CSR BIODIV english

Report
BIODIVERSITY FOR SUSTAINABILITY
A. Raschi CNR-IBIMET
With contribution of H.Hamele ECOTRANS
The term sustainability is nowadays widely used,
but what does it mean?
Sustainable development: a development that guarantees future generations,
by preserving and incrementing the local capital (environmental, human,
social, infrastructural (Moseley, 2004)
Touristic sustainability: a careful use of touristic resources, that guarantees
their future availability (Jenkins, 1991)
Sustainable development in tourism aims not only to satisfy the current
needs, but also to protect and improve the environment, promote economic
equity, and improve people’s life, by cooperating to integrate conservation,
cultural integration and participation (Inskeep, 1991)
"sustainability is improving the quality of human life while living within the
carrying capacity of supporting eco-systems“ (IUCN/UNEP/WWF 1991)
BIODIVERSITY
The Convention on Biological Diversity was one of the outcomes of Rio
Earth Summit (1992),
and defines Biodiversity as “the variability among living organisms
from all sources including inter alia terrestrial, marine and other
aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are
part…diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems”.
The aim of the Rio convention is not only to “conserve”, but to pursue
“sustainable use” and “equitable sharing of benefits”
BIODIVERSITY IS A DYNAMIC CONCEPT, AS ECOSYSTEMS AND
POPULATIONS CAN MOVE IN DEPENDENCE OF NATURAL AND
ANTHROPIC CAUSES
With agriculture and gardening man has diffused alien species:
ALL THESE ARE NOW CULTIVATED IN EUROPE
From Iran
From America
From Japan
From China
ON THE OTHER HAND, INDUSTRIAL AGRICULTURE REDUCES
BIODIVERSITY
EACH FARM WAS A MOSAIC
OF DIFFERENT CROPS
Traditional landscape
PLANTS ARE MORE AND MORE
UNIFORM, AND LANDSCAPE AS
WELL
(but tourists seem to appreciate
anyway
OTHER CHANGES IN BIODIVERSITY CAN BE CAUSED BY CLIMATE CHANGE
SO, HOW CAN TOURISM IMPACT ON BIODIVERSITY?
EASY TO DEFINE IN GENERAL TERMS, BUT SITUATION IS DIFFERENT
FROM SITE TO SITE BECAUSE:
-TOURISM IS A COMPLEX ACTIVITY
-ECOSYSTEMS ARE COMPLEX, AND THEIR INTERNAL DYNAMICS ARE
KNOWN ONLY IN PART.
- POLICIES ARE BASED ON VALUE JUDGEMENTS, THAT ARE IN NTURN
BASED ON THE PERCEPTION OF RISK, ON INTERESTS AND ON SOCIAL
CONSTRUCT OF NATURE.
- THIS LEADS TO FACE AN ADDITIONAL PROBLEM: CONFLICTS
Many impacts on nature /ecosystems /biodiversity have
been widely analyzed, well known and documented!
Degradation and destruction of ecosystems
Reduce /avoid restrictions
in protected areas because
of tourism development
(example Mallorca), or
reduction of protected
areas surface
Indirect
Tourism infrastructures –
often in protected areas,
hotspots of biodiversity
CO² and other
Greenhouse Gas
emissions contributing
to Climate Change
Emissions,
waste, waste water,
noise (e.g. lakes, rivers,
coasts, beaches),
Transport
infrastructure, e.g.
roads, airports, parkings
These parks’ shape is designed to keep some touristic
towns out of the protected areas
Beach biodiversity
Beaches are biodiversity
hotspots, and are very dynamic
These parks’ shape is designed to keep some touristic
towns out of the protected areas
Beaches are biodiversity
hotspots, and are very dynamic
And where does the wastewater go?
Not to mention about shipwrecks in national parks
What impacts does tourism have on biodiversity?
Overexploitation of natural resources
Exeedance of the carrying
capacity of a landscape
/destination
Exploitation of wild life
without respecting rules
/scientific advise, without
well trained guides
Lack or no acceptance of
management plans / land
use plans
Recreational activities
with high impact on
biodiversity, e.g. heli
skiing,
Offering /promoting
activities against animal
welfare (zoos not
fullfilling international
standards, dolphinarios .
High water consumption
in regions with water
shortage
Acceptance of selling
illegal products (e.G.
CITES)
Purchase of
unsustainable produced
products (food,
souvenirs etc.)
What impacts does tourism have on biodiversity?
