### Flow In - trs

```SureFlow
Presented by:
Ron Porter LEED AP
IEC Oklahoma City
Topics
•
•
•
•
•
Fan Coil Basics
SureFlow Hydronics
SureFlow Unit Design
SureFlow Applications
This Is A Fan Coil
Fan + Coil = Fan Coil
Room Air Conditioner
How Do They Work ?
Moves air through a
coil with:
Chilled Water
Hot Water
Electric Heat
R410a
Let’s focus on the
water systems…
Standard Water Pressure Differential
System
FCU
FCU
FCU
FCU
Chiller
Central Pump Pushes Water Through
Piping to Supply Each Fan Coil
How Do We Size The Main Pump ?
Central Pump Horsepower = __Head x GPM__
3960 x Efficiency
Pump Sizing Based On Highest
Pressure Drop Circuit
FCU
FCU
FCU
FCU
Chiller
Calculate All Circuits
How Do We Know The Fan Coils Will
FCU
FCU
FCU
FCU
Chiller
Water Always Takes The Path Of
Least Resistance
Pipe and Riser Diameters ?
FCU
FCU
FCU
FCU
Chiller
Water Pipe Has Resistance To
Water Flow
Continuity : Water In = Water Out (GPM Per Minute)
Velocity : Speed of Travel (Feet Per Second)
D1
D2
Flow In “Q”
Area1
Flow Out “Q”
Vel1
Vel2
Area2
Flow In “Q” = 10 GPM
Flow Out “Q” = 10 GPM
D1= 1 Inch “L” Copper
D2= 2 Inches “L” Copper
Vel1 = 3.9 Ft Per Second
Vel2 = 1.05 Ft Per Second
Pressure drop is defined as:
The difference in pressure between any two points
on a piece of equipment.
D1
D2
Flow In “Q”
Area1
Flow Out “Q”
Vel1
PD1
Vel2
Area2
PD2
Flow In “Q” = 10 GPM
Flow Out “Q” = 10 GPM
D1= 1 Inch “L” Copper
D2= 2 Inches “L” Copper
Vel1 = 3.9 Ft Per Second
Vel2 = 1.05 Ft Per Second
PD1 = 6.71 Ft per 100 Ft
PD2 = 0.29 Ft per 100 Ft
Coil Pressure Drop =
Cost of Operation
Example
@ 3.0 GPM
Coil PdFt = 5.9
Determined from several parameters• Unit size
• Coil rows
• Coil circuits
• GPM
• Tube water velocity
• Water temperature
Use IEC Rating Program to determine pressure drop through
the coil at actual operating conditions
Valve Pressure Drop:
• Resistance to water flow
• Based on water volume through the valve at
Full Open
• Calculated using Cv Rating Number
• PdFt = ( GPM / ( 0.658 x Cv ))^2
Typical Ball Valve Pressure Drop:
• PdFt = ( GPM / ( 0.658 x Cv ))^2
• Ball valve Cv = 5.84 (1/2 inch)
• GPM = 3
• PdFt = (3 / (0.658 x 5.84))^2
• PdFt = 0.61
Full-Port Ball Valve Pressure Drop:
• PdFt = ( GPM / ( 0.658 x Cv ))^2
• Ball valve Cv = 14.2 (1/2 inch B&K # 107-503T)
• GPM = 3
• PdFt = (3 / (0.658 x 14.2))^2
• PdFt = 0.10
Erie Valve Pressure Drop:
• PdFt = ( GPM / ( 0.658 x Cv ))^2
• Cv = 3.5 (1/2 inch VT2213)
• GPM = 3
• PdFt = (3 / (0.658 x 3.5))^2
• PdFt = 1.7
VT2213
3.5 Cv (7/16” Port)
25 PSI Close-Off
Erie Valve Pressure Drop:
• PdFt = ( GPM / ( 0.658 x Cv ))^2
• Cv = 2.5 (1/2 inch VT2212)
• GPM = 3
• PdFt = (3 / (0.658 x 2.5))^2
• PdFt = 3.3
VT2212
2.5 Cv (5/16” Port)
40 PSI Close-Off
Erie Valve Pressure Drop:
• PdFt = ( GPM / ( 0.658 x Cv ))^2
• Cv = 1.0 (1/2 inch VT2211)
• GPM = 3
• PdFt = (3 / (0.658 x 1.0))^2
• PdFt = 20.8
VT2211
1.0 Cv
60 PSI Close-Off
Analyze Combined Unit And Valve Package
Pressure Drop
@ GPM = 3.0
Ball Valve PdFt = 0.1
FCU
Coil PdFt = 5.9
Total PdFt = 9.4
÷ 2.33
Erie Valve PdFt = 3.3
= 4.0 PSI Diff
Ball Valve PdFt = 0.1
Total Value Required For Proper
Fan Coil Operation
Will This Design Operate Properly ?
