planning

Report
ELEMENT 9
Task Planning, Briefing,
Debriefing
Module 9.1 Task and Mission Planning
Module 9.2 Briefing
Module 9.3 The SMEACS Brief Format
Module 9.4 De-Briefing
AIM & END STATE
• Aim:
– To look at different planning and briefing
techniques
• End state:
– To understand how planning and briefing can
reduce the likelihood of mission failure
• References: In the CRM Reference
Manual
9.0
PLANNING
“If you don’t know where you’re going, you
might end up somewhere else.” Yogi Berra
• All high risk activities require significant
planning and skill
– No planning requires great skill (and luck)
– Poor skill requires great planning
9.1
PLANNING
• Planning:
– Fosters mission command by conveying
commander’s intent
– Assigns tasks and purposes
– Contains coordinating measures
– Allocates resources
– Directs preparation activities and establishes
times and conditions for the execution
• US Army Field Manual 5.0
9.1.1
PLANNING
General Aviation Accident Causal Reasons
over an 11 year period
Note how lack of flight planning was a
reason in 38% of accidents and fuel related
issues were a reason in 10% (including fuel
exhaustion).
Source: CASA Flight Safety Magazine
9.1.1
PLANNING
• Good Planning helps Situational Awareness
– It allows for prediction of future events and
identification of
threats
– It reduces the
stress of the
unknown
– It helps with
comprehension
and projection.
9.1.1.2
PLANNING
• Good Planning helps Decision Making
– SA and DM are both derived from good
planning
– Contingency planning allows for
• Evaluating of Multiple Alternatives
• Selecting one of Multiple Courses of Action
• Ability to assess against mission goals
• Good Planning gives you more options!
9.1.1.2
PLANNING
• Strategic Planning – plans created at the
highest level for the organisation to achieve
long term goals
• Operational Planning – plans created at
mid-level usually to achieve short to mid
term goals
• Tactical Planning – plans created by the
operators to achieve immediate goals.
9.1.1.2
PLANNING
• Strategic Planning
– plans created at the highest level for the
organisation to achieve long term goals
• Operational Planning
– plans created at
mid-level in the
organisation usually
to achieve short to
mid term goals.
9.1.2
PLANNING
• Tactical Planning
– plans created by
the operators to
achieve immediate
goals.
9.1.2.1
PLANNING
• Contingency Planning
– Plans created at various levels to counter
potential threats
• IF THEN Logic Loops
– A form of contingency planning to assist with
DM
– Takes the form of asking a question:
• “If x happens, then we shall do y.”
9.1.2.2
PLANNING
• Mind Mapping
– A technique used in planning that allows for
“out of the box” non-linear thinking
– Uses a visual means to invoke thinking
– Useful for abstract concepts
– Good for academic planning (eg reports, etc)
and project management
– Can be time consuming.
9.1.2.4
PLANNING
• Checklists
– SOPs often already
have checklists
which can be used
for planning
– If one does not exist,
create one or use
another organisation’s
and customise it.
9.1.3
PLANNING
•
•
•
•
•
MIDAS (SA Country Fire Service)
Mission – objectives, goals, assumptions
Information – problem, issues, situation
Develop Options – COAs (Likely / Worst)
Analyse Options – Assess risk, compare COA
against operational expectations, liaise
• Select Preferred Option – Choose best COA,
brief, implement, review, revise.
9.1.3
PLANNING
• Allocate planning using one third / two thirds
rule
– 1/3 of the time avail is spent planning
– 2/3 of the time avail is spent
• Allocating tasks to
subordinates to allow
them to plan
• Preparing resources
9.1.2.2
BRIEFING
• Briefing: presenting information from one
party that has access to that information to
another party in order to facilitate a task or
achieve an aim
• Debriefing: gathering information from one
or more parties in order to learn from or
clarify the circumstances surrounding an
incident or activity so that the information
can be used in some way.
9.2
BRIEFING
• Types of Briefings:
– Information Briefing: delivers information which
is of use to the recipients and which does not
normally contain conclusions or
recommendations but it may be used to make
decisions
– Decision Briefing: explains a decision and how
it was reached and the resulting course of
action for a specific problem.
9.2.1
BRIEFING
• Types of Briefings:
– Mission Briefing: used to coordinate effort to
achieve team goals by exchanging information,
providing guidance and issuing instructions. It
normally involves an hierarchical chain of
command
– Staff Briefing: to coordinate organisation’s
efforts through the chain of command and to
provide information on the current situation and
the way ahead with appropriate guidance given.
9.2.1
BRIEFING
• Effective Briefing Techniques - a briefer
needs to be very familiar with the topic and
ready to answer questions. The key
techniques to an effective deliberate brief
are:
– Plan
– Prepare
– Execute
– Assess/Follow Up.
