Global 9 Review PowerPoint

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Intro to Geography
Term
Definition
Latitude
Lines of equal distance measured north & south of equator
Longitude
The curving distance east & west of the Prime Meridian;
stretches from North Pole to South Pole
Equator
Zero degrees latitude, divides the Earth between north and
south
Prime Meridian
Zero degrees longitude, divides the Earth between east and
west
Hemispheres
Half of the Earth
Absolute Location
A point on the earth's surface expressed by a coordinate
system such as latitude and longitude.
Relative Location
A location of a place in relation to another place (i.e. south
or downhill).
Geographic Features
Geographic Feature Definition
Effect
Example
Deserts
Natural barrier;
protection
Limits trade, travel
Sahara Desert
Irregular Coastline
Natural harbors
Easier to invade
Greece, Italy
Island
Protection
Few natural
resources, isolation
Japan, Cuba,
Madagascar
Russia
Lack of Warm
Water Ports
Monsoons
Seasonal wind
The rainy season
accompanying the
wet monsoon
India
Geographic Features
Geographic
Feature
Definition
Effect
Example
Mountain
Protection from
invaders
Lack of cultural
diffusion
Andes
Rainforests
Resources- wood,
medicine
Limits interaction
of people
Amazon
Regular Coastline
Difficult to invade
No natural harbors Africa
River Valley
Fertile soil
Unpredictability of
flooding
Strategic Location Geographic or
social position
which plays a part
in predetermined
plan
Tigris/Euphrates
River Valley
Fields of Study in Global
History
1.
Archeologist - F
2.
Anthropologist - C
3.
Sociologist - E
4.
Economist - D
5.
Geographer - A
6.
Historians - B
7.
Political Scientist - G
Culture
 Culture: The shared beliefs, customs, practices, and social
behavior of a particular nation or people.
 Cultural diffusion: The spreading of ideas through contact
from one people to another.
 Characteristics of Culture: Cities, Organized Government,
Religion, Job Specialization, Social Classes, Writing,
Art/Architecture, Public Works
 In what ways can cultural diffusion occur: Trade or war.
Religion
 Monotheism- belief in one God
 Polytheism- belief in many gods
Religion
Religion
Book
Location
Basic Beliefs
Animism
None
Africa
All things in nature have a
spirit
Buddhism
Tripitaka
India
Four Noble Truths; Eightfold
path, Nirvana, Reincarnation
Confucianism
Analects
China
Five Relationships, Filial Piety
Daoism/Taoism The Way of Virtue
China
People should live in harmony
with nature, yin/yang
(balance)
Hinduism
Upanishads
India
Karma, Dharma, Caste
System, Reincarnation
Shintoism
None
Japan
All things in nature have a
spirit
Monotheistic Religions
Judaism
Torah/Talmud
Middle East
Ten Commandments
Christianity
Bible
Europe
Christ is Messiah, Ten
Commandments
Islam
Qur’an, Koran
Middle East
Five Pillars, followers called
Muslims
First Civilizations
 The Neolithic Revolution allows for civilizations to
form as people stopped hunting and gathering and
began growing their own food.
 Early Civilization:
 Fertile soil
 Transportation
 Trade and communication
Early Civilizations
Egypt
Pyramids
Pharaohs
Mummification
Hieroglyphics
North Africa
Nile River
Mesopotamia
Fertile Crescent
Cuneiform
Ziggurats
Hammurabi’s Code
Tigris River
Euphrates River
India
Grid pattern cities (Indus)
Gupta Civilization- decimal system,
plastic surgery
Indus River
Stupas
China
Mandate of Heaven
Great Wall
Civil Service Exams
Huange He River
Dynastic Cycle
First Civilizations
Vocabulary
 Pharaoh: an Egyptian god-king
 Ziggurat: a religious temple in Mesopotamia
 Hammurabi’s Code: codified system of laws, “eye for an
eye”
 Mandate of Heaven: the divine right to rule that comes
from God
 Civil Service Exam: a test that is taken by a person in order
to get a government job
First Civilizations DBQ
1. Controlled food supply; cultivation of edible plants; breeding
of animals; became farmers and herdsmen
2. Location of river valleys
3. Taxing people too much; stops protecting people;
infrastructure decays; treats people unfairly
4. Brings peace; rebuilds infrastructure; gives land to peasants;
protects people
5. Pioneered use of herbs to treat illness; set bones; plastic
surgery; vaccinating against smallpox
6. Vaccination of smallpox.
Ancient Greece
 The Greeks developed many individual city-states because
geography (mountains/waterways) isolated them from one
another.
 The two most important city-states were Athens (golden-age) and
Sparta (militaristic).
 One of the most important achievements of the Greeks is in the
area of government. They developed a form of democracy.
 Alexander the Great spread a form of culture known as
Hellenistic Culture.
 Famous philosophers include Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle.
Ancient Greece:
Vocabulary Practice
 Golden Age: a period of peace and prosperity
 Polis: another name for a Greek city-state
 Socratic Method: asking questions to develop an
answer
 Hellenistic Culture: blending of Greek, Persian,
Egyptian, and Indian culture
 Direct Democracy: each citizen take part in the day-today running of the government
Ancient Greece:
Venn Diagram
• Limited
democracy
• Laws made by
assembly
• Only male citizens
in assembly
• Trade with other
city-states
• Education for boys
• Women inferior
Athens
• Greek language
• Mythological
heroes
• Olympic Games
• Gods and religious
beliefs
Same
• Monarchy with
two kings
• Military school
• Trade/travel not
allowed
• Military training
for all boys
• Girls trained to be
mother of soldiers
• Women own
property
• Women obey men
Sparta
Ancient Greece
DBQ
1. Democracy
2. Government favors the many instead of the few;
advancement is open to everyone according to ability;
every citizen has equal opportunity to serve the public;
do not discriminate against the poor.
3. Columns.
4. Student answers may vary.
Ancient Rome

