STRATEGIES FOR DEVELOPING CULTURAL COMPETENCE AMONG PRESERVICE TEACHERS Calli Lewis, Ph.D. California State University, Bakersfield Mandy Lusk, Ph.D. Clayton State University Kelly Carrero, Ph.D., BCBA Shippensburg University Staci Zolkoski, Ph.D. University of North Texas Creating a Safe Environment for Exploring Sensitive Issues Cultural Competence Continuum Cultural proficiency Cultural competence Cultural precompetence Cultural blindness Cultural incapacity Cultural destructiveness Cross, Bazron, Dennis, & Isaacs, 1989 ACTIVITIES FOR PRESERVICE TEACHERS Photo Activity • Time: approximately 30 minutes • Quiz: Show pictures of diverse people and ask the class to identify each by race. • For example: This is A.J. What is his race? Harvard Implicit Associations Test • https://implicit.harvard.edu/implicit/takeatest.html • This online activity assesses individuals’ racial preferences. • The results may challenge individuals’ strongly held beliefs about themselves. Time should be allotted for debriefing and discussion afterward. Picture Drawing • Draw a picture of a family students believe will be in their classroom. • Discuss drawings, diversity, and the reality of public education. • Students draw another picture of a family. • Students write a description of their own families. (Lyon, 2009) ARTICLES FOR PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS Article and Reference Summary Helpful Hints Borrero, N. (2011). Entering teaching for and with love: Visions of pre-service urban teachers. Journal of Urban Learning, Teaching, and Research, 17, 18-26. This article explains practitioners’ perceptions of teaching in urban settings. This article emphasizes the multiple diverse facets of teaching in urban schools. Landra, K., & Sutton, T. (2008) You think you know ghetto? Contemporizing the Dove ‘Black IQ Test’. Teaching Sociology, 36(4), 366-377. The article discusses cultural bias in intellectual ability assessments. The article also contains an assessment containing questions relating to African American culture. Students may want to focus on the assessment and answers they did or did know the answers to. The instructor may need to help guide the discussion back to the issue of bias in assessment. McIntosh, P. (1989). White privilege: Unpacking the invisible knapsack. Peace and Freedom, July/August, 10-12. The article draws attention to a multitude of ways in which white individuals The article is a bit dated, instructors will want to familiarize themselves with the article before introducing it to the class in order to relate some of the concepts to more current concepts. Milburn, W. & Palladino, J. (2012). This article examines the unique aspect of Preservice teachers’ knowledge, skills, and addressing LGBTQ bullying for pre-service dispositions of LGBTQ bullying intervention. teachers. The American Association of Behavioral and Social Sciences Journal, 16, 86-100. The article outlines specific strategies that pre-service teachers can help in the classroom for the LGBTQ population of students. BOOKS FOR PRESERVICE TEACHERS Amazing Grace (1991) Kozol, Jonathan • This book describes the vast differences in resources between schools in affluent areas and schools in low-income areas. • The book is somewhat dated, yet it should be noted that these differences remain throughout the country. The Sprit Catches You and You Fall Down (1997) Fadiman, Anne This book chronicles the true story of a young Hmong girl who is considered to have a spiritual gift that is, in western culture, identified as epilepsy. The book documents the clash between the family’s desire to honor their daughter’s gift and the Americans’ desires to treat the epilepsy. Microagressions in Everyday Life: Race, Gender, and Sexual Orientation (2010) Sue, Derald W. Sue’s book explores the topic of unintentional bias. The book examines the psychological effects of unintentional bias on both the perpetrator and the victim. The Skin That We Speak: Thoughts on Language and Culture in the Classroom (2008) Delpit, Lisa • Delpit’s texts can be used to articulate how cultural power is embedded in language. The texts detail those concepts through the use of vignettes and personal dialogue of how educators have used language as a way to segregate and alienate students from lower socioeconomic classes. • Some students may come to the classroom with a higher level of understanding about culture than others. Subsequently, students may react with intense, and possibly hostile, attitudes to the exposure of new knowledge. This may be accompanied by feelings of anger and resentment as they navigate their complicity, often unwittingly, in the process of stereotyping, bias, and deficit thinking. VIDEOS FOR PRESERVICE TEACHERS Title and URL Summary Helpful Hints The Invisibles: The Children of Rural Education This video examines the realities of This video provides research to rural education, which include rising enhance teachers in a rural student enrollment, increase in poverty setting. