Milton Dehn 1 - Ala-CASE

Report
Identifying a Pattern of Strengths and
Weaknesses when Assessing
Cognitive Processes
Milton J. Dehn, Ed.D., NCSP
Schoolhouse Educational Services
May, 2013
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email [email protected]
Workshop Information Sources
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Essentials of Processing Assessment, 2nd Ed.
Children’s Psychological Processes Scale
Bibliography in handout
Other cited references
www.psychprocesses.com
Workshop Topics
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Processes to assess
Processes and academic skills
Neuroanatomy of processes
Selective, cross-battery testing
Identifying strengths and weaknesses
SLD identification using a pattern of strengths
and weaknesses
7. Overview of processing interventions
What are Psychological Processes?
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Includes “cognitive” processes
Brain processes, operations, functions
Any time mental contents are operated on
When information is perceived, transformed,
manipulated, stored, retrieved, expressed
Whenever we think, reason, problem-solve
Basic and higher level processes
Doesn’t include knowledge or academic skills
Learning depends on these processes; they underlie
academic skills
The Need for Processing Assessment
1. Part of a neuropsychological approach
2. Not just for SLD but Autism, ADHD, TBI, etc.
3. Neuroscience has increased understanding of
brain-learning relationships
4. A deficit in a “psychological process” is part
of federal and states’ SLD definitions
5. Identification leads to more appropriate
interventions
Federal & State SLD Criteria
1. SLD is…… “a disorder in one or more of the
basic psychological processes”
2. IDEIA 2004 allows alternative research-based
procedures (the third method)
3. Been interpreted as allowing use of a pattern
of strengths and weaknesses (PSW) in SLD
diagnosis
1. In achievement, cognitive abilities, or
psychological processes
Processing Assessment Advantages
1. Benefits the learner: better understanding
2. Identifying a processing deficit differentiates
SLD & slow learning
3. Identifying processing deficits provides
direction for academic interventions
Processing and RTI
1. Processing model consistent with problemsolving and early intervention
2. There are evidence-based processing
interventions
3. Different processing “causes” of SLD
4. Why do “blind” academic interventions
5. Processing & academic interventions
compatible---why they work
Characteristics of Psychological
Processes to Assess
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Brain-based
Interrelated
Necessary for academic learning
Both broad and narrow processes
Manifestations of processing problems are
observable in classroom
Processes for SLD Assessment
1. Attention
2. Auditory Processing
3. Executive Functions
4. Fine Motor
5. Fluid Reasoning
6. Long-Term Recall
7. Oral Language
8. Phonological Processing
9. Processing Speed
10. Visual-Spatial Processing
11. Working Memory (WM)
Human Processing Limitations
1. Human limitations
2. Which processes does the chimp excel at?
Attention
1. Necessary for learning and memory
2. Attention deficits part of LD
3. Not necessarily ADHD
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ADHD is more hyperactive/impulsive
Inattentive type is more cognitive/learning problems
4. Types: Selective, focused, divided, sustained
5. Problem: attentional control & inhibition
6. Related to Executive Functions and Working
Memory
Auditory Processing
1. Ability to perceive, analyze, synthesize, and
discriminate auditory stimuli, mainly speech
2. Perceiving and comprehending instruction;
being able to understand words with
background noise
Executive Functions
1. Management of cognitive functions and
psychological processes
2. Effectiveness depends on selfmonitoring, self-regulation, and
metacognition
3. Has a longer course of development
4. More to do with classroom performance
than learning of academic skills
Fluid Reasoning
1. Deductive, inductive reasoning,
especially with novel materials
2. Has a longer course of development
3. More important for applied academics
Long-Term Recall
1. Close connection with other processes
and with academic learning in general
2. Includes encoding, consolidation,
storage, and retrieval
3. Rapid automatic naming is part of
Oral Language
1. Not the content (vocabulary) or
receptive language but the oral
expression processes
Phonological Processing
1. Processing of phonemes, e.g. blending
2. Phonemic awareness is part of
Processing Speed
1. How quickly information flows through
the processing system; a matter of
efficiency
2. Too slow: info. lost, process not
completed
Visual-Spatial Processing
1. The ability to perceive, analyze,
synthesize, manipulate and think with
visual patterns
2. A strength in most LD cases
3. Weak relations with all academics; more
of a “threshold” process
Working Memory
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Processing while retaining information
Includes short-term memory
Both verbal and visual
An executive component
Processes and Academic Learning
1. Psychological processes are like “aptitudes”
2. Relations established through research
1. Flanagan et al., & McGrew
2. Swanson, Geary, and others
3. The influence of processes varies by age
4. For SLD look for academic area and related
psychological processes to both be low
5. See Table
Research: SLD by Processing Subtypes
1. Visual-Spatial Deficits: Math calculation and
math problem solving
2. Processing Speed Deficits: Reading
comprehension, written expression
3. Working Memory Deficit: Math calculation,
Written expression
4. Attention: Written expression
Source: Hain, Hale, Kendorski
Dehn’s Processing Theory
“For each academic skill there is an optimal set
of psychological processes that function as
aptitudes. For successful learning of a specific
academic skill, the combined set of specific
aptitudes must attain a sufficient threshold of
development.”
