A Journey from Punitive Consequences to Tiered Interventions

Report
A JOURNEY FROM PUNITIVE
CONSEQUENCES TO TIERED
INTERVENTIONS
TENNESSEE SWPBS CONFERENCE NOVEMBER 14, 2013
ACTIVITY
On the paper provided,
make a list of all the
consequences you’ve used
that are effective.
Be prepared to explain why
they are effective.
CONTACT INFORMATION
 Laura Winter
 PBIS Coordinator, Region 6
 NC Department of Public Instruction
 [email protected]
 919-302-9334
Exceptional Children Division
Behavior Support & Special Programs
Positive Behavior Intervention & Support Initiative
PARTICIPANT EXPECTATIONS
Be Responsible
Return promptly from breaks
Be an active participant
Use electronic devices appropriately
Be Respectful
Maintain cell phone etiquette
Listen attentively to others
Limit sidebars and stay on topic
Be Kind
Enter discussions with an open mind
Respond appropriately to others’ ideas
Honor confidentiality
ATTENTION SIGNAL
Please make note of time limits and watch your clocks!
 Trainer will raise his/her hand.
 Finish your thought/comment.
 Participants will raise a hand and wait
quietly.
WHY ARE WE HERE?
RATIONALE
Punitive systems have become
widespread, yet are not exactly a
good fit for PBIS schools.
Teachers need support to transition
from these systems to tiered
systems of interventions and
continuums of responses.
WHAT ARE PROGRESSIVE
CONSEQUENCE SYSTEMS?
 Systems in which a student’s card (or any object) is
turned, pulled or moved for a problem behavior and
increasing punishments are given at each step
 Systems in which a student receives a “strike” or a
“tally” for a problem behavior and a punishment is
assigned for each notation
 Can provide a quick way to communicate to a
student that an error has occurred
 Usually provides a planned response to the behavior
that allows the teacher to continue with instruction
and move forward as quickly as possible
(Sprick, 2007)
ISSUE #1: CONSISTENCY IS
INCONSISTENT!
It is very difficult for teachers to be absolutely
consistent in their own responses to every
behavior and for teachers to be consistent
with each other. It often results in teachers
not moving a card when, according to the
rules they should, or to give too severe a
penalty for a repeated minor behavior. This
dilemma between being overly harsh or
overly lenient is confusing for students to
know what the expectations actually are.
(Sprick, 2007)
ISSUE #2: BREACH OF
CONFIDENTIALITY
Often, students do not feel fairly and
respectfully treated by having their
challenges publicly displayed and attention
called to their mistakes. If we look at this
practice from the child’s perspective, we
can’t help but wonder how it feels to always
have a red or yellow card by your name.
Students and families are publicly humiliated
or embarrassed.
Would we do this with academic behaviors?
“Laura, you missed that math problem-go flip your
card!”
(Sprick, 2007)
ISSUE #3: ARE WE CHANGING
BEHAVIOR?
There are rarely truly effective, logical
consequences attached to the
movement of the clip or card or the
assignment of a strike or tally. In some
cases, the actual moving of the clip or
card is the only consequence to the
student’s behavior. We know that
behavior doesn’t change simply
because a strike is given or a card is
flipped.
(Shindler, 2008)
OBJECTIVES
 Review the components of classroom
management
 Understand the difference between
punishments and effective responses
 Discuss methods to collect classroom
behavior data that is discrete and
maintains confidentiality
 Design a pyramid of interventions that
include a continuum of research-based
responses at each level
 Create reinforcement systems that are
contingent upon appropriate behavior
PBIS AND CLASSROOM
MANAGEMENT
WHAT IS EFFECTIVE CLASSROOM
MANAGEMENT?
Classroom management refers to all of the
things that an educator does to organize
students, space, time, and materials, so that
instruction in content and student learning can
take place.
In the four domains of RtI, over which domain
do we have the least amount of control?
Instruction Curriculum Environment Learner
SIX EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICES TO
ENSURE POSITIVE BEHAVIOR
It is smart to have a classroom
management plan.
Your overall plan should include:
 Routines and procedures (structure!)
 Classroom expectations (posted and
referred to often)
 Methods for teaching expectations
 Procedures for encouraging positive
behavior
 Procedures for responding to problem
behavior
(Simonsen, Fairbanks, Briesch, Myers & Sugai, 2008)
RESPONDING TO
PROBLEM BEHAVIOR
RESPONSES VS. PUNISHMENTS
RESPONDING TO PROBLEM BEHAVIOR:
RE-THINKING CONSEQUENCES

In traditional discipline, the word consequence is
often used to describe a punishment.

