Report

Dark Matter stability and boost factor from DM conversions Yu-Feng Zhou collaborators: Z.P.Liu, W.L.Guo,Y.L.Wu, C. Zhuang Institute of theoretical physics (ITP), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). PRD79,055015(2009); PRD81,075014(2010) ArXiv:1008.4479 (PRD), work in progress The second DM/DE workshop, Nov.5, 2010 Outline Part-I: A model with dark matter stabilized by P and CP symmetries The stability of DM A LR model with DM stabilized by P and CP Phenomenology: relic density & Direct detection Dark matter decay through tiny C- breaking terms Predictions for cosmic-ray neutrinos and diffuse gamma rays Part II: a scenario for large boost factor from DM conversion Boost factor required by PAMELA/Fermi LAT Boost factor from late time DM conversion Numerical results Simple models. Symmetries for DM stability Well known: R-parity, KK-parity, T-parity Kadastik, Kanikel, Raidal 09’, Frigerio and Hambye 09’ Hidden sector U(1) symmetry Ackerman,buckley,Carroll, Kamonkowski 08’ Feng, Tu, Yu 08’, Feng, Kaplinghat, Tu, Yu 09’ Foot etal. 10’ exact U(1) kinetic mixing Broken U(1): a massive Z’, a scalar Higgs portal kinetic mixing Pospelov, Ritz, voloshin 07’ Gpoalakrishnal,Jung,Wells 08’ Gpoalakrishnal,Lee,Wells 08’ Mambrini 10’ Large SU(2)_L multiplets (minimal DM) Cirelli, Fornengol, Strumia 06’ Cirelli, Strumia, Tamburini 07’ Hidden custodial symmetry vector DM Custodial symmetry SU(2)_C keep vector bosons stable Hambye 08’ DM in minimal extensions of the SM Extension to SM with scalar DM SM Scalar DM Silveira, Zee, 1985 McDondald, 1994, Burgess, Pospelov & Veldhuis, 2001 Barger,Langacker, KcCaskey, 2007 Shafi, Okada, 2009 He,Li, Tsai, 2007,2009 Extension to LRM with scalar DM Left-Right Model Scalar DM Stability can be protected by P and CP A LR model with spontaneous P and CP violation Gauge interaction: Flavor contents Two bi-doublet required for spontaneous CP violation. Only one bi-doublet cannot give the correct CP phase P- and CP-transformations If P and CP are only broken spontaneously After EWSB S_D does not participate gauge Interactions, as it is gauge singlet Require that S_D does not develop a nonzero VEV S_D a DM particle Scalar interactions Guo, Wu, YFZ, PRD81,075014 (2010) DM annihilation Main annihilation channels Thermally averaged cross section & relic density Relic density and direct detection Parameter space from relic density Prediction for direct one bi-doublet case two bi-doublet case detection rate Guo, Wang, Wu, YFZ, Zhuang,PRD79,055015(2009); A special case: large Yukawa couplings to light quarks • Relic density is dominated by heavy quark, not light ones • DM-nucleus scattering is sensitive to light quark Yukawa couplings DM decay through soft C-breaking terms Guo, Wu, YFZ, PRD81,075014 (2010) Including soft C-breaking term dominant part: C- and P-even tiny part: C-odd Decay through left-handed triplet can well explain the PAMELA/Fermi data Triplets with nonzero B-L number do not couple to quarks through Yukawa interactions Indirect channels WW, WZ, and ZZ suppressed by tiny triplet VEV required by neutrino masses. mass parameters Consider 3 cases with final states dominated by different lepton flavor Explain PAMELA data well. for all type of lepton final states. mu/tau final states favored by Fermi tau-lepton final states predict High neutrino-induced muon flux. Guo, Wu, YFZ, PRD81,075014 (2010) PAMELA Fermi Predictions for up-going muon flux Triplets couple to neutrinos and charged-leptons with the same strength Guo, Wu, YFZ, PRD81,075014 (2010) up-going muon flux can reach the current SK bound Diffuse gamma-rays LH-III case SH-III case Inverse Compton scattering (ICS) ICS ICS FSI Final state radiation (FSI) FSI VIB VIB Virtual internal bremsstrahlung (VIB) ICS ICS FSI FSI VIB VIB Guo, Wu, YFZ, PRD81,075014 (2010) Summary of part I We have proposed a LR model with scalar DM candidate stabilized by C and CP-symmetries. Tiny DM particle decay is induced through adding tiny soft C-violation interactions. the DM particle can decay trough SU(2)_L triplet scalars which couple mostly