9.2.2
BRIEFING
• Plan: Analyse the situation for the brief
– What needs to be communicated?
– What is the knowledge base of the audience?
– What are the audience’s expectations?
– What are the important elements of information?
– What time pressures are there?
– Who can assist?
– Where is the venue and what equipment is
available for use?
9.2.2
BRIEFING
• Prepare: Construct the brief’s elements
– Research: collect the material and ensure it is
known thoroughly. Get enough information but
not too much
– Organise: consider the key points and arrange
them in a logical order. Provide supporting data
for key points and select the visual aids.
– Draft: create words and visuals based on the
information so that a script is NOT required.
9.2.2
BRIEFING
• Prepare: (cont) Revise/Proof/Rehearse:
– Allow the brief to ‘cool’ for a while, then return to
it to revise it
– Proof it for tone, content and style. Check if
jargon is appropriate for the audience
– Rehearse the brief
and check timings,
knowledge, cues,
A/V and venue
suitability.
9.2.2
BRIEFING
• Execute: Deliver the briefing
– Assess effectiveness during deliver: maintain
eye contact; check body language. If appropriate
– ask questions to ensure understanding
– Manage time: keep the brief brief! Don’t allow
deviations from topic to eat into time available
– Be Effective: endeavour to express the points,
not impress the audience. Use A/V effectively.
Consider when it is appropriate to field
questions.
9.2.2
BRIEFING
• Assess/Follow Up: The briefer may need
to assess the effectiveness of the brief, or
capture information (eg minutes)
– Clarification – provide further information
requested asap
– Record/Disseminate – get the minutes of the
meeting out asap (if appropriate).
9.2.2
BRIEFING
• For many mission types, a checklist can be
used to conduct a quick briefing and the
debriefing (as opposed to the deliberate
brief)
• SOPs may contain the contents of briefs
which allows for standardisation and reduces
confusion and inefficiency.
9.2.3
SMEACS BRIEFING
• SMEACS is an acronym used to describe a
briefing format used in military and other
organisations
– Situation
– Mission
– Execution
– Administration and Logistics
– Command and Signals (or Coordination)
– Safety (later addition in some organisations).
9.3
SMEACS BRIEFING
• Situation: the current situation related to the
mission, including:
– Weather, topography, environmental conditions,
political situation
– Location of main threat and location(s) of
support
– Intention of higher command/authority
– Mission critical items (eg flood area, location of
survivors, fire fronts, [depending on type of brief]).
9.3
SMEACS BRIEFING
• Mission: the exact task required
– “…in order to…” phrase provides a higher
intent which allows for an understanding of
the bigger picture
– Execution part of brief
provides guidance
on how to do the job.
9.3
SMEACS BRIEFING
• Execution: guidance on how the mission or
task is to be performed. May include:
– General Outline (general guidance)
– Specific Tasks
– Scheme of Manoeuvre
• The amount of direction will be dependent
on the flexibility required for the operation.
9.3
SMEACS BRIEFING
• Administration and Logistics: All supporting
activities required in order to get the mission
done. Some examples might be:
– Accommodation bookings
– Ration requests
– Financial arrangements
– Personnel movements
– Travel requirements
– Fuel.
9.3
SMEACS BRIEFING
• Command and Signals: This part outlines
who is in charge and how to communicate.
It may include:
– Who is in charge of the team or which element
is in charge of the operation
– Any authorisations for the mission/task
– Radio frequencies, phone numbers, points of
contact, hand signals or any other means of
communication relevant to the mission.
9.3
SMEACS BRIEFING
• Safety: Includes such
things as
– Protective equipment
required
– Risk Assessments and
Risk Management Plans
– Any protective measures
required during the task.
9.3
SMEACS PLANNING
• Briefs, such as SMEACS or SOPs, can be
used as planning checklists.
9.3.1.3
DEBRIEFING
• Due to the often sensitive nature of
debriefings, it is usually best to do them in
private
• A team debrief may
be used to recount
the mission to
ensure goals and
standards have
been achieved.
9.4.2
DEBRIEFING
• Use the mission plan as the basis for the
team debrief
– Go through it in chronological order
– Recount all that occurred and compare it to the
plan; ask why there were deviations
– Allow everyone a chance to participate
– Encourage input
– Verify recollections with each other…
9.4.2
DEBRIEFING
• Use the mission plan as the basis for the
team debrief (cont.)
– Choose an appropriate time and place
• ASAP after the mission is best
– If people are likely to be embarrassed, do the
de-brief in private
– Ascertain if a 3rd party (witness) is required
– Record information for use later
• Record of Conversation may be needed.
9.4.2

similar documents