north and the south) thought this would be a short war…
They were WRONG!
Civilian Resources Advantage (N or S)
Total Population
Industrial Workers
Iron Production
Food Production
North (2:1)
North (4:1)
North (15:1)
Military Resources Advantage (N or S)
Eligible for Military
Naval Ship
Firearm Production
Fighting Power
North (4:1)
North (25:1)
North (32:1)
It seemed the north had all the advantages!
So what did the south have?
1) Cotton – the south could generate huge revenue from
selling cotton on the world market
2) Generals – the south actually had better generals with a
stronger military tradition
3) Mindset – the Union was the side interested in getting
back together, the south was the side that seceded!
The southern strategy was very simple, play defense! The north had the more difficult task of
trying to bring the United States of America back together by forcing the rebellious states in
the CSA back in with the Union.
The Anaconda
The Union armies would
capture the Confederate
capital of Richmond Virginia
The Union Navy would
blockade southern ports to
cut off importing
(manufactured goods) or
exporting (cotton)
(Part 1 Slide)
(Part 2 Slide)
The Union riverboats and
armies would move down
through Mississippi
cutting the south in half
(Part 3 Slide)
Discuss with the person next to you…
1) The 3 parts to the Union’s “Anaconda
2) Which side (Union or Confederacy) was
more prepared for war….give
Lincoln ordered his armies to move on
The Confederate armies were camped
near Bull Run Creek
The battle was back and forth with the
North doing well at the start.
The 1st Battle of Bull Run
Union troops fled & the
Southern morale sky-rocketed!
The Confederates fought back and held the line
(General Johnathan “Stonewall” Jackson)
The Union Navy
dispatched ships
to blockade
military and
water traffic to
& from the
The Confederate Navy had to
develop blockade runners, but was
not enough to sustain the war
effort in the south
March 1862, the Monitor
& Merrimack fought in a
new style of naval battle
Fort Henry & Fort
Union commander Ulysses
S. Grant took 2 strategic
forts on the Tennessee and
Cumberland Rivers
Lower Mississippi
While gathered near
Shiloh, Grant’s forces were
attacked. They were able
to repel the Confederates
but showed many of the
flaws for the Union.
Commander David
Farragut blew through
Confederate strong holds
to take New Orleans fairly
Farragut took the southern end of Mississippi in no time, and the third
part of the Anaconda Plan seemed to be working well.
Guns and
The Civil War introduced
many new technologies
that forced commanders in
the field to rethink their
military strategies!
Naval Improvements
Rail Roads
The Second and Third parts to the Anaconda Plan (Union’s Plan) were going well, but Part 1 was
not (moving on land to capture the southern capital of Richmond).
General McClellan was too cautious and refused to move, even though he had an army of 120,000 men!
The Union
- General McClellan
- Cautious commander
- Moved slowly
- Used only battle tested
- After 7 Days Battle, he moved
toward the sea
- Was able to get ahold of
Confederate battle plans
- Met Robert E. Lee at ANTIETAM
The Confederacy
- General Robert E. Lee
- Very determined
- Used unorthodox tactics
- Plans included splitting his army
from Jackson’s troops
- After Lee wins the Second
battle of Bull Run, he goes after
Washington, D.C.
- Met McClellan at ANTIETAM
This is the battle that has the single bloodiest day of war during the entire civil war...
September 17th = Over 26,000 casualties!!
General McClellan does not pursue General Lee’s army as they retreated. This moment
represents a chance that the Civil War could have ended. Lincoln fired McClellan as soon as he
heard the news.

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