Link
Processing Clusters: Memory Example
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Attention
Executive Functions
Fluid Reasoning
Long-Term Recall
Processing Speed
Working Memory
See Link for other clusters
Developmental Groupings
Mature early after gradual development:
• Auditory Processing
• Fine Motor Processing
• Long-Term Recall
• Phonological Processing
• Visual-Spatial Processing
• See link for other groupings
Neuroanatomy of Processes
Neuroanatomy of Processes
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Most in more than one brain lobe
Illustrates the interconnectivity of processes
Most have specific structures within a lobe
Processing speed is a function of
interconnectivity; does not have a specific
structure
Occipital Lobe
1. Dedicated to vision and visual-spatial
processing
2. Receives sensory data from the thalamus
3. Visual and spatial processing are separate
4. Dorsal stream (upper) sends spatial
information to parietal lobe
5. Ventral stream (lower) sends visual
information to temporal lobe
Temporal Lobe
1. Auditory processing
2. Long-term memory processing in the
hippocampus
3. Some visual processing
4. Semantic memory storage
Parietal Lobe
1. Integrates sensory information
2. Language processing
3. Phonological processing
Frontal Lobe
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The “output” lobe; others are input
Executive functions---prefrontal cortex
Working memory---prefrontal cortex
Attentional control---prefrontal cortex
Fluid reasoning
Fine motor
Oral expression
No storage of long-term memories
Processing Assessment Challenges
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Connecting to academic concerns
Interrelated processes
Not all are found in one convenient battery
Doing it efficiently
Linking with interventions
Processing Assessment Principles
1. Should be multimethod, multisource, and
multisetting
2. Informal, qualitative not enough
3. Should include standardized testing
4. Should be hypothesis driven
5. Selective, cross-battery testing
6. Integrate data during interpretation
Records Review
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Any medical or health conditions
Age of onset
Developmental delays
Look for reported behaviors that indicate
processing problems
1. Difficulty memorizing arithmetic facts: WM
2. Difficulty blending: Phonological processing
3. Low fluency: Processing speed
Interviews
1. Ask directly about processes but also ask
about behaviors that are manifestations of
processing weaknesses
2. Teachers: Ask about their hypotheses
3. Parents: Home environment examples
4. Students: Middle school and older
5. Suggested teacher and parent interview
items will be in revised book
Observations
1. An observed behavior is due to more than
one process
2. Look for several problematic behaviors that
go with a specific process
3. See link
Dehn’s Approach to Cross Battery
1. Not limited to CHC factors
2. “Narrow” abilities/processes included
3. Includes processing factors that are
important for learning of academic skills
4. Includes rating scales
5. Subtests classified through task analysis
6. Analyze scores at the composite (twosubtest) level whenever possible
Cross-Battery Testing
1. Assessment driven by hypotheses
2. Mix scales/batteries to cover all the areas
1. Try to limit the number of scales
2. Should be normed about the same time
3. Avoid redundancies when testing
4. Ideally, 2 subtests per process
5. Analyze results together and use a crossbattery mean to determine discrepancies
Selective Testing
1. Test all processes important for academics
With most attention to an in-depth
assessment of hypothesized weaknesses
2. Apply a cross-battery approach
3. Pick composites first
4. Categorized by factor and task analysis
5. See selective testing tables Link
6. See comprehensive list link from book
Hypothesis Testing Approach
1. Given academic deficiency, what are the
most likely process deficits
2. It’s “why” the child has a learning problem
3. Include non-processes
4. Must collect assessment data to “test”
hypotheses
5. Try to avoid “confirmatory bias”
6. We all have weaknesses
Planning a Processing Assessment
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Complete the processing assessment planner
Template
Completed example
See case study
Six-Year Old Case Study Concerns
