Dark Matter in LR models - National Tsing Hua University

Report
Dark Matter stability and boost
factor from DM conversions
Yu-Feng Zhou
collaborators:
Z.P.Liu, W.L.Guo,Y.L.Wu, C. Zhuang
Institute of theoretical physics (ITP),
Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS).
PRD79,055015(2009); PRD81,075014(2010)
ArXiv:1008.4479 (PRD), work in progress
The second DM/DE workshop, Nov.5, 2010
Outline
 Part-I: A model with dark matter stabilized
by P and CP symmetries
 The stability of DM
 A LR model with DM stabilized by P and CP
 Phenomenology: relic density & Direct detection
 Dark matter decay through tiny C- breaking terms
 Predictions for cosmic-ray neutrinos and diffuse
gamma rays
 Part II: a scenario for large boost factor
from DM conversion




Boost factor required by PAMELA/Fermi LAT
Boost factor from late time DM conversion
Numerical results
Simple models.
Symmetries for DM stability
 Well known: R-parity, KK-parity, T-parity

Kadastik, Kanikel, Raidal 09’, Frigerio and Hambye 09’
 Hidden sector U(1) symmetry

Ackerman,buckley,Carroll, Kamonkowski 08’
Feng, Tu, Yu 08’, Feng, Kaplinghat, Tu, Yu 09’
Foot etal. 10’
exact U(1)
kinetic mixing

Broken U(1): a massive Z’, a scalar
Higgs portal
kinetic mixing
Pospelov, Ritz, voloshin 07’
Gpoalakrishnal,Jung,Wells 08’
Gpoalakrishnal,Lee,Wells 08’
Mambrini 10’
 Large SU(2)_L multiplets (minimal DM)
Cirelli, Fornengol, Strumia 06’
Cirelli, Strumia, Tamburini 07’
 Hidden custodial symmetry vector DM
Custodial symmetry SU(2)_C keep vector bosons stable
Hambye 08’
DM in minimal extensions of the SM
Extension to SM with scalar DM
SM
Scalar DM
Silveira, Zee, 1985
McDondald, 1994,
Burgess, Pospelov & Veldhuis, 2001
Barger,Langacker, KcCaskey, 2007
Shafi, Okada, 2009
He,Li, Tsai, 2007,2009
Extension to LRM with scalar DM
Left-Right Model
Scalar DM
Stability can be protected by P and CP
A LR model with spontaneous P and CP violation
 Gauge interaction:
Flavor contents

Two bi-doublet required for
spontaneous CP violation.

Only one bi-doublet cannot give
the correct CP phase
P- and CP-transformations
If P and CP are only broken spontaneously
After EWSB


S_D does not participate gauge
Interactions, as it is gauge
singlet
Require that S_D does not develop a
nonzero VEV  S_D a DM particle
Scalar interactions
Guo, Wu, YFZ, PRD81,075014 (2010)
DM annihilation
Main annihilation channels
Thermally averaged cross section & relic density
Relic density and direct detection

Parameter space from
relic density

Prediction for direct
one bi-doublet case
two bi-doublet case
detection rate
Guo, Wang, Wu, YFZ, Zhuang,PRD79,055015(2009);
A special case: large Yukawa couplings to light quarks
• Relic density is dominated by heavy quark, not light ones
• DM-nucleus scattering is sensitive to light quark Yukawa couplings
DM decay through soft C-breaking terms
Guo, Wu, YFZ, PRD81,075014 (2010)
 Including soft C-breaking term
dominant part: C- and P-even
tiny part: C-odd
 Decay through left-handed triplet can well explain the
PAMELA/Fermi data
 Triplets with nonzero B-L number do not couple to
quarks through Yukawa interactions
 Indirect channels WW, WZ, and ZZ suppressed by
tiny triplet VEV required by neutrino masses.
mass parameters
Consider 3 cases with final states dominated
by different lepton flavor



Explain PAMELA data well. for all type of lepton final
states.
mu/tau final states favored by Fermi
tau-lepton final states predict High neutrino-induced
muon flux.
Guo, Wu, YFZ, PRD81,075014 (2010)
PAMELA
Fermi
Predictions for up-going muon flux
Triplets couple to neutrinos and charged-leptons with the same strength
Guo, Wu, YFZ, PRD81,075014 (2010)
up-going muon flux can reach the current SK bound
Diffuse gamma-rays
LH-III case
SH-III case
Inverse Compton scattering (ICS)
ICS
ICS
FSI
Final state radiation (FSI)
FSI
VIB
VIB
Virtual internal bremsstrahlung (VIB)
ICS
ICS
FSI
FSI
VIB
VIB
Guo, Wu, YFZ, PRD81,075014 (2010)
Summary of part I

We have proposed a LR model with scalar DM candidate
stabilized by C and CP-symmetries.