Rome lasted from 509 B.C. until 476 A.D. and its history is divided into two
periods, Roman Republic and Empire.

The Roman Republic was ruled by Consuls, patricians (senators), and
plebeians.

The Roman Empire begins when Julius Caesar becomes dictator.

The Romans experienced a golden age during the Pax Romana in which they
made many advancements. Their most important achievement was in the
area of law. They developed the Laws of the Twelve Tables.

During the Pax Romana the Romans made advancements in art, architecture,
and engineering. They built roads, aqueducts, and the Coliseum.

The collapse of the Roman Empire was not caused by a single event but
rather a series of gradual events that took place over an extended period of
time.
Ancient Rome:
Vocabulary Practice
 Pax Romana: 200 years of Roman peace and prosperity.
 Republic: political system where officials are chosen by the
people
 Senate: an elected body
 Patricians: upper class citizens, land owners
 Plebeians: lower class citizens: farmers, merchants, artisans,
and traders
 Laws of the Twelve Tables: laws that were written down for
all to follow.
Ancient Rome:
Downfall Chart
Military
Causes
•Invasion by
barbarians
•Mercenaries
•Lack of
loyalty
•Army lacks
training and
discipline
Economic
Causes
•High taxes
•Unemployme
nt
•Inflation
•Slave labor
Political
Causes
•Ineffective
leadership
•Division of
empire
•Corrupt
government
Social Causes
•Lack of
patriotism
•Welfare
•Diseases
•People
become lazy
Ancient Rome
DBQ
1. People of same status equal before the law;
accused is innocent until proven guilty; accused
allowed to face accuser and defend against the
charge; guilt must be established
2. Executives elected to terms; legislative branch each
has a Senate; both have a Judicial branch; both
have codified (written) laws; both have 3 branches
of government
Byzantine Empire
 The Byzantine Empire preserved the contributions of Ancient Greece and
Ancient Rome for Western civilization (architecture, art, law).
 The Byzantine Empire was originally the Eastern portion of the Roman
Empire. Constantinople became its capital and it thrived because of its
location on major trade routes between Europe and Asia.
 Emperor Justinian developed a set of laws that became known as Justinian’s
Code. It was a revision of the old Roman law system.
 Hagia Sophia was a Christian church built in Constantinople by Justinian. Is
is still standing today but is a Muslim mosque.
 The Byzantine Empire influenced Russia through cultural cultural diffusion.
This included the Eastern Orthodox Church, Cyrillic Alphabet, autocratic
ruler, and art and architecture.
 The empire lasted until 1453 when they were conquered by the Ottoman Turks
(Muslims).
Byzantine Empire:
Vocabulary
 Justinian’s Code: a set of laws developed by Justinian
that included many Roman laws
 Autocratic Ruler: a single ruler with complete
authority
 Cyrillic Alphabet: an alphabet developed by Eastern
Orthodox monks used in Russia
Islamic Empire, African
Trading Kingdoms
 The Islamic Empire preserved Greek/Roman culture, made many achievements
in the areas of math, science, medicine, architecture, literature, art, and they
developed a prosperous economy.
 Some achievements of the Islamic Empire were calligraphy, study of algebra,
astronomy, and medicine. These achievements eventually spread to Europe.
 African trading kingdoms developed in East and West Africa. They developed
along trade routes. They made their money from the gold-salt trade.
 The main trading kingdoms in Africa were Mali, Ghana, and Songhai on the west
coast while Nubia, Axum, and Kush were located on the east coast.
 Mansa Musa was a famous ruler of the kingdom of Mali. His greatest
contribution is that he took a pilgrimage (hajj) to Mecca showing the importance
of Islam while spreading culture.
Islamic Empire, African Trading
Kingdoms: Vocabulary
 Hajj: a religious trip to Mecca
 Calligraphy: artistic writing
 Gold-Salt Trade: the trade in gold and salt across
northern Africa
 Bantu Migration: the Bantu migrated throughout
Africa. It is one of the largest migrations in human
history. This migration began in about 1000AD –
1800AD
Islamic Empire, African
Trading Kingdoms
Islamic Empire 750AD
African Trading Kingdoms
Middle Ages

After the fall of the Roman Empire, Europe was chaotic and lacked a central government.
As a result, feudalism developed because people needed protection.