A consequence is any thing that occurs after a
problem behavior has occurred (positive or
negative).

Effective consequences, or responses to behavior,
are those that result in the problem behavior
changing over time.

Ineffective consequences are those that may stop
the behavior temporarily, but result in either no
change or increase of the problem behavior over
time.
RESPONDING TO PROBLEM BEHAVIOR:
THE ABCS
Understanding the purpose of behavior
comes from repeated observation of:
A: Antecedent: stimulus before the
behavior (prevention)
B: Behavior: observable and measurable
act (teaching)
C: Consequence: what occurs after the
behavior that serves to maintain or
increase frequency of behavior
(response)
RESPONDING TO PROBLEM BEHAVIOR:
GENERAL GUIDELINES
 Even with prevention and teaching strategies
in place, problem behavior will occur and
require an adult response.
 The following guidelines ensure that these
interventions are effective:
 Approach problem behavior as you would a
learning error
 Plan your responses to typical problems in
advance
 Teach students what to do differently
 Match level of intensity to the problem behavior.
 Consider context and student history
 Use the least intrusive intervention first
RESPONDING TO PROBLEM BEHAVIOR:
LOGICAL CONSEQUENCES
 Logical consequences are those that allow
students to learn from their mistakes while
preserving their dignity.
 Goals of logical consequences:

To give children the chance to regain self-control

To help children recognize the connection between their actions
and the outcomes of their actions