65 PSI
70 PSI
Return
Units &
Valves
FCU
FCU
@ 3.0 GPM
FCU
Typical
of 20
Units
Require
Boiler
4.0 PSI Diff
Pump
60 GPM
Supply
80 PSI
85 PSI
60 PSI
Δ 10 PSI
Δ 20 PSI
Δ 25 PSI
Water Balancing Is Required
70 PSI
4 PSI
Return
Units &
Valves
FCU
FCU
FCU
@ 3.0 GPM
Boiler
Require
4.0 PSI Diff
Pump
60 GPM
Supply
5 PSI
80 PSI
60 PSI
Δ 1 PSI
Δ 10 PSI
Δ 25 PSI
Low Flow
Excessive Flow
Cartridge Valves For Automatic Balancing
Return
FCU
Supply
FCU
FCU
FCU
Boiler
Hays 2517
Automatic Balancing Valve
2-80 PSID range up to 5.5 GPM
+/- 10% Accuracy
Valve Will Add Resistance As Required For
Specified Water GPM
Analyze Combined Unit And Valve Package
Pressure Drop
@ GPM = 3.0
Ball Valve PdFt = 0.1
Hays Valve PdFt = 4.6
Total PdFt = 14
FCU
Coil PdFt = 5.9
÷ 2.33
= 6.0 PSI Diff
Erie Valve PdFt = 3.3
Ball Valve PdFt = 0.1
70 PSI
Δ 10 PSI
ΔP
FCU
FCU
FCU
FCU
Boiler
Pump
60 GPM
80 PSI
VFD
70 PSI
Δ 10 PSI
ΔP
FCU
OFF
FCU
FCU
Boiler
Pump
45 GPM
80 PSI
VFD
Direct Return System
70 PSI
Δ 10 PSI
ΔP
FCU
FCU
FCU
FCU
Boiler
Pump
60 GPM
80 PSI
VFD
Reverse Return –
Balancing is reduced, therefore the need for balancing valves
is reduced, but only if all coils have identical ΔP and system
pressure differential always equals coil required ΔP.
ΔP
FCU
FCU
FCU
Chiller
FCU
VFD
System Design Issues












Chiller / Boiler Equipment Plant
Pumps Create Water Pressure Differential
Pipes Running To and From Each Unit
Valves – On/Off or Modulating
Balancing Valves – Flow Regulators
Strainers
Pressure Relief Valves
Variable Speed Drives on Pumps
Controls, DDC, Building Energy Management System
Installation Labor – vs. – 2/Pipe – vs. – 4/Pipe
Test & Balance
Maintenance
System Complexity Issues
There
Must Be
A Better
Way
Integrated Circulator
Cycles on Thermostat
Demand
Thermostat
OFF
Primary Circuit
Water Flow
2008 ASHRAE Handbook
HVAC Systems and Equipment
Chapter 12.
Thermostat
ON
Primary Circuit
Water Flow
2008 ASHRAE Handbook
HVAC Systems and Equipment
Chapter 12.
