Possible Thesis Prompt Historians have not looked too kindly on the presidents of the 1920s, usually judging them as mediocre. Is this evaluation valid? Four Goals Re-State the Question Answer the prompt Include three categories – create parallel structure for the essay Clear and Concise Thesis (Underline) Historian’s assessment of the mediocrity of the presidents of the 1920s is valid due to Harding’s ineptitude, Coolidge’s reliance on laissez faire policies, and Hoover’s lack of urgency in his efforts to ameliorate the Great Depression. Possible Topic Sentences Harding Corruption plagued Harding’s presidency. His practice of relying on nepotism and placing his friends in cabinet level positions greatly undermined and tainted his presidency. Coolidge Coolidge laissez faire policies defined his presidency and contributed to the advent of the Great Depression. Hoover Hoover became famous for his relief efforts during WWI, however his inability to quickly provide relief during the Great Depression scarred his presidency. Document A Source: W.A. White, Autobiography (1946) referring to President Harding “Lord, Lord, man! You can’t know what the President is going through. You see he doesn’t understand it; he just doesn’t know a thousand things that he ought to know. And he realizes his ignorance…Not long ago, when the first big tax bill came up, you remember there were two theories on taxation…He would listen for an hour to one side, become convinced; and then the other side would get him and overwhelm him with its contentions…My God, but his is a hell of a place for a man like me to be!” Incorrect Citation According to Document A, “He would listen for an hour to one side, become convinced; and then the other side would get him and overwhelm him..” Correct Citation White explained Harding’s ineptitude in his 1946 autobiography, “He would listen for an hour to one side, become convinced; and then the other side would get him and overwhelm him” (Document A). Document A: Outside Info Outside Information Only served as a Senator for one term Considered a puppet of the Republican party Chosen for a return to normalcy and laissez-faire policies Represented the transition from liberal reform to conservative referendum Document B Source Will the Brakes Hold, Berryman, 1925. Incorrect Citation As exemplified in Document B Correct Citation As exemplified in Berryman’s 1925 cartoon entitled, “Will the Breaks Hold,” Calvin Coolidge practice laissez faire business policies with the aid of the Secretary of Treasury Mellon (Document D). Outside Info Republicans and Dem. Supported tax reduction on the wealthy McCumber Tariff Law Negated debt relief to Europe Limited gov. regulation of stock market Vetoed McNary Haggen Bill Twice Dawes Plan Document C Source: “Take It Away!" Library of Congress, 2012 Incorrect Citation As depicted in Document B the Teapot Dome Scandal occurred Correct Citation The Teapot Dome Scandal is depicted in the Library of Congress Cartoon entitled, “Take It Away!” Secretary of Interior Albert Fall convinced the Navy Secretary to transfer naval reserve authority to him. He proceeded to illegally lease oil reserves to the highest bidder (Document B). Outside Info Attorney General Daughtery – illegal sale of pardons and liquor permits Document D Source: “The Stony Stare” Evening Standard (London), artist David Low, 1932. Incorrect Citation Document D depicts Hoover’s unwillingness to aid the Europeans. Correct Citation David Low’s cartoon from 1932, The Stony Stare, depicts Hoover ‘s unwillingness to assist the Europeans and absolve their war debts. Outside Info European economic depression lead to US depression. Us spent frivolously during a time of economic depression. Hoover believed in allotting money to business and industry rather than direct relief. Document E Source: Leuchtenburg, William Edward. The Perils Of Prosperity, 1914-1932. University Of Chicago Press, 1958. 91-92. “Harding’s was one of government by crony...Harding surrounded himself by old friends…For Director of the Mint, the President appointed a man who had been sheriff of Pickaway County… The President later appointed Crissinger, a boyhood chum, to the top banking post in the nations, Governor of the Federal Reserve System….Harding…managed to establish a White House the same atmosphere of informal male conviviality that permeated the backroom of a Marion (Ohio) saloon.” Incorrect Citation Document E proves that Harding was an inept president and that be appointed his friends to office. Correct Citation Leutchenberg in his 1958 work, The Perils of Prosperity, supported the reasoning that Harding was inept, “ Harding was one of government by crony…Harding…surrounded himself by old friends” (Document C). Harding’s ineptitude