To allow them to fix problems caused by their misbehavior and to
make amends

To guide students in avoiding similar problems in the future

To preserve the dignity of the child and the integrity of the group

To keep children safe
(Shindler, 2008)
REWORKING RESPONSES TO PROBLEM
BEHAVIOR:
EFFECTIVE RESPONSES REVIEW
Teach a new behavior and offer the
opportunity to practice.
Are used immediately or closely
following problem behavior.
Offer a range of options to teachers
for classroom interventions.
TOP THREE MOST EFFECTIVE
RESPONSES TO PROBLEM BEHAVIOR
Based on a survey of US teachers by
the University of Kansas, the top three
most effective consequences are:
Positive Practice
Restitution/Time Owed
Reflection
BEST REDIRECTION EVER
“What are you doing?”
“What are you supposed to be
doing?”
“Show me you can do that.”
ACTIVITY:
ENSURING EFFECTIVE, LOGICAL RESPONSES
TO PROBLEM BEHAVIOR
Using the list of consequences
generated by the people at your
table, identify which are “logical.”
Indicate which ones have and
which ones have not been
effective in changing the student’s
behavior.
LEAST EFFECTIVE DISCIPLINE
“STRATEGIES”
Punishment
Exclusion
Why do you think
these are the least
effective responses?
Counseling
(Gottfredson, 1997; Elliott, Hamburg, & Williams, 1998;
Tolan & Guerra, 1994; Lipsey, 1991, 1992)
RESPONDING TO
PROBLEM BEHAVIOR
PROCESS
PROCESS FOR RESPONDING TO PROBLEM
BEHAVIOR: DATA COLLECTION
 Typically, data collection is done by color
coding cards and clips, or by assigning
strikes to students.
 This type of data is usually publically
collected with no real intervention
attached.
 In order to design effective responses, we
must collect accurate, useful data.
 This data collection must be done
privately, confidentially, and objectively.
Process for Responding to Problem Behavior:
Sample Minor Reporting Form
Vance Minor Behavior Data Collection Form
Teacher Nam e: _____________________
Track:
1
2
3
4
M inor Be havior Code s :
Location Code s :
M otivation Code s :
De cis ion Code s :
Othe rs Involve d:
1. Inappropriate language
1. Classroom
1. Peer attention
1. Loss of privilege
1. None
2. Physical contact
2. Playground
2. Adult attention
2. Conf erence w / student
2. Peers
3. Def iance/disrespect
3. Hallw ay
3. Obtain items
3. Parent contact
3. Staf f
4. Disruption
4. Caf eteria
4. Avoid tasks/activities
4. Time out/ref lection
4. Teacher
5. Property misuse
5. Bathroom
5. Avoid peer(s)
5. Other (explain)
5. Substitute
6. Lying
6. Gym
6. Avoid adult(s)
6. Unknow n
7. Other (explain)
7. Library
7. Other (explain)
7. Other (explain)
Grade : preK K 1 2 3 4 5
8. Assembly
9. Other (explain)
Student Names
Date
Time
Minor
Location
Motivation
Teacher Decision
Others Involved
ACTIVITY: COLLECTING DATA
With your neighbors, or on your
own, brainstorm methods to collect
classroom behavior data.
All methods should be confidential
and maintain the dignity of the
student.
RESPONDING TO
PROBLEM BEHAVIOR
PYRAMIDS OF INTERVENTIONS
PYRAMIDS OF INTERVENTIONS:
DEFINITION
 In RtI*/PBIS, tiered interventions are the key to
ensuring that we are meeting the needs of all
of the students in our school.
 In the classroom, a pyramid of interventions
act as a menu of effective responses from
which we can choose.
 This helps us design supports for children that
meet the functional need of the behavior.
*RtI=Responsiveness to Instruction
PYRAMID OF INTERVENTIONS:
CLASSROOM EARLY STAGE RESPONSES
 Early stage responses should be brief and flow seamlessly into
instruction.
 In many cases, early intervention is enough and doesn’t require
follow up.
 Look: eye contact, a quizzical “you-know-better” facial expression, a stern
look
 Gesture: a head shake, thumbs down, finger over lips, sign language for
“stop”
 Move: get in closer proximity to the student
 Remind: state individual’s name softly and restate the expectation
 Redirect: eye contact, whispered name, a signal for student to move seat or
change tasks
 Touch: firm, but friendly hand on the shoulder meant to calm the child
 Remove: the teacher “pockets” a distracting object or holds it for safekeeping
PYRAMID OF INTERVENTIONS:
EARLY STAGE RESPONSES EXAMPLE:
BURNS MIDDLE SCHOOL, LAWNDALE, NC













Non-verbal warning
Proximity control
Verbal warning
Pat on the back
Planned ignoring of behavior
Individual/whole group
reteaching
Refer student to SOAR matrix
Phone call to parents
Email parents
Documentation in planner
Preferential seating
Individual student conference
Setting learning goals
 Reinforce other students
showing desired behavior
 Cuing
 Think sheet
 Restitution
 Time out in classroom
 Write an apology note
 Working lunch
 Silent lunch
 Consult with EC/ESL
teacher
 Teacher assigned ASD
 Clear routines and
procedures
 Have extra materials
available
PYRAMID OF INTERVENTIONS:
EARLY STAGE RESPONSES EXAMPLE:
GARNER HIGH SCHOOL, GARNER, NC
Tier One Interventions
Proximity control
Conference with
student
Re-teach
expectations
Restitution
Loss of privilege
Parent contact
Self-monitoring
Establish class
routines
Use attention
signal
Use pre-corrects
Use reinforcement Model effective
system
communication
skills
ACTIVITY: EARLY STAGE RESPONSES
Using your expertise, and the
expertise of those around you,
create a list of effective early
stage interventions you could
use in the classroom.
PYRAMID OF INTERVENTIONS:
CLASSROOM MIDDLE STAGE RESPONSES
Middle stage responses are used when early responses do not
work, and require prior planning.

Restitution: Student actively repairs the damage caused.

Physical repair: Student tries to help repair property or work of a peer.