Thermostat
OFF
Primary Circuit
Water Flow
2008 ASHRAE Handbook
HVAC Systems and Equipment
Chapter 12.
Massachusetts College of Pharmacy
and Health Sciences
Worcester, Massachusetts
• Average 40%
Less Piping
• Fewer Pipe
Hangers
• Less Insulation
Westin Cupples Station
St. Louis, Missouri
• Reduced Core
Drilling
• Fewer Joints =
Fewer Leaks
• Contractor
Savings
Westin Cupples Station
St. Louis, Missouri
CPF SureFlow Unit
What Happened To
The Zone Valves
and Flow Control
Valves ?
Circulator – 1/40 HP
•
30+ Years In Production
•
Millions In Use
•
Quiet Operation
•
Chilled Water CERTIFIED
•
Wet Rotor Cartridge Design
•
Internal Flow Check Valve
•
200 PSI Rating
•
Cycles On-Off (Thermostat Controlled)
•
Low Energy Consumer – 65 Watts
Two Pipe Cooling
With Only One Installed Pipe
FAN
COIL
FAN
COIL
FAN
COIL
FAN
COIL
Water Circulation Rate ≈ 3 GPM per Ton
Chiller
Two Pipe Cooling & Heating
“Change Over”
With One Installed Pipe
FAN
COIL
FAN
COIL
FAN
COIL
Chiller
Boiler
FAN
COIL
Massachusetts College of Pharmacy
and Health Sciences
Worcester, Massachusetts
2-Pipe Cooling
and Heating
Changeover
With Only One
Installed Pipe
Four Pipe Heat & Cool
With Only Two Installed Pipes
FAN
COIL
FAN
COIL
FAN
COIL
FAN
COIL
Chiller
Boiler
Challenges:
1. What Happens To The Water Temperature ?
2. Will It Control Humidity ?
1 Ton
1 Ton
14424t
10448s
13177t
9954s
1 Ton
1 Ton
12052t
9519s
Off
52.1ºF
42ºF
44.4ºF
46.6ºF
46.6ºF
48.6ºF
Chiller
Water Temperature Changes As BTUs Are
Injected Into The SureFlow Loop
Cooling Loop Water Pipe Size
Design Guide
Type L Copper
Pipe Size
1”
1-1/4
1-1/2
2
2-1/2
3
GPM
8
16
25
53
85
127
FPS Vel
3.13
4.1
4.53
5.54
5.74
6.01
PdFt / 100Ft
4.53
5.66
5.46
5.58
4.57
4
Tons @ 8ΔT
2.7
5.3
8.3
17.7
28.3
42.3
Tons @ 10ΔT
3.3
6.7
10.4
22.1
35.4
52.9
Heating Loop Water Pipe Size
Design Guide
Type L Copper
Pipe Size
1”
1-1/4
1-1/2
2
2-1/2
3
GPM
8
16
25
53
85
127
FPS Vel
3.13
4.1
4.53
5.54
5.74
6.01
PdFt / 100Ft
4.53
5.66
5.46
5.58
4.57
4
MBH @ 20ΔT
80
160
250
530
850
1270
MBH @ 25ΔT
100
200
312
662
1062
1587
Cooling Loop Water Temperature
8 Degree Loop Delta-T = 3 GPM per Ton
10 Tons Peak x 3 GPM per Ton = 30 GPM
1-1/2” L Copper @ 30GPM = 5.43 fps = 7.55 ftpd/100ft
2” L Copper Pipe @ 30GPM = 3.14 fps = 2.02 ftpd/100ft
7.5 Tons Block / 10 Tons Peak =
75% Diversity Ratio
Design For Diversity
BLOCK
RATIO
With 42F Supply, 3 GPM Per Ton, 75% Ratio
Max Actual Water Temperature = 48F
Design For Diversity
SOME
UNITS
ARE NOT
RUNNING
ARE SOME
UNITS OVER
SIZED ?