Invasive Species
Design of premises (hotel
outdoor facilities) with
non native plants
Introduction of non
native fish species for
fishing
Emissions /Contamination
Climate Change
Cruise Ships
(e.g. water tanks),
souvenirs (e.g.
galapagos turtle)
Alien species used in gardens.
Some are invasive
Alien species reach the Mediterranean
through Suez, And with cuise ships
This fish, introduced for sport tourism,
Is destroying all local fauna in Italy
Bears, reintroduced on the Alps, are putting at risk
Sheep farms survival, and tourism itself.
Wild boars introduced for hunting is reproducing out of control
Creating serious damage to agriculture
2. Screening of the Standards/Certificates/Awards in Tourism
Standards: coverage of biodiversity aspects in analysed standards
(in %)
Special commitment of
the company towards
Biodiversity
3%
Access and BenefitSharing:
7%
Dissemination of
invasive alien species
7%
Degradation/destruction
of ecosystems
38%
Overexploitation of
natural resources
24%
Loss of species
21%
2. Screening of the Standards/Certificates/Awards in Tourism
No. of biodiversity aspects listed in standards
Special commitment of the company towards
biodiversity
9
ABS: involvement of local initiatives, local community
support of the protection of Biodiversity
24
Dissemination of invasive alien species
25
Loss of species
71
Overexploitation of natural ressources
81
Degradation/destruction of ecosystems
128
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
3. Discussion of Exemplary Criteria from the Standards and Conclusions
Input: Exemplary criteria found in the screening
Criteria to prevent degradation /destruction of ecosystems
Green Globe, EETLS: Biodiversity
Conservation. Criteria: The business
contributes to the support of
biodiversity conservation, including
supporting natural protected areas and
areas of high biodiversity value.
Quality Coast: D2 Protection of
sensitive environments
The destination has a system to
monitor the impact of tourism on
sensitive environments and protect
habitats and species.
Green Key: XI.5 The establishment
provides activities for raising
awareness, focused on
sustainable development,
environment and nature in or around
the premises (G).
Various international Standards
require: “The business contributes to
the support of biodiversity
conservation …”. This is a useful
approach, but Standards should
include an indication regarding
cuantitiy and quality of support.
But, what does the customer understand about biodiversity?
Very little! As usually he is not a specialist/scholar
This is well shown by the informative material of rural tourism
enterprises
Mountains
Campania
Tuscany
Valleys
Sunset
Sunflowers
Trees
Light
Cereals
Olive trees/
Vineyards
Forests
Nature
Hills
Green
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Elements used to describe the environment.
Countryside means nature, but in a very generic way
Sunflower is a very evocative tool to
Promote rural tourism
Campania
Tuscany
Terra/from the land
Tuscan
The text refers to typicality, nature
And other concepts that have little
to do with an intensive crop.
Natural
Typical
Traditional
Home made
Flavours
Genuine
Valorisation
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
ON THE OTHER HAND, NOT ONLY NATURAL BIODIVERSITY,BUT ALSO
AGRICULTURAL BIODIVERSITY CAN BE AN ASSETT FOR AN
ENVIRONMENTALLY CONSCIOUS TOURISM:
SOME EXAMPLES:
The promotion of traditional cereals, often
taking place in feasts, and fostering the
creation of short production chains
Chestnut: from international market of imported fruits to local
productions and transformation techniques
To the creation of local cooperatives, able to promote local
biodiversity among tourists, to create jobs and to be real
development agents
As about natural biodiversity, tourists are sedom able to go beyond
aestethical appreciation.
Studies performed in African National Parks show that mainly big
charismatic species attract tourists (lion, elephant…), while in marine
environments the appreciation of biodiversity does not go beyond
20 species.
BUT GOOD RESULTS CAN BE ACHIEVED ON A LOCAL BASIS:
The Caldara di Manziana, near Roma, a very
peculiar biodiversity spot, is visited by thousands
of visitors every year.
Other similar sites are unknown and used as
rubbish dumps
A similar site became part of the local touristic offer
Entrance to the path leading to the site
In conclusion, apart of what customers may know and think, biodiversity is a value
in itself, as part of the local capital. Its protection can go with its transmission to
visitors.
So, tourism can have an informative/educational role and promote the local
heritage.
But first of all, the local capital (natural, agricultural, human etc) must be known
by the local stakeholders/agent
BECAUSE THERE CANNOT BE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT WITHOUT THE
KNOWLEDGE AND THE CONSCIOUSNESS OF THE VALUE OF LOCAL HERITAGE
THANKS FOR YOUR ATTENTION!

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