Society was organized into a social structure. In this system lords gave lands to
vassals/knights who in turn offered their service as soldiers in the lord’s military (land is
exchanged for food and protection). Peasants and serfs were on the bottom of the social
structure and worked the land.

Manorialism is the economic system present during the Middle Ages. It was a self-sufficient
community.

The only stabilizing force during the Middle Ages was the Catholic Church.

The Crusades were an attempt by the European Christians to re-conquer the Holy Land from
the Jews and Muslims. The impact of the Crusades was that it increased trade with the
Middle East, cities and towns grew, cultural diffusion, kings become more powerful and the
church loses power.

The plague killed millions of people throughout Europe and Asia. As a result the value of
the individual ________________ and the church lost even more power.
Middle Ages:
Vocabulary
 Feudalism: land is exchanged for loyalty and
military service
 Manorialism: economic system present during the
Middle Ages; self-sufficient
 Chivalry: code of conduct that knights lived by
 Holy Land: land considered religiously significant
to the Jews, Christians, and Muslims (Jerusalem)
Middle Ages:
DBQ
1. International trade served wealthy; carried on by Greeks, Jews,
Muslims; local exchange was done by barter; ruled out need for
gold coinage; Carolingians minted only silver coins; gold coins
from Byzantine and Muslim empires used.
2. Not favorable to development of agriculture and commerce; selfsufficient; closed economy; lived in fear of world beyond manor;
hoped to endure.
3. Religious motives; ashamed to fight amongst themselves; landhunger; general restlessness and taste for adventure; combining
Christian duty with acquisition of land in southern climate.
4. Carried by fleas on black rats from the East
Early China, Japan,
Mongols, and Russia
 Like Europe in the Middle Ages, Japan was organized into a feudal society
based on land holding. Samurai (like knights) were the warrior class and they
followed the bushido code which is similar to chivalry.
 Japanese society was led by an emperor (figurehead). The real power was in
the hands of the Shogun who controlled his Daimyo (lords). The Samurai
were the warrior class with peasants, merchants, and artisans near the bottom.
 The Mongols, led by Genghis and Kublai Khan controlled a large empire in the
Eurasian Steppe. Their strict rule allowed for cultural diffusion and safe trade
along the Silk Road. They also influenced early Russia be demonstrating
absolute government.
 Marco Polo is know for his travels throughout Mongol lands. His his journals
are primary sources still used today for information pertaining to the Mongols.
Ibn Battuta is also known for his travels throughout Asia.
 The Tang and the Song Dynasties were Golden Ages in China.
Early China, Japan, Mongols, and
Russia: Vocabulary
 Pax Mongolia: a period of peace and prosperity for the
Mongols.
 Primary Source: a firsthand account of an event.
 Steppe: grasslands with rolling hills.
 Bushido Code: code of conduct that samurai follow.
 Golden Age: period of peace and prosperity; the period when
a specified art, skill, or activity is at its peak
 Czar/Tsar: Russian absolute ruler
Early China, Japan,
Mongols, and Russia
European Feudalism
Japanese Feudalism
King
Emperor
Lord
Shogun
Vassal
Daimyo
Knight
Samurai
Peasant/Serf
Peasant
Renaissance
 The Renaissance was a rebirth of classical Greek and Roman
culture. It started in Italy during the 1300’s. The cities of Italy had
great wealth from trade and manufacturing. As a result they spent
their wealth on the arts and education.
 Humanism is the emphasis on the achievement of the individual
instead of religious issues.
 During this period a questioning spirit emerged where people
began to test traditional beliefs, mainly the Catholic Church.
 Famous Renaissance painters include Leonardo da Vinci,
Michelangelo, and Raphael.
 Literary achievements include the works of Dante, Cervantes,
Shakespeare, and Machiavelli.
Renaissance:
Vocabulary
 Golden Age: period of peace and prosperity; the period
when a specified art, skill, or activity is at its peak
 Patron: a person that supports the arts
 Perspective: painting that suggests depth or distance
Renaissance:
Matching Activity
 Leonardo da Vinci: Mona Lisa, The Last Supper
 Michelangelo: Sistine Chapel, David, Pieta
 Raphael: The School of Athens
 Machiavelli: The Prince
 Shakespeare: Romeo and Juliet, Hamlet
 Cervantes: Don Quixote
 Dante: Divine Comedy
Renaissance:
DBQ
1. Praised man himself as creator; played down sinfulness
and emphasized ability to think and act for self,
produce works of art, and guide destiny of others;
allowed to roam at will; seen as the ruler of nature;
heightened awareness of self; intrigued with exploring
their own personalities.
2. Studied the anatomy of human body; dissected and
studied human corpses; interested in the structure and
function of various parts of human body; his drawings
reflect what he learned.
Reformation

The Protestant Reformation was a major turning point in history. It was a call by Martin Luther to reform
the practices of the Catholic Church.

