Explicit Instruction

Common Core State Standards
Grades K-3
Module 3
Oral Language Builds
Code-Related Skill
“These oral language skills should be an integral part
of reading instruction beginning in preschool and
throughout elementary school. Not only are oral
language abilities linked to the code-related skills that
promote word-reading abilities, but early oral language
abilities also provide the foundation for development of
the advanced oral language skills necessary for
successful comprehension in more skilled readers.”
Common Core Focus Reading:
RF. Know and apply grade-level phonics and word
analysis skills in decoding words.
a. Identify and know the meaning of the most
common prefixes and derivational suffixes.
b. Decode words with common Latin suffixes.
c. Decode multi-syllable words.
d. Read grade-appropriate irregularly spelled words.
Who Needs Phonics, and
How Do We Know?
Students who:
• Are stymied or guess wildly when they approach unfamiliar
• Cannot associate phonemes and graphemes with accuracy
and fluency.
• Have trouble blending sounds into words.
• Spell poorly.
• Score low on a test of reading nonsense syllables.
• Score low on a test of reading real words.
Do you recognize any of these characteristics in your students?
Instructional Progression From Phonology to Orthography
Phonological Awareness
Teach letter names
vowel teams
word families
syllable types
word origin
Connect letters
and sounds
Warm Up:
Hold Up Your Fingers to Respond
How many syllables in each
1. nationality
2. enables
3. overjoyed
4. burst
5. cleaned
How many phonemes in each
1. straight
2. brought
3. lodged
4. know
5. write
Phonological Awareness Is
the Link to Phonics
When students understand the sound to letters
(phoneme to grapheme) relationships that create
written language – they learn to read and spell more
quickly and accurately.
/p/ /l/ /ā/ /n/
p l ai n
Will a Focus on Phonics
Impede Comprehension?
Read the article
Highlight important information.
Write down questions you have after reading.
Find someone else in the room to discuss your
• Be prepared to share with the group.
What Are the Characteristics of Students
Who Struggle Reading Long Words?
They guess based on the first few letters.
They guess based on context.
They often leave off endings.
They take a long time to figure out words.
They insert and/or omit sounds.
Student Activity 3.3:
Teacher: Let’s segment words into their sounds by
touching our head, waist, and toes. Watch me
(teacher says word and then segments word):
mat. /m/ (head), /ă/ (waist), /t/ (toes). Your turn. Say bed.
Student: bed
Teacher: Segment bed by touching your head, waist, and toes.
Student: bed. (Students touch and say) /b/ /ĕ/ /d/.
Practice these words with a partner: sip, ride, kick, kite.
p. 85
Pre-Reading Activity:
Slash and Read Big Words Fluently
com/mand com/mon
com/mute com/plain
How We Teach Is Important
Explicit and systematic instruction includes:
• A clearly stated purpose.
• An example instructional sequence.
• Instructional routines.
• Regular and cumulative review.
• Engaging techniques, high student response.
• Practice with corrective feedback.
• Intensity to match student needs.
Explicit Instruction
Explicit Instruction: Teaching that includes clear
explanations and demonstrations leaving no
need for inference. Explicit instruction is direct
Implicit Instruction: Teaching that leaves out the
explanation. The learning is implied. Students
have to fill in the blanks!
Explicit Instruction: Steps
• Steps in explicit instruction always include:
– Modeling/demonstration
– Guided practice
– Independent practice
I Do
We Do
You Do
What Is Your Plan?
• What was new for you?
• What is your plan for improving phonics and
spelling instruction?
Form new pairs and discuss your plans with each
Multisensory Instruction
“What fires together, wires together”
Engaging students in simultaneous visual, auditory, and
kinesthetic activities helps to create neurological
pathways or strong memory connections.
p. 91
By teaching students systematically in
phonics concepts, we can ensure they are
prepared for reading more advanced text
fluently and with comprehension.
“There is no comprehension strategy powerful
enough to compensate for the inability to read
the words.” —Dr. Joseph Torgesen

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