Tiny DM particle decay is induced through adding tiny
soft C-violation interactions.

the DM particle can decay trough SU(2)_L triplet scalars
which couple mostly to leptons.

The model predicts large neutrino-induced muon flux for
certain leptonic final states. The model also predict new
sources for very high energy gamma-rays, favorably in
the ~ TeV region.
 Part-II
Boot factor from DM conversions
Liu, YFZ, Wu, work in progress
The boost factor problem
 The std. WIMP annihilation
cross section is too small to
account for the PAMELA/Fermi
data
Bergstrom, Edsjo, Zaharijas, PRL103,031103,09’

Positron flux

Boost factor
Possible origins of boost factor
Boot factor for DM annihilation
 Local clumps
Via Lactea II: in subhalo? B~ 4-15,
Diemand, et al, 0805.1244, Nature
 Temperature-dependent ann. cross section
 Sommerfeld enhancement
 Resonance enhancement
 Non-thermal origin of DM
Sommerfeld, Ann. Phy 403, 257 (1931).
DM may decay rather than annihilate
The Sommerfeld effect
A. Sommerfeld, Annalen der Physik 403, 257 (1931).
J. Hisano, S. Matsumoto and M. M. Nojiri, Phys. Rev. D 67 (2003)
Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 031303 (2004)
Constraints from relic density
J. L. Feng, M. Kaplinghat and H. B. Yu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 151301 (2010)
Irreducible process
Constraints from relic density
J. L. Feng, M. Kaplinghat and H. B. Yu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 151301 (2010)
arXiv:1005.4678
Refined analysis at freeze-out
• Cut-off of resonance, recoupling
• Force-carrier production &
decay rates
• Kinetic decoupling
• Self-interaction efficiency,
non-thermality
Other constraints
•Halo shape
•CMB, protohalo
J. Zavala, M. Vogelsberger and S. D. M. White, Phys. Rev. D 81, 083502 (2010)
M. Kamionkowski and S. Profumo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101,261301 (2008)
Multi-component DM and the boost factor
 Multi-component DM
 Models with hidden sectors naturally have multi-DM
 DM may have SUSY partners
 Neutrinos are already (tiny) part of DM
 No boost from simply mixed thermal DM
Large boost requires
1. Large annihilation cross section
For thermal relic
2. Still the correct relic density
Impossible for thermal DM ?
Correlated thermal evolution
In the case of interacting multi-component DM
 Thermal evolution for interacting DM
( Kinetic equilibrium assumed )
 Two component case (s-wave)
The conversion term
 The role of
 Keep the DM in chemical equilibrium
 Convert the heavy DM into the light

Stages of the thermal evolution
1. Thermal equilibrium
2. Departure from thermal equilibrium
3. Late time DM conversion when z is large
 Slow conversion characterized by r(z)
 Crossing point
4. Freeze-out after
The boost factor
 Evolution of the total density
 Late time evolution
Numerical results
Large boost factor if mass diff. is small
With conversion
no conversion
B~150
B~1000
Numerical results
B vs mass difference
B vs relative cross sections
A simple model
Add to the SM



Cross sections & boost factor


Internal degree of freedom

Parameter set

Cross sections

Boost factors
cross sections
For near resonance case, all couplings can be smaller
Summary of part II
 In multi-DM models, DM conversion can significantly
modify the thermal evolution of each DM component.
 The relic density of the DM component may not
always inversely proportional to it’s annihilation cross
section. Through conversions from heavier DM
components, the relic density of light DM can be
enhanced, leading to large boost factors.
 The boost is mostly temperature independent. For
generic models with large conversion rate the boost
fact can reach ~100-1000.
Thank You !
backups
Positron signals
 Diffusion eq.
Background
Sources from DM decay
The Sommerfeld enhancement
N. Arkani-Hamed, et al, Phys. Rev. D 79, 015014(2009)
Sommerfeld enhancement factor S:
KITPC 2011 program
Dark matter and new physics
Sept. 21-Nov. 06, 2011 (7-week)
International Coordinators:


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



Shafi, Qaisar (Delaware),
Aprile, Elena (Columbia U.)
Wang, Tsz-king Henry(IOP,)
Wefel, John (Louisiana State U.)
Matsumoto, Shigeki (IPMU),
Su, Shu-Fang (Arizona U.)
Geng, Chao-Qiang ( NCTS ),
Local Coordinators:




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Bi, Xiao-Jun (IHEP)
Ni, Kai-Xuan (SJTU)
Yang, Chang-Geng (IHEP)
Yue, Qian (Tsinghua U.)
Zhou, Yu-Feng (ITP )

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