dbh>40 cm

Report
Managing wood production in
temperate forests: experiences and
success factors
Seminario “Manejo Forestal Sustentable: Experiencias
Internacionales y Perspectivas para México”
Mexico, Sept 22, 2014
Jean-Martin Lussier
90% Public
6% Private
2% Federal
2% Aboriginal
68% conifer
16% mixedwood
11% broadleaf
Hardwood & mixedwood stands
in Eastern Canada




Mixture of 5-10 species/stand
Natural regeneration
Uneven-aged
History of partial harvests
Acer saccharum
Érable à sucre
Sugar Maple
Betula alleghaniensis
Bouleau jaune
Yellow birch
Quercus rubra
Chêne rouge
Red Oak
http://blogue.tourismemauricie.com/
www.lanaudiere.qc.ca
www.bonjourquebec.com
Multifunctional Forest
Selectively harvested since
the XIXth Century
http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/
http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/
http://www.muskokaregion.com/
Warbirdnews.com
The effects of selective cuttings
(Aka. Diameter-limit cuts)
« Cut the best, leave the rest »
• Depletion of quality trees
• Low canopy cover
• Patchy/unsufficient
regeneration of desired
species
• No consideration of tree
promotion rate
• No management of stand
regeneration
© Ralph Nyland
Source: Bedard & Meunier 2006 IUFRO Conference Rouyn-Noranda.
Management of Hardwoods in
Quebec
THE SELECTION SYSTEM
• Management of cutting cycle and
residual stocking
• Continuous stand improvement
“Cut the worse, leave the best”
• Size-structure management
• Tighter control through tree marking
• Growth monitoring
Mousseau Forest, 15 years after
the first selection cut
Tree marking: a key process of
Quebec’s selection system
Selection system: Cutting Guides
Source: Majcen et al. 1990
Stems
/ha
Initial
density
Target
residual
density
DBH (cm)
2002 Change in management policy
Low Grade Stands
UNSUFFICIENT
BASAL AREA
GROWTH
Unadequate marking
rules for stand
improvement
New grading system
of tree vigour
(MSCR System)
NEW TREE MARKING
PRIORITIES FORCING
STAND SANITATION
DIFFERENT BASKET OF PRODUCTS
=> More Pulpwood
=> Less Sawlogs
17
Hardwoods: a value chain founded on
appearance wood
≠
5 Hardwood Pulp and Paper Mills
http://img.src.ca/2011/05/04/635x357/PC_110504_o4u60_domtar-usine-windsor_sn635.jpg
Typical Hardwood Value Chain
Pulp Mill
MARKETS
FOREST
Lumber
Mill
Furniture
Makers
Cabinet
Makers
20
Price of a 8-foot/12-inches log
Vs. species, heartwood color and number
of clear faces (CF)
(Région des Hautes Laurentides, Mars 2013)
300
Max
250
Supply
Coût
$/m3
200
90eCentile
Cost
150
50eCentile
100
50
10eCentile
0
0CF ICF 2CF 3CF 4CF 0CF ICF 2CF 3CF 4CF 0CF ICF 2CF 3CF 4CF
<33%Coloration
>33%Coloration
Sugar Maple
Source: http://www.spfl.net/
Yellow Birch
MIN
BASKET OF PRODUCTS PER TREE
(Sugar Maple + Yellow Birch)
0.80
m3/tree
0.60
0.40
3-4 Clear Faces Logs
1-2 Clear Faces Logs
0.20
0 Clear Faces Logs (Pulp)
High
Low
High
Low
High
Low
High
Low
Quality Quality Quality Quality Quality Quality Quality Quality
DBH 10-22cm
DBH 24-38cm
DBH 40-48cm
DBH 50cm+
The negative impact of stand improvement strategy on
the current value chain
Typical market prices and
costs of low-grade
hardwood (mill gate)
Because of the structure of
the value chain, Lumber
mills are absorbing the
cost
Supply cost
Norampac-Cabano
Groupe Savoie-St-Quentin
 More pulpwood means
more costs
Domtar-Windsor
Fortress- Thurso
0
20
40
60
$/m3
Market prices
Planning & Management
Harvest & Bucking
Loading & Deloading
Transportation
Roads & camps
80
Trying to solve the problem
NEEDS
 Cost reduction
 Improvement of the
basket of products
SOLUTION
1. Revise the production
objectives
2. Reduce dispersion costs
3. Diversify the silviculture
systems
4. Reduce planning errors
and control costs
Average evolution of the value of
lumber-quality maple and birch trees
140
120
$/tree
100
80
PB (10-22cm)
BM (24-38cm)
GB (40-48cm)
TGB (50cm+)
60
40
20
0
0
10
20
YEARS
30
40
Shift in silviculture approach…
BEFORE
 All defect trees
should be removed
first to improve
stand quality
NOW
Regardless to their quality,
Trees over 40cm should be
considered mature and
ready to harvest, unless…
 some canopy retention is
needed to favour
regeneration
AND/OR
 The income needs to be
smoothed out over
multiple cutting cycles.
Dispersion cost ($/m3)
DISPERSION COST OF FOREST OPERATIONS
(Favreau 2004)
Partial cuts in hardwoods
Total cuts in softwoods
Harvested volume by kilometer of forest road (m3/km)
Current
Scenario
Alternative
Scenario
57,81 $/m3
47,60 $/m3
Source: Adamczewski et Fortin 2009 http://notreforet.ca/projet_30.htm)
Analysis of 2 deployment alternatives
Sector Mitchinamecus, Québec
28
Diversify the Silviculture Systems
Uniform
Sheterwood
Irregular
Shelterwood
Extended
Expanding
gaps
Continuous
Cover
Selection
The 1-2-3 method for
silviculture systems
involving partial cutting
1. Rational trail network
2. Tree selection
guidelines
3. Control method
30
STEP 1: Set a rational trail system
STEP 2: Set the guidelines for tree
selection
SIMPLE CASE
STRUCTURE: Closed canopy of
mature trees & lack of
regeneration
SYSTEM: Extended Irregular
Shelterwood
ACTIONS
Yr 0: Harvest 50% of the trees in all
classes to favour regeneration
Yr 20: Overstory removal (Uniform
Shelterwood)
33
34
A Multitreatment approach :
Changing the guidelines as the structure changes
The operator observes the analysis zones (150 m²)
He counts the number of large trees (dbh>40 cm)
Only 1 large tree
All tree size-classes
Cut 1 large tree
2 large trees
Mainly first cohorts
Cut 1 tree
out of 2 larges
0 large tree
Mainly second cohort
0 large mid-sized
Regen only
Cut 1 tree
Out of 4 mid-size
Pass by
Trail only
STEP 3- Control process
 Usually done with
operational sampling plot
networks
 Research on the
application of Lidar
technology
LiDAR
Points cloud
XYZ
Multitreatment
Mapping
with Lidar
Cut 1 tree
out of 2 larges
Pass by
Trail only
Cut 1 large tree
or
Cut 1/4 mid-size
¡Gracias!
Contact
Jean-Martin Lussier, ing.f.,
Ph.D.
Chercheur en sylviculture
Centre canadien sur la fibre de bois
1055 rue du PEPS, Québec. Que
G1V 4C7
Tél: 418-648-7148
[email protected]
www.fpinnovations.ca

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