was exemplified by Harding’s appointment of his friend Charles Forbes to the head of the Veteran’s Bureau. Forbes promptly stole 200 million dollars that was allotted for hospital construction. Furthermore, Harding was known to drink and smoke cigars with the “Ohio Gang” during the era or prohibition. Outside Info Document F Source: “State of the Union Address,” Calvin Coolidge, delivered to the US Congress, 1927. “…Price fixing and subsidy will both increase the surplus, instead of diminishing it. Putting the Government directly into business is merely a combination of subsidy and price fixing aggravated by political pressure…. The most effective means of dealing with surplus crops is to reduce the surplus acreage. While this cannot be done by the individual farmer, it can be done through the organizations already in existence, through the information published by the Department of Agriculture, and especially through banks and others who supply credit refusing to finance an acreage manifestly too large… “It is often stated that a reduction of tariff rates on industry would benefit agriculture. It would be interesting to know to what commodities it is thought this could be applied… It is obvious that this would not improve but destroy our market for imports, which is best served by maintaining our present high purchasing power under which in the past five years imports have increased 63 per cent.” Incorrect Citation Document F supports the reasoning that Coolidge practiced Laissez Faire economic policies. Correct Citation Calvin Coolidge further elaborated on his laissez faire economic policies in his 1932 State of the Union Address, “Putting the Government directly into business is merely a combination of price fixing aggravated by political pressure” (Document F). Outside Info Republicans and Dem. Supported tax reduction on the wealthy McCumber Tariff Law Negated debt relief to Europe Limited gov. regulation of stock market Vetoed McNary-Haggen Bill Twice Dawes Plan Document G Source: Uknown, 1929. Incorrect Citation Correct Citation Document G depicts how Hoover’s economic policies were partly to blame for the Great Depression. The unknown cartoon from 1929 depicts how Hoover’s economic policies were partly to blame for the Great Depression (Document G). Outside Info Explain causes of 1929 Stock Market Collapse Define Black Tuesday Purchasing stock on margin Over speculation of Blue Chip Stocks Lack of Stock Market Regulation Buying goods on margin Purchasing power: goods more expensive – wages stay the same. Banks default ¼ of farmers bankrupt Document H Source: “Rugged Individualism” Speech, Herbert Hoover, Inaugural Address, NYC, 1928. “One test of our economic and social system is its capacity to cure its own abuses. New abuses and new relationships to the public interest will occur as long as we continue to progress. If we are to be wholly dependent upon government to cure every evil we shall by this very method have created an enlarged and deadening abuse through the extension of bureaucracy and the clumsy and incapable handling of delicate economic forces. And much abuse has been and can be cured by inspiration and cooperation, rather than by regulation of the government… It is just as important that business keep out of government as that government keep out of business. No system is perfect…. Incorrect Citation Hoover’s response to the Great Depression was exemplified in Document H. Correct Citation Hoover ‘s initial response to the Great Depression was exemplified in his 1928 speech entitled, “Rugged Individualism.” He elaborated on his conservative policies, “It is just as important that business keep out of government as that government keep out of business” (Document H). Outside Info RFC – Lent money to businesses and banks No direct relief Against social welfare – socialism Individualism= American WASP identity Discounted Hoovervilles Transition Sentences Don’t Forget Them Counter-Argument Explain how the presidents of the 1920s did implement positive policies. However, the negative aspects of their presidencies' supersede the positive aspects of during their tenures’ in office. Include in body paragraphs or as a separate counter Harding Washington Disbarment Conference Appointment of Sec. of State Daugherty Nine Power Treaty Economic Prosperity Coolidge Economic Prosperity Dawes Plan – Relief to Germany Kellogg Brian Pact Hoover RFC attempts to assist with Great Depression Good Neighbor Policy – Latin America Bonus Army pay outs Appropriations to build Hoover Dam Conclusion Synthesize Topic Sentences Re-state thesis sentence – different phrasing Use language of the question Not necessary to say in conclusion, in summary, overall. Be clear and concise, only need one good paragraph.