With 42F Supply, 3 GPM Per Ton, 75% Ratio
Max Actual Water Temperature = 48F
Design For Occupancy
–
–
–
–
School Classroom vs. Common areas
Hotel Rooms
Offices
Usage patterns, time of day
SureFlow Allows Modification Of The Design
For Run Time and Fan Speed
– Actual hours of operation with full water
flow
– Good water flow rate results in excellent
humidity control
– Take full advantage of controls
capabilities
– Always recommend automatic fan speed
reduction for extended run-time on coil
Horsepower Savings
 Circulators Only Consume Power When Running
 Local Circulators Controlled by Room Thermostats
 System Strategy: Demand Controlled Pumping
 The Building Hydronic System Becomes An
Energy Management System
LEED 2009-NC Credit EAc1
Optimize Energy Performance
Up To 19 Points Available
Installation and Maintenance Savings
Complex 2-way valve package
SureFlow valve package
= 32 solder joints
= 16 solder joints
Compound Primary-Secondary Pumping
Chiller
- Or Heat
Exchanger
Secondary
Pump
Primary
Pump
Campus Chilled Water
Building 1 of X
Central
Plant
Building 2 of X
Replace Your Original Existing 2-pipe FCU….
Balance Valves
3 Way Control Valve
CW Supply
CW Return
…. With a New SureFlow Unit and
Have 4-Pipe Performance With Two Pipes
Heating
Coil
HW Supply
/Return
Existing Pipes
CW Supply
/Return
Cooling
Coil
Case Study
1839 US Tariff Building –
General Post Office
Owner: US Department of
Interior – Park Service
Lease: Kimpton Hotel &
Restaurant Group
232 Rooms – AAA 4 Diamond
Opened Summer 2002
SureFlow Fan Coils
Hotel Monaco
Washington DC
Fernando Garcia, P.E.
Vice President
CTA Consulting Engineers Inc.
Rockville, MD
(301) 637-0058
Chicago Blackstone Renaissance
Hotel
636 South Michigan
332 Rooms
Restoration of 1908 Hotel
Opened Fall 2007
1920: Location of the famous “Smoke Filled
Rooms” where Warren G. Harding was chosen
as the Republican nominee for President.
1940: Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s 3rd-term
Democratic Nomination was forged here.
1944: Harry S. Truman stayed here when he
1952: Dwight D. Eisenhower stayed here during
first Republican ballot.
Portland, Oregon
The Nines, The Luxury Collection, Starwood Hotels
Top 9 Floors - 331 Guest Rooms
Portland’s First 5-Star Hotel
Lower 5 Floors is Macys Dept Store
Redevelopment of 1909
Meier & Frank Department Store
National Register of Historic Places
Opened Oct 2008
LEED Silver
Chicago
Elysian / Waldorf Astoria
60 Stories on East Walton Street in the Gold Coast
52 Private Residences
188 Room Waldorf Astoria Hotel
Constructed 2006-2010
Renamed Waldorf Astoria Chicago February 1, 2012
AAA Five Diamond
TripAdvisor.com Ranked # 1 Hotel in USA
Conde Nast Traveler Ranked Best Hotel in USA
As of Feb 1, 2012:
Hotel rates: start at \$395
Condo Sales up to \$8 Million
Condo Rent: \$16,000/month 3-Bed, 3.5-Bath, 3,747 Sq Ft
12,000 Units over 12 Years
Occupant
Comfort
Average
40% Less
Piping
Reliable
Operation
Low
Maintenance
Pump Energy
Savings For
Owner \$\$\$
Easy To
Design