Verbal repair: Student uses “I” statements to genuinely apologize for
behavior to individuals hurt by the behavior.

Loss of privilege: A privilege that is not being used
responsibly is temporarily removed.

Time owed: Student completes work or tasks missed due to
misbehavior on their own time.

Time out: The student is separated briefly from the group to
reflect and calm down.

Antiseptic Bouncing: Time out without saying time out.
PYRAMID OF INTERVENTIONS:
MIDDLE STAGE RESPONSES EXAMPLE:
BURNS MIDDLE, LAWNDALE, NC
 Consult with counselor
 Time out
 Consult with grade level
administrator
 Counselor check in
 DBR-Daily Behavior
Report
 Loss of privileges
 Parent/Student/Teacher
conference
 Team/Grade level PLC
support
 Antiseptic bouncing
on team
 Written
assignment/reflection
 Administrator assigned
ASD
 Consult with social
worker
 Home visit
 Team conference
 Escorted transitions
ACTIVITY: MIDDLE STAGE
INTERVENTIONS
Create a list of effective
middle stage interventions
that can be used in the
classroom.
PYRAMID OF INTERVENTIONS:
LATE STAGE RESPONSES
 Late stage responses are used when repeated
attempts at early and middle stage responses
are ineffective.
 These responses need to be planned in
collaboration with parents, administrators and
other site-based resources.
 Each student requiring late stage responses
should have a specific individualized behavior
plan based on the function of the behavior.
 While plan is in place, use de-escalation
strategies to avoid further conflict when
necessary.
PYRAMID OF INTERVENTIONS:
LATE STAGE RESPONSES: CHOOSING
STRATEGIES
Strategies need to include changes to the antecedents,
behavior, and consequences or outcomes.
Antecedents (what happens
immediately before problem
behavior)
Behavior (observable
and measurable)
Consequence (what
happens immediately after the
behavior)
PYRAMID OF INTERVENTIONS:
LATE STAGE RESPONSES:
CHOOSING STRATEGIES EXAMPLE
If it has been determined that a student calls out in order
to obtain adult attention, strategies might include:
Planned check-ins by teacher  Precorrects
A
for hand raising  Move seat closer to adult
B
Teach skills to get help, occupy wait times,
and tolerate delays
Ignore calling out  Reinforce raising hand 
C Respond consistently and quickly to
appropriate requests and approximations
MY DAILY GOAL CHART
Date _____________________________________
Subject
& Time
1
I stayed in
my area
(2 prompts
or less
2
I followed
directions/
listened to
my teacher
(2 prompts or
less)
3
I completed
my work/
task
(2 prompts or
less)
BONUS!!
I made nice
comments,
asked for
hugs, or
asked good
questions
I earned
this many
Rudy Bucks!
Homework
Completion
Morning Work
8:45 – 9:30
-Freund
Literacy
9:30 – 11:00
-Conger
Science/SS
11:00 – 12:00
-Freund
Math
12:40 – 1:00
-Freund
Social Skills/Math
1:05 – 2:20
-Conger
Specials
2:55 – 3:40
-Various
This chart or
contract is NOT
part of a Behavior
Intervention Plan.
It IS a way to
support this
student through
the day.
TOTALS:
Communication:
Freund
Communication:
Conger
Communication:
Specialist
Homework for
Tonight:
Individualized
behavior
chart/contract for
student.
Parent Signature and/or
Communication:
__________________________
Wally’s Stickers for Raising his hand
11 stickers = menu choice
PYRAMID OF INTERVENTIONS:
LATE STAGE RESPONSES EXAMPLE:
BURNS MIDDLE, LAWNDALE, NC
Office Managed and Team Driven:
 Functional Behavior Assessment
 Behavior Intervention Plan
 In-School Suspension
 Out-of-School Suspension
 Refer to SSMT
 Refer to DJJ/SRO/DSS/MH
ACTIVITY: LATE STAGE
INTERVENTIONS
Develop a list of late stage
interventions that are
appropriate for your students
and effective in changing
behaviors.
RESPONDING TO PROBLEM
BEHAVIOR: REVIEW
 Consequences and punishment are not the same
thing.
 Effective responses to problem behavior change
behavior over time.