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Learning colors, letters, and numbers
Inconsistent performance
Recognizing and generating rhyming words
Reading learning difficulties
Doesn’t remember directions
Difficulty getting started on a task
Word retrieval problems
Math learning difficulties
Processing Analysis Worksheet
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Composite scores from test manual when possible
Convert all scores to standard scores
Exclude non-processing factors and subtests
Compute clinical process scores by averaging
Compute processing mean
Calculate discrepancies
Determine weaknesses and deficits
Do pairwise comparisons
Completed Example
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Opposites and those closely related
9. Complete worksheet and interpret
Using Dehn’s Processing Analysis
Worksheet to Determine PSW
1. Deficit = both normative and intra-individual
weakness (deficit is a “strong” weakness)
2. Scores below 90 are normative weaknesses
1. Below 85 if not using deficit approach
3. Intra-individual strengths and weaknesses
use 12 point discrepancy
1. Assumes composites/subtests have hi reliability
2. Use 15 points if not using deficit approach
4. Automated worksheet
PSW Principles Regarding SLD
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Neurologically-based deficits underlie SLD
There’s no SLD if there’s no processing deficit
Some processes highly related with academic skills
Processing deficits related to academic deficits
SLD have average or near average cognitive ability
Weakness should be normative &intra-individual
Weakness: statistically significant and unusual
PSW doesn’t mean there is a learning disability.
Concordance-Discordance Model
1. From James Brad Hale
Link
2. Similar to Naglieri’s model
3. Processing areas not significantly related to
the academic area should be discordant:
Processing strengths should be significantly
higher than the academic weakness
CHC Model
1. A process related to the academic deficiency
is weak or deficient
2. Unexpected underachievement: Process and
academic deficit exist with otherwise normal
ability
3. Regarding strengths, at least some processes
should be in the average range
Dehn’s PSW Model
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Normative weakness + intra-individual weakness
= deficit
At least one process is a deficit
Intra-individual weakness is statistically
significant
Subtest scores must be unitary for a deficit
At least one processes is in average range
(strength)
The deficit is related to deficient academic skill
Consistency between process score(s) and the
related academic skill score Link
Determining Weaknesses & Deficits
1. Intra-individual strengths and weaknesses
1. Should be at least a 12-point discrepancy
2. 15 points if not using deficit rule
2. Normative weakness when score below 90
3. Deficits are rare statistically, have a
neurological basis, and impair learning
4. Most states require only a weakness
(typically an intra-individual weakness) but
not a deficit, and also require strengths
Support for Strengths and Weaknesses
1. Informal data supports test scores and results
of score analysis
2. Corroboration especially needed when scores
differences are less than one standard
deviation (12-14 points)
3. Integrate and label data when writing report
4. Weaknesses match with specific academic
areas they are highly related with
Psychological Processing Analyzer
1. Available at www.psychprocesses.com
2. Identifies strengths, weaknesses, deficits
3. Conducts cross-battery analysis using
composites and/or subtest standard scores
4. 11 psychological processes
5. From 22+ different scales: cognitive, achieve.,
rating, and processing link
Psychological Processing Analyzer
1. Composite and subtests are limited to those
that are fairly direct measures
2. Some are re-classified based on the primary
demands of the task
3. Difference formulas based on reliability
coefficients of composites/subtests
4. Regression toward the mean
5. .01 or .05 level of significance
Psychological Processing Analyzer
1. All scores converted to standard scores
2. Non-unitary process scores are flagged
3. Predicted score for each process based on
mean of other 10
4. Differences greater than critical values are
intra-individual weaknesses
5. Deficits are both types of weaknesses
6. Pairwise comparisons are optional Link