Installed Cost
Savings \$\$\$
4 – Pipe
Performance With
2 Installed Pipes
LEED Credit
Opportunities
www.fancoil.com
www.iec-okc.com
Application:
SureFlow
75
Standard Piping Method
FCU
FCU
FCU
FCU
Chiller
76
System Design Issues
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Chiller / Boiler Equipment Plant
Pumps Create Water Pressure Differential
Pipes Running To and From Each Unit
Valves – On/Off or Modulating
Balancing Valves – Flow Regulators
Strainers
Pressure Relief Valves
Variable Speed Drives on Pumps
Controls, DDC, Building Energy Management System
Installation Labor – vs. – 2/Pipe – vs. – 4/Pipe
Test & Balance
Maintenance
77
Integrated Circulator
Thermostat
Cycles on Thermostat
OFF
Demand
Primary
Circuit Water
Flow
78
79
SureFlow
Average 40%
Less Piping
Less Core
Drills on
Renovation
Contractor
Savings
80
SureFlow Circulator – 1/40 HP
• 30+ Years In Production
• Millions In Use
• Quiet Operation
• Chilled Water CERTIFIED
• Wet Rotor Cartridge Design
• Internal Flow Check Valve
• 200 PSI Rating
• Cycles On-Off (Thermostat
Controlled)
• Low Energy Consumer – 65 Watts
81
FAN
FAN
FAN
FAN
COIL
COIL
COIL
COIL
FAN
FAN
FAN
FAN
COIL
COIL
COIL
COIL
Chiller
Two Pipe Cooling
With Only One Installed Pipe
82
FAN
FAN
FAN
FAN
COIL
COIL
COIL
COIL
Chiller
Boiler
Two Pipe Heat & Cool
With Only One Installed Pipe
83
SureFlow System Pumping
1 Ton
1 Ton
14424t
10448s
13177t
9954s
1 Ton
1 Ton
12052t
9519s
Off
52.1ºF
42ºF
44.4ºF
46.6ºF
46.6ºF
48.6ºF
Chille
r
Central Pump Is NOT Responsible For Pressure Drop
Of Coil Or Valve Packages
84
7.5 Tons Block / 10 Tons Peak =
75% Diversity Ratio
85
1839 US Tariff Building –
SureFlow Installation - Case Study
General Post Office
Owner: US Department of
Interior – Park Service
Lease: Kimpton Hotel &
Restaurant Group
232 Rooms – AAA 4
Diamond
Opened Summer 2002
Hotel Monaco
Washington DC
SureFlow Fan Coils
86
Application:
SureFlow
87
Standard Piping Method
FCU
FCU
FCU
FCU
Chiller
88
Standard Piping Method
FCU
FCU
FCU
FCU
Chiller
Primary-Secondary Pumping
89
Standard Piping Method
FCU
FCU
FCU
FCU
Chiller
90
System Design Issues
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Chiller / Boiler Equipment Plant
Pumps Create Water Pressure Differential
Pipes Running To and From Each Unit
Valves – On/Off or Modulating
Balancing Valves – Flow Regulators
Strainers
Pressure Relief Valves
Variable Speed Drives on Pumps
Controls, DDC, Building Energy Management System
Installation Labor – vs. – 2/Pipe – vs. – 4/Pipe
Test & Balance
Maintenance
91
Integrated Circulator
Thermostat
Cycles on Thermostat
OFF
Demand
Primary
Circuit Water
Flow
92
Integrated Circulator
Thermostat
Cycles on Thermostat
ON
Demand
Primary
Circuit Water
Flow
93
Design Considerations: Piping Circuits - Diverting
Series
One-pipe diverting series circuits – “when coupled with
compound pumping systems, series circuits can be
applied to multiple control zones on larger commercial
or institutional systems.”
2008 ASHRAE Handbook
HVAC Systems and Equipment
9412.
