Use of Curriculum-based Dynamic Assessment Assessment as a process for monitoring student progress and instruction: The Case of English Language Learners Hypothesized Categories of English Language Learners Spanish-Speaking Seco nd L anguage L earners Spanish D o m inant L o w -achieving in English & Spanish L o w -achieving in English Inside and o utside o f special educatio n N o rm ally achieving in Spanish T ype 1 L earner T ype 2 L earner B ehind academ ically B ehind academ ically able to perfo rm tasks presented in N O T able to perfo rm tasks presented in either English and/o r Spanish English o r Spanish (In general education settings) Characteristics of Learner Types Type 1 Learner Low achievement Limited or inadequate exposure to curriculum Limited literacy history Responds to ESL/Bilingual instruction, but has more to catch up Type 2 Low achievement May or may not have had limited or inadequate exposure to curriculum May or may not have had limited literacy history Does not respond well to ESL/Bilingual Instruction Typical ESL/Bilingual approaches either do not work or require intense instruction. Basic Approach to Assessment (Ortiz, 1997) Pre-referral Ensure instruction is appropriate. Ensure it is implemented appropriately. Referral Language Assessment • Dominance • Proficiency Achievement Attainment Assessing the learning environment Typical Assessments Evaluate programs and curricula. • Are they appropriate for this student? Examine whether students have received appropriate instruction. Evince that child has not learned what was taught. Has alternative instruction been used? Recommendations for ELLs Are ESL/Bilingual programs in existence? Are they being administered appropriately? Has the student fared well in these programs? Are a variety of language-learning methods being used? Assessing the Student (Achievement/attainment) Typical assessments Determine if alternative instruction worked Initiate pre-referral services Identify specific sources of student difficulty • Oral language first, then other literacy skills • Then specific subject areas Recommendations for ELLs Examine curriculumbased work samples in ESL/Bilingual instruction Ensure additional services have been exhausted Identify English/L1 sources of difficulty Specific Tools for Identifying ELLs Make appropriate comparisons Examine language use in multiple contexts for multiple reasons Examine second language difficulties in light of language acquisition process Are they developing English as might be expected? Characteristics of ELL Writing Difficulties Poor simultaneous processing Poor handwriting Writing verbatim Inability to coordinate learned skills into learning outcomes Promising Practices Use of Curriculum-Based Assessment/Measurement (Idol et al., 1999, Deno, 1989; Shinn, 1989) Use of Dynamic Assessment (Jitendra & Kame’enui, 1993; Jitendra, et al., 1998) Evaluation Factors: Use of CBA As compared to other second language learners Structure and organization of work Degree of English/L1 Dominance Use of subject matter conventions Knowledge of specific vocabulary/definitions Accuracy and fluency of content area/language Identified consistency in accomplishing tasks from beginning to end Dynamic Assessment Process (Jitendra, et al., 1998) Determine learning tasks to teach the student Develop three alternate forms of the task Use one form as a pre-test Administer intervention with form 2 Administer a post test after intervention (form 3) Analyze results Design instruction Assessment of note taking Organization incorporates key facts systematic (chronological or by topic) Fluent handwriting a measure of simultaneous processing Grouping of ideas Assessment of Writing Spelling Grammar/mechanics Sentence length Sentence number Sentence completeness according to increasing level of difficulty Maintenance /consistency of topic Mathematics Think-Aloud Strategy Teacher determines the standards-based mathematics concept or skill to learn: Determine Pre-requisite skills Example: student recognizes part-to-whole relationships, understands key vocabulary terms (numerator, denominator, digit, single digit, two-digit) and symbols (=, /) Conduct Pre-requisite skill assessment (CBM & CBA to verify PrS) Teacher modeling of strategy (I do it) Example: representing fractions and their equivalents Example: “first, I need to [factor the numerator with the denominator to the lowest number, next, I need to [verify that both fractions are equal], finally, I need to [start the next fraction and complete the steps] Teacher and Student use the Mathematics Prompt Sheet to teach/learn the strategy (we do it) Student Guided and Independent Practice (You do it) Monitor and Evaluate Strategy Use, Progress, and Student Check-in Use of systematic teaching process Explain what will be done and why Determine and verify vocabulary needed Describe strategy steps Modeling and Prompting of steps Provide exemplars & visuals Collect strategy and achievement data during instruction & practice Provide student opportunities to verify comprehension of strategy and process (student check-in) See http://cehd.umn.edu/NCEO/OnlinePubs/ELLsDis16/default.html for published descriptions Applications for ELLs with disabilities in Group and ESL Settings Evidence for use of think-alouds with ELLs in ESL settings Use in conjunction with the CALLA (Chamot, Dale, O’Malley, & Spanos, 1992) • For review of Chamot, et al., paper go to http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1. 1.20.9610 A think-aloud procedure was used as a step in preparing for understanding the problem-solving steps, as a guide during problem solving and as a reflective (“retrospective”) process after solving the problem Students with language and mathematics ability challenges (“low ability”) had more difficulty and could benefit from procedures used in our study (cf. Liu, Barrera, & Thurlow, 2009) Reading Strategies Student-Developed Post-Reading Graphic Organizer Individualized Student Chunking and Questioning Aloud Student Chunking and Questioning Aloud Identify Pre-requisite Skills Determine Content Able to read sentences at instructional level (word attack and word recognition) for gradelevel content. Identify and determine standards-based content reading Determine Instructional Objective Given content area and standards-based reading passages at grade level, the student will complete content comprehension questions of the reading passages verbally or in writing with 95% accuracy. Student Chunking and Questioning Aloud Provide Teacher-Directed Instruction Teacher divides standards-based content reading into smaller sections before student begins to read. Teacher presents and models how to use chunking and questioning with a sample text. Before reading a “chunk” the teacher gives a verbal prompt to read for key items of information in the text. Teacher leads student through several lessons in using chunking and questioning Student reads a section of text and rehearses verbally in the student’s own words what has just been read. Then student goes on to next section and repeats until passage is completed. Closes book and pretends to be teacher. Asks questions relating to what they have read. After a while, the teacher reverses the roles having student answer comprehension questions (Bondaza, Kelly & Treewater, 1998). Student Chunking and Questioning Aloud Constraints on Chunking Excessive chunking (chunk’s chunks) may hinder text comprehension. A misapplied segmentation strategy causes slower reading (Keenan, 1984). Extreme variability in line length may slow reading by disrupting the rhythm of eye movements (Keenan, 1984). Student-Developed Post-Reading Graphic Organizer Teacher uses a semi-complete graphic organizer to introduce and teach the strategy to the student in how to construct a self-generated graphic organizer. Determine Content and Type of GO Pre-requisite skills Determine Reading Comprehension Obectives GO Example: Five interrelated phases: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Prewriting Drafting Revising Editing Publishing 22 • • • • Purpose Generating and gathering ideas for writing Preparing for writing Identifying purpose and audience for writing Identifying main ideas and supporting details Strategies •Verbal activities •Brainstorming •Clustering •Questioning •Reading •Keeping journals 23 How Would You Describe “Drafting”?