Martin Luther was upset with Church corruption, including the practice of selling indulgences, and he
nailed the 95 Theses to a church in Wittenberg, Germany. The Church wanted him to recant his ideas and
he refused. He was excommunicated.

Luther’s ideas spread rapidly by the invention of the moveable type printing press. Johan Gutenberg is
credited with developing moveable type.

As a result of the Protestant Reformation, there was no longer religious unity in Europe. The Catholic
Church lost some of its power giving more power to monarchs.

John Calvin was another reformation leader. He believed in predestination.

The Counter or Catholic Reformation was the Church response to Luther. During this period the ended
corruption and returned to traditional teachings. These reforms were made at the Council of Trent in
1545.

Ignatius of Loyola started the Jesuits who emphasized spiritual and moral discipline and strict loyalty to
the Catholic Church.
Reformation:
Vocabulary
 Indulgences: letters that could be purchased to have sins
forgiven
 95 Theses: Martin Luther’s 95 issues with the Catholic
Church
 Excommunicate: to be banned from the Catholic Church
 Predestination: belief that certain people were chosen by God
for Heaven; the divine foreordaining of all that will happen
Reformation:
Cryptogram
 Martin Luther was a German monk who
started the Protestant Reformation. He posted
his ninety-five theses on the church door
because he was upset about the practice of the
selling of indulgences. His action was a
turning point in history because it increased
the power of the monarchs in Europe and
weakened the authority of the Catholic
Church.
Reformation:
DBQ
1. Written on scrolls; bound at one edge; by monks who
worked with pen and ink in a copying room.
2. An estimated ½ million books in circulation by 1500;
acceleration of the Renaissance; Protestant movement,
political and industrial revolutions; Guttenberg was
bankrupted.
Maya
Mesoamerican
Civilizations
-built
irrigation
systems
-city-states
-pyramid
shaped
The Maya, Aztec, And Inca civilizationstemples
-writing
were located in Central and South
system
America. They are considered to be
(hieroglyphics
pre-Columbian civilizations.
)
-calendar
The Aztec and the Inca civilizations
-number
were defeated by the conquistadors.
system with
Although the civilizations were
the use of
advanced, their lack of military
zero
technology led to their defeat by the
Europeans.
Aztec
Inca
-Chinampas
-strong central
government
-warrior
society
-practice
human
sacrifice
-built
Tenochtitlan
-aqueducts
-quipas/quipu
-terrace
farming
-road system
Mesoamerican
Civilizations: Vocabulary
 Conquistadors: Spanish conquerors; ex: Cortez
 Chinampas: floating gardens
 Quipas: knotted strings used for record keeping
 Terrace farming: building steps in the side of a
mountain or hill for farming
Mesoamerican
Civilizations: DBQ
1. Acknowledge the Christian church as the ruler and superior
of the whole world; agree to let the Christian priests preach to
you.
2. Spanish will forcefully enter into the country and make war
against the natives; Spanish will take the wives and children
and make slaves of them.
3. Overturned the idols and rolled them down the stairs; had the
places cleaned of the blood; set up Christian images.
Age of Exploration

In the 1400’s Europeans began exploring the world as a result of the invention of the astrolabe and
the caravel as well as improved mapmaking skills by cartographers.

European’s began dominating the peoples of Africa, Asia, and the Americas. This is known as
imperialism. The reason they dominated these countries was for God, golf, and glory.

Some key explorers include: Prince Henry the Navigator, Ferdinand Magellan, Vasco da Gama, and
Christopher Columbus.

Mercantilism is the policy of a country to export (sell) more than they import (buy) to build wealth.

The social structure of the Spanish controlled regions of Latin America included Peninsulares,
Creoles, Mestizos, Mulattoes, and the Native Americans/slaves.

A slave trade developed that included finished goods from Europe going to Africa. Slaves were
traded from Africa to the Americas and raw materials being traded from the new world to Europe.
This was known Triangular Trade.

As a result of the Age of Exploration, goods, ideas, customs, and technologies were exchanged
between the Eastern and Western Hemispheres for the first time. This is known as the Columbian
Exchange

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