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1p rates and racial and ethnic diversity. h4kMj90D4 Becoming a Culturally Responsive Teacher This video helps teachers with new approaches for teaching students with cultural differences. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uV 36efjBKRU Substitute Teacher - Key & Peele Humorous skit serves as a vivid https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dd display of reversed racial assumptions. 7FixvoKBw A raw, provocative display portraying the reality of daily school life for many students from diverse cultures and how easily a European-American teacher can subtly embed dominant cultural behaviors. Teachers will learn activities that explore historical and person perspectives for teaching diverse students. A strong caution, do not show this video until the students have gone through much preliminary activities and readings concerning culture. Also, the skit contains profanity, which some students may find offensive. WEBSITES FOR PRESERVICE TEACHERS Websites for Pre-Service Teachers • Multicultural Education & Culturally Responsive Teaching • http://www.ithaca.edu/wise/multicultural/ • Resources for Addressing Multicultural and Diversity Issues in Your Classroom • http://www.nea.org/tools/resources-addressing-multicultural- diversity-issues-in-your-classroom.htm • Multicultural Education Internet Resource Guide • http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~jar/Multi.html ACTIVITIES AND RESOURCES FOR USE IN THE FIELD Title of Activity How to Implement Helpful Hints It’s a Small World After All Throughout the school year, select one country per week identifying where one student’s descendants or immediate family migrated from in the world. Be sure to teach major points of interest about that country, especially identifying it on a world map. For this activity, students enjoy learning about the food, music, population, geographical region, and various hobbies to do in each country. Photos and videos can also help students learn more about the country. Feel free to have the particular student from that country help lead the lesson. Name that Tune This game expands students’ awareness of music played in other countries. Play an excerpt of a song from another country. Students can name the specific country where the song originated. The teacher may want to share songs from countries you have previously studied in class. You may want to give students a list of three choices of the countries (pictures or words) and have them choose from the list. Title How to Implement Helpful Hints Bon Appetit The teacher will discuss, with the class, the various foods cooked in other countries. The teacher and students can research recipes from specific countries. After discovering native recipes, the teacher and students can cook these international foods. The teacher will want to have the students cook various foods from the recipes on the specific week they are learning about that particular country. The teacher can share interesting facts about various ethnicities (e.g., Asian countries eat rice with most meals). Let’s Celebrate The teacher will discuss major holidays and special dates specific to countries around the world. Students can research the origin of these dates and place them on an international calendar posted in the classroom. The teacher can make sure he/she briefly discusses the major holiday or special dates specific to the country on its specific day. I Love Being Me At the beginning of the year, the teacher can have his/her students each design a shoebox which describe themselves. Each student will present and explain the components of their shoeboxes. If the student agrees, the teacher can display these shoeboxes around the classroom. The teacher can construct a rubric for this project, which encourages individual creativity and honesty from each student. This project promotes individualization and allows other students to understand and respect individual differences. Into the Beautiful North (2009) by Luis Alberto Urrea • This book is about a poor, young Mexican woman who dreams of a more blissful world. • This book is intended for students on the secondary level. Jumpstart the World (2011) by Catherine Ryan Hyde • This book is about a young woman who falls in love with a transgender man. • This book is intended for students on the secondary level. Mulan, the Storyteller’s Candle (2008) by Lucia Gonzalez • This book is about cousins who moved from their Puerto Rico to New York City. This story explains the astounding effect of moving countries has on the cousins. • This book is intended for students on the elementary or primary level. Scorpions (1988) Walter Dean Myers • Scorpions is realistic novel about a young African American male who becomes involved with a gang. • Scorpions was written for students in grades 3-8. Will Grayson, Will