to leptons. The model predicts large neutrino-induced muon flux for certain leptonic final states. The model also predict new sources for very high energy gamma-rays, favorably in the ~ TeV region. Part-II Boot factor from DM conversions Liu, YFZ, Wu, work in progress The boost factor problem The std. WIMP annihilation cross section is too small to account for the PAMELA/Fermi data Bergstrom, Edsjo, Zaharijas, PRL103,031103,09’ Positron flux Boost factor Possible origins of boost factor Boot factor for DM annihilation Local clumps Via Lactea II: in subhalo? B~ 4-15, Diemand, et al, 0805.1244, Nature Temperature-dependent ann. cross section Sommerfeld enhancement Resonance enhancement Non-thermal origin of DM Sommerfeld, Ann. Phy 403, 257 (1931). DM may decay rather than annihilate The Sommerfeld effect A. Sommerfeld, Annalen der Physik 403, 257 (1931). J. Hisano, S. Matsumoto and M. M. Nojiri, Phys. Rev. D 67 (2003) Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 031303 (2004) Constraints from relic density J. L. Feng, M. Kaplinghat and H. B. Yu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 151301 (2010) Irreducible process Constraints from relic density J. L. Feng, M. Kaplinghat and H. B. Yu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 151301 (2010) arXiv:1005.4678 Refined analysis at freeze-out • Cut-off of resonance, recoupling • Force-carrier production & decay rates • Kinetic decoupling • Self-interaction efficiency, non-thermality Other constraints •Halo shape •CMB, protohalo J. Zavala, M. Vogelsberger and S. D. M. White, Phys. Rev. D 81, 083502 (2010) M. Kamionkowski and S. Profumo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101,261301 (2008) Multi-component DM and the boost factor Multi-component DM Models with hidden sectors naturally have multi-DM DM may have SUSY partners Neutrinos are already (tiny) part of DM No boost from simply mixed thermal DM Large boost requires 1. Large annihilation cross section For thermal relic 2. Still the correct relic density Impossible for thermal DM ? Correlated thermal evolution In the case of interacting multi-component DM Thermal evolution for interacting DM ( Kinetic equilibrium assumed ) Two component case (s-wave) The conversion term The role of Keep the DM in chemical equilibrium Convert the heavy DM into the light Stages of the thermal evolution 1. Thermal equilibrium 2. Departure from thermal equilibrium 3. Late time DM conversion when z is large Slow conversion characterized by r(z) Crossing point 4. Freeze-out after The boost factor Evolution of the total density Late time evolution Numerical results Large boost factor if mass diff. is small With conversion no conversion B~150 B~1000 Numerical results B vs mass difference B vs relative cross sections A simple model Add to the SM Cross sections & boost factor Internal degree of freedom Parameter set Cross sections Boost factors cross sections For near resonance case, all couplings can be smaller Summary of part II In multi-DM models, DM conversion can significantly modify the thermal evolution of each DM component. The relic density of the DM component may not always inversely proportional to it’s annihilation cross section. Through conversions from heavier DM components, the relic density of light DM can be enhanced, leading to large boost factors. The boost is mostly temperature independent. For generic models with large conversion rate the boost fact can reach ~100-1000. Thank You ! backups Positron signals Diffusion eq. Background Sources from DM decay The Sommerfeld enhancement N. Arkani-Hamed, et al, Phys. Rev. D 79, 015014(2009) Sommerfeld enhancement factor S: KITPC 2011 program Dark matter and new physics Sept. 21-Nov. 06, 2011 (7-week) International Coordinators: Shafi, Qaisar (Delaware), Aprile, Elena (Columbia U.) Wang, Tsz-king Henry(IOP,) Wefel, John (Louisiana State U.) Matsumoto, Shigeki (IPMU), Su, Shu-Fang (Arizona U.) Geng, Chao-Qiang ( NCTS ), Local Coordinators: Bi, Xiao-Jun (IHEP) Ni, Kai-Xuan (SJTU) Yang, Chang-Geng (IHEP) Yue, Qian (Tsinghua U.) Zhou, Yu-Feng (ITP )