Chapter
95
SureFlow
Average 40%
Less Piping
Less Core
Drills on
Renovation
Contractor
Savings
96
SureFlow Circulator – 1/40 HP
• 30+ Years In Production
• Millions In Use
• Quiet Operation
• Chilled Water CERTIFIED
• Wet Rotor Cartridge Design
• Internal Flow Check Valve
• 200 PSI Rating
• Cycles On-Off (Thermostat
Controlled)
• Low Energy Consumer – 65 Watts
97
FAN
FAN
FAN
FAN
COIL
COIL
COIL
COIL
FAN
FAN
FAN
FAN
COIL
COIL
COIL
COIL
Chiller
Two Pipe Cooling
With Only One Installed Pipe
98
FAN
FAN
FAN
FAN
COIL
COIL
COIL
COIL
Chiller
Boiler
Two Pipe Heat & Cool
With Only One Installed Pipe
99
FAN
FAN
FAN
FAN
COIL
COIL
COIL
COIL
Chiller
Boiler
Four Pipe Heat & Cool
With Only Two Installed Pipes
100
SureFlow System Pumping
1 Ton
1 Ton
14424t
10448s
13177t
9954s
1 Ton
1 Ton
12052t
9519s
Off
52.1ºF
42ºF
44.4ºF
46.6ºF
46.6ºF
48.6ºF
Chille
r
Central Pump Is NOT Responsible For Pressure Drop
Of Coil Or Valve Packages
101
Coil Pressure Drop is
Redesigned to Match
Circulator Pump Curve
102
Cooling Loop Water Temperature
8 Degree Loop Delta-T = 3 GPM per Ton
103
10 Tons Peak x 3 GPM per Ton = 30 GPM
1-1/2” L Copper @ 30GPM = 5.43 fps = 7.55 ftpd/100ft
2” L Copper Pipe @ 30GPM = 3.14 fps = 2.02 ftpd/100ft
104
7.5 Tons Block / 10 Tons Peak =
75% Diversity Ratio
105
Design For Diversity
With 42F Supply, 3 GPM Per Ton, 75% Ratio
Max Actual Water Temperature = 48F
BLOCK
RATIO
106
Warmer Supply Temperature?
With 44F Supply, 3 GPM Per Ton, 75% Ratio
Max Actual Water Temperature = 50F
BLOCK
RATIO
107
10,000 Units over 10 Years
108
1839 US Tariff Building –
SureFlow Installation - Case Study
General Post Office
Owner: US Department of
Interior – Park Service
Lease: Kimpton Hotel &
Restaurant Group
232 Rooms – AAA 4
Diamond
Opened Summer 2002
Hotel Monaco
Washington DC
SureFlow Fan Coils
109
Fernando Garcia, P.E.
Vice President
CTA Consulting Engineers Inc.
Rockville, MD
(301) 637-0058
110
Chicago Blackstone Renaissance
Hotel
South“Smoke
Michigan
Location of636
the famous
Filled
332G.Rooms
Rooms” where Warren
Harding
Restoration
of 1908 Hotel
was chosen as the Republican
Opened Fall 2007
nominee for President in June 1920.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s 3rd-term
Democratic Nomination was forged
in 1940.
Harry S. Truman stayed when he
Nomination.
Dwight D. Eisenhower stayed during
first Republican ballot in 1952.
111
Portland, Oregon
The Nines Hotel
Part of The Luxury Collection, Starwood Hotels & Resorts
Top 9 Floors - 331 Rooms
Lower 5 floors is Macy’s
Redevelopment of 1909
Meier & Frank Department Store
National Register of Historic
Places
Opened October 16, 2008
LEED Silver
112
New Orleans Monaco Hotel
250 Units
Historic 1926 Masonic Temple Lodge
June 2001 Conversion to a 4-Star Luxury
Hotel
Kimpton Sold to Dimension Development
Co.
Reopened 2007 as the Hilton Saint
Charles
Humidity Kept Under Control
113
Average
40% Less
Occupant
Reliable
Comfort
Operation
Low
Maintenance
Piping
Pump Energy
Savings For
Owner \$\$\$
Easy To
Design
Installed Cost
Savings \$\$\$
LEED Credit
4 – Pipe
Opportunities
Performance With
2 Installed Pipes
114
www.fancoil.com
www.iec-okc.com
115
```