Other Options for Determining PSW
1. Cross-battery software based on CHC
taxonomy
1. Only shows one process weakness at a time
2. Use simple difference (SED) formula
1. Uses reliability coefficients
3. Advanced formula can be used when
correlation between measures is known
4. Checking for confidence interval overlap
Rating Scales
1. Processing deficits are manifested through
behaviors
2. Behavior ratings can be used to measure
processing abilities
3. Examples: BRIEF and other Executive
Function Scales
4. Also, the new CPPS
Children’s Psychological Processes
Scale (CPPS) Overview
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Standardized teacher rating scale
Ages 5-0-0 to 12-11-30
121 items across 11 subscales
Entirely online, internet-web based
Online administration time of 15 minutes
Online scoring and report
Author: Milton Dehn; published by Schoolhouse
Educational Services, 2012
8. Measurement Consultant: Kevin McGrew
The Purposes of the CPPS
1. SLD Evaluations
1. Identify psych processing deficits
2. Pattern of strengths and weaknesses
3. Data for SLD diagnosis
2. Screening
1. Identifies need for intervention
2. Predicts academic skills development
3. Useful in planning comprehensive assessment
3. Planning interventions
4. Measure progress during interventions
1. Through the use of change-sensitive W-scores
CPPS Standardization
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1,121 students rated by 278 teachers
128 communities in 30 states
All data collected online
Demographics match U.S. Census well
Norms: 4 age groups (5-6; 7-8; 9-10; 11-12)
Included children with disabilities
Demographics details Link
How The Online CPPS Works
1. A psychologist’s side and a teacher’s side
2. Psychologist fills in teacher information and
email sent
3. Teacher: student info and completes ratings
4. Psych receives email stating ratings complete
5. Psych generates report
6. See screen shots
CPPS Administration
1. Online rating scale 12-15 minutes for
teachers to complete
1. Can print free paper copy and enter later
2. Must answer all items (but can save incomplete)
2. Never, Sometimes, Often, Almost Always
3. Rating scale saved until report generated
CPPS Items
• Grouped by subscale
• In developmental (ability) order from lowest
item to highest item
• Link
• Example of scoring in developmental
sequence Link
CPPS Report
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Brief narrative, graph, and a table of scores
Change-sensitive W-scores
T-scores; percentiles; confidence intervals
Intra-individual strengths and weakness
discrepancy table
5. T-score to standard score converter
6. Can be re-run with different options (without
extra charge) Example
Discrepancy Analysis
1. Use discrepancy table to determine pattern
of strengths and weaknesses (reversed)
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Predicted score based on mean of other 10
Regression toward the mean included
+/- 1.00 to 2.00 SD of SEE discrepancy options
Strengths and Weakness labeling is opposite of
discrepancy, e.g. “-” value = a strength
5. Non LD also have a pattern Link
T-Score Conversion Table
1. Optional
2. Purpose: To see how consistent CPPS scores
are with achievement and cognitive scores
3. T-score x 1.5 + 25 and then reverse distance
from mean
4. Example: T-score of 60 x 1.5 = 90 + 25 = 115
5. Then subtract 15 from 100 = 85 Example
CPPS General Processing Ability (GPA)
1. Based on average of all process scores
2. Emerges from factor analysis; similar to
concept of general intelligence
3. Processes function in an inter-related fashion
4. Most processes contribute to any given
behavior, task
5. On CPPS defined as “the underlying
efficiency of processing”
Diagnostic Accuracy for LD
1. 37 LD subjects with broad demographics
2. Compared to matched controls, LD subjects
had significantly higher means on all
subscales Link
3. The CPPS had high classification accuracy in
regards to LD
1. Using CPPS GPA cutoff of 60 had a 92%
classification accuracy across 74 subjects
Diagnosing LD with the CPPS
1. Look for pattern of strengths and weaknesses
(discrepancy table)
2. Weaknesses should also be normative
weaknesses (T-scores above 60)
3. Weaknesses should link to evidence-based
achievement relations
4. Same criteria as PSW model
Discussion
1. How will you do processing assessment
differently?