Grayson (2010) by John Green and David Levithan • This book is about two young men meeting with the same names; however, one man is gay and the other straight. They find a mutual respect and love for each other through a series of comical events. • This book is intended for students on the secondary level. Yeh-Shen: A Cinderella Story from China (1996) by Ai-Ling Louie • This book gives a reader a glimpse of the Chinese culture with a plot much like Cinderella. • This book is intended for students on the elementary or primary level. Final Thoughts Given the continued concerns regarding CLD students being disproportionately represented in special education, it is imperative that pre-service teachers become culturally competent and are well prepared to work with CLD students (Ford, 2012; Lee, 2012). Any strategies/resources you would like to share? References • American Psychological Association. (2003). Guidelines on multi-cultural education, training, • • • • • • • research, practice, and organizational change for psychologists. American Psychologist, 58, 377-402. Artiles, A. J., Bal, A., Trent, S. C., & Thorius, K. K. (2012). Placement of culturally and linguistically diverse students in programs for students with emotional and behavioral disorders: Contemporary trends and research needs. In J. P. Bakken, F. E. Obiakor, & A. F. Rotatori (Eds.), Behavioral disorders: Identification, assessment, and instruction of students with EBD (pp. 107-127). East Sussex, United Kingdom: Emerald Books. Borrero, N. (2011). Entering teaching for and with love: Visions of pre-service urban teachers. Journal of Urban Learning, Teaching, and Research, 17, 18-26. Carrero, K.M. & Lusk, M.E. (2013). Preparing special educators to work with culturally and linguistically diverse students with challenging behaviors. Multicultural Learning and Teaching. 9(1),15-32. doi: 10.1515/mlt-2013-0003 Cross, T. L., Bazron, B. J., Dennis, K. W., & Isaacs, M. R. (1989). Towards a culturally competent system of care: A monograph on effective services for minority children who are severely emotionally disturbed. Washington, DC: National Institute of Mental Health, Child and Adolescent Service System Program. Delpit, L. (2008). The skin that we speak: Thoughts on language and culture in the classroom. New York, NY: The New Press. Fadiman, A. (1997). The spirit catches you and you fall down: A Hmong child, her American doctors, and the collision of two cultures. New York, NY: Noonday. Ford, D. Y. (2012). Culturally different students in special education: Looking backward to move forward. Exceptional Children 78(4), 391-405. References • Gonzalez, L. (2008). Mulan, the Story Teller’s Candle. San Francisco, CA: Children’s • • • • • • • • • Book Press. Green, J & Levithan, D. (2010). Will Grayson, Will Grayson. New York, NY: Dutton Books. Hyde, C. (2011). Jumpstart the World. New York, NY: Random House Children’s Books. Ithaca College. (2014). Multicultural education & culturally responsive teaching. Retrieved from http://www.ithaca.edu/wise/multicultural/ Key, K.M. & Peele, J. (2012). Substitute Teacher – Part 1. Retrieved from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dd7FixvoKBw. Kozol, J. (1991). Savage inequalities: Children in America’s schools. New York, NY: Crown. Laundra, K., & Sutton, T. (2008). You think you know ghetto? Contemporizing the Dove ‘Black IQ Test, Teaching Sociology, 36, 366-377. Lee, S. (2012). Knowing myself to know others: Preparing preservice teachers for diversity through multicultural autobiography. Multicultural Education, 20(1), 38-41. Louie, A. (1996). Yeh-Shen: A Cinderella Story from China. New York, NY: Pilomel Books. Lyon, A. F. (2009). Teaching others: Preservice teachers’ understandings regarding diverse families. Multicultural Education, 16(4), 52-55. References • McIntosh, P. (1989). White privilege: Unpacking the invisible knapsack. • • • • • • • Peace and Freedom, July/August, 10-12. Myers, W. D. (1988). Scorpions. New York, NY: Amistad. Milburn, W. & Palladino, J. (2012). Preservice teachers’ knowledge, skills, and dispositions of LGBTQ bullying intervention. The American Association of Behavioral and Social Sciences Journal, 16, 86-100. National Education Association. (2014). Resources for addressing multicultural and diversity issues in your classroom. Retrieved from http://www.nea.org/tools/resources-addressing-multicultural-diversityissues-in-your-classroom.htm Project Implicit (2014). Implicit association test – Racial attitudes. Retrieved from:https://implicit.harvard.edu/implicit/education.html Reyhner, J. (2014). Multicultural education internet resource guide. Retrieved from http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~jar/Multi.html Sue, D. W. (2010). Microagressions in everyday life: Race, gender, and sexual orientations. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley. Urrea, L. (2009). Into the Beautiful North. New York, NY: Back Bay Books.