 Logical interventions are designed to remedy the
problem while maintaining student dignity.
 When problem behavior occurs, strive to use the
least intrusive intervention possible.
 Move up the continuum of responses when
necessary.
 Create individualized plans for students requiring
the most support.
HOW DO WE START THE
PROCESS?
LOOK AT DATA
 Ask teachers to collect data for a couple of
weeks, specifically noting which students were
on red (or the worst step) at the end of each
day. What patterns are noticeable?
 If the current classroom plans are working, in
other words, there are few or no behavior
problems in the classroom setting, then there
is no reason to change.
Turn and talk: What other data could be useful?
START THE CONVERSATION
 Engage in discussion about progressive
consequences with the faculty as a whole, or
on grade level or department teams.
 Are the systems working?
 Do students feel respected?
 Are students with chronic behavior patterns
getting the help they need?
Turn and talk: Would staff and student surveys help
guide this conversation?
ADD TO CURRENT PRACTICES
Encourage teachers to add a positive
reinforcement system to their classroom
practices. Once positive reinforcement is
being used with consistency, teachers
may find the need for a progressive
consequence system diminishes.
Turn and talk: What are the drivers and
restrainers for developing classroom reward
systems?
USE SCHOOL-BASED
EXPERTISE
Have PLCs* or grade level teams work
together to develop a pyramid of
interventions for classroom behavior. These
interventions should be focused on helping
students learn to change behavior over time.
Turn and talk: What would be the main difference between
the consequences used across grade levels?
*PLCs=Professional Learning Communities
ALTER CURRENT PRACTICES
If there is strong resistance to stop the use of
progressive consequence systems, then
work with teachers to consider how to add
a component of learning to the progression,
and to ensure that respect and dignity is
considered for each student.
Turn and talk: How could a teacher quickly alter
the current system to add instruction and
confidentiality?
REVIEW
Effective systems to respond to problem
behavior include:
 Well-established classroom management systems with
clear expectations that are directly taught.
 A reinforcement/reward/acknowledgement system
that is contingent only on meeting those
expectations. Earned = Kept
 A way to collect behavior data that is confidential
and protects the dignity of the student.
 A pyramid of research-based interventions that exist in
a continuum at each level.
FINAL ACTIVITY
What are some easy changes that could be
made in your classroom or in your school?
What barriers to these changes do you
foresee?
What support will staff members need?
What data should you collect to move
forward?
BURNS MIDDLE SCHOOL,
CLEVELAND COUNTY, NC
SYSTEMS: SCHOOL-WIDE EXPECTATIONS
SYSTEMS: SPECIFIC SETTING EXPECTATIONS
SYSTEMS AND PRACTICES: TEACHING
EXPECTATIONS
81
SYSTEMS: RECOGNIZING POSITIVE
BEHAVIOR
82
PRACTICES: STUDENT RECOGNITION
83
PRACTICES: STAFF RECOGNITION
84
SYSTEMS: RESPONDING TO PROBLEM BEHAVIOR
This is
cool!!
SYSTEMS: DATA COLLECTION
SYSTEMS: TIERED INTERVENTIONS FOR BEHAVIOR
DATA: OUTCOMES
DATA: OFFICE DISCIPLINE REFERRALS
MULTI-YEAR COMPARISON
404 fewer ODRs =
Approximately 134
instructional hours
saved!
DATA: REDUCTION IN TIME OUT REFERRALS
347 fewer referrals to Time Out
room =
MORE INSTRUCTIONAL TIME!
DATA: OSS REDUCTION
56 fewer
suspensions =
More days in
school!
***Note: actual suspensions, NOT days!
RESOURCES
PBIS in the Classroom Dropbox Folder:
https://www.dropbox.com/sh/5n9t36m56hkxjr
p/vqKSd5CKII
NC PBIS Wikispace:
http://pbis.ncdpi.wikispaces.net
NC PBIS Region 6 Wikispace:
http://pbisregion6.ncdpi.wikispaces.net

similar documents