2. How will you determine weaknesses,
strengths, deficits?
Using Assessment Results to
Plan an Intervention
1. Select deficits and intra-individual
weaknesses for intervention
2. Consider related processing weaknesses
3. Consider executive and WM limitations
4. Individualize
Interventions for Processing
Weaknesses & Deficits
1. Strengthen weakness if possible
2. And utilize the strong areas more
3. Modifications that reduce the need to use
the weak processes
4. Use methods that involve other processes,
more of the brain
Attention: Self-Monitoring
1. Teacher, or device carried by student, cues student
at variable intervals, such as 5 minutes
2. When cued, student marks monitoring sheet
regarding behavior when cue occurred: 2Completely on task; 1-Partially on task; 0Completely off task
3. When teacher is cueing, she also provides her rating
alongside student’s; student receives bonus point
when ratings match
4. Set a points goal that student is working for, easy at
first, then keep adjusting upward
Link
Auditory Processing
1. Same as interventions for CAPD
2. Recoding auditory into visual information
3. Visual representations should accompany
verbal presentations
4. Quiet environment
5. Improve acoustics
6. Fast ForWord
7. Auditory trainers (individual sound systems)
Executive Function
1. Increase metacognitive awareness
2. Teach planning
3. Work completion: set goal and time
Planning
1. Developing planning improves math
performance
2. Discuss benefits of plans
3. Develop plans
4. Verbalize them
5. Implement them and evaluate
Fine Motor
1. Occupational therapy
2. Handwriting practice
Fluid Reasoning
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Problem solving
Categorizing
Similarities and differences
Games that require reasoning and
recognizing relationships
Long-Term Recall
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Dual encoding
Elaboration
Testing
Visual mnemonics
Retrieval
Distributed practice
Context cues
Oral Language
1. Closure procedures
2. Categorizing words
3. Create a variety of sentences using same
words
4. Synonyms and antonyms
5. Paraphrasing
6. Language therapy
Phonological Processing
1. Phonemic awareness interventions very
effective .86 effect size (the earlier the
better)
2. Oral at first, then with written material
3. Rhyming; isolating phonemes; identifying
phonemes; deleting phonemes; categorizing
common phonemes; segmenting phonemes
that comprise words; and blending
phonemes into words
Processing Speed
• Video Games
Visual-Spatial Processing
• None recommended
WM: Reducing Cognitive Load
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Brief, consistent verbalizations
One process at a time
Allow time for rehearsal and processing
Quiet learning environment
Organized presentations
One step at time
Worked examples
Partially completed problems
WM: Teach Rehearsal
1. Most have by age 10; 1st graders can learn
2. Serial and cumulative repetitive process
3. Repeat first word until next delivered then add
next word to the repetition
4. First aloud, then subvocal
5. Good maintenance if overlearned
6. Increase length of list
7. More effective than elaborate strategies?
WM Accommodations
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Extended testing time
Repeating information
Repeating information in a simplified manner
Providing written checklists and reminders of
step-by-step procedures
One task at a time
Slow down presentation
Preferential seating to reduce distraction
Provide prompts and cues
N-Back Task (Exec. WM)
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Challenging task but easily administered
Shown to improve WM capacity
Remember stimulus n-items back
Do it repetitively
Deck of cards ideal; prevents practice effects
Parents and children can practice at home
n-back task
What strategy would you teach the child for
succeeding at this?
N-Back Procedures
1. Display cards one at a time for 1-2 seconds
2. Start over after 1st error
3. Should get 10 consecutive correct 3 times
before going to next N
4. 10-15 minutes of daily practice for 4 weeks
5. More challenging: A double n-back
6. Establish baseline
7. Encourage strategy use
Using Math to Build WM
• Complete calculations
• Remember the answers in sequence
–4+3=7
–9–3=6
– Response: 7, 6
Discussion
How will you attempt to incorporate processing
interventions into IEP or other intervention
programs?

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