Cree Land use maps - World Indigenous Network

World Indigenous Network Conference 2013
May 28, 2013, Darwin Australia
Presented by:
Christopher Beck (Cree Regional Authority/Grand Council of the Crees E.I)
Arthur Bosum (Oujé-Bougoumou Cree Nation)
Content of Presentation
1. Background
- The Crees and Eeyou Istchee
- The treaty context
2. Forestry context
- Paix des Braves Agreement
- Adapted forestry regime
3. Cree Land Use Mapping project
- Project overview
- Data collection process
- Map products
- Interface with forestry planning
- Confidentiality of cultural data
4. Future land use mapping needs
• “Eeyou Istchee” is the traditional territory of the
Crees of northern Quebec. The term means “the
land of the Eeyou/Eenou (the people)”. The Crees
have lived in this homeland for thousands of years
• More than 18,000 Crees, with 16,000 residing in
nine Cree communities. A tenth community is in the
process of being established
• Cree traditional territory covers 400,000 km² (twothirds the size of France). Whole territory is used by
the Crees for traditional activities of hunting, fishing
and trapping
Eeyou Istchee: The People’s Land
• Located between 48th and 56th
parallels in northern Québec, in
boreal and taiga ecozones
• More than 300 traplines (family
hunting territories)
• Hundreds of mining claims,
several major mine projects
• Major impacts from
hydroelectric development since
early 1970s
• In 1975, the Crees signed the James Bay and
Northern Québec Agreement (JBNQA) with the
Governments of Canada and Québec, and the
Inuit of Nunavik (Northern Québec)
• JBNQA was first modern aboriginal land claim
settlement treaty in Canada
• Provided for rights and benefits related to local
and regional government, land rights, natural
resources, hunting, fishing and trapping,
environmental protection, wildlife conservation,
health, education, police and justice
• In 2002, the Crees signed the “New Relationship
Agreement” with the Government of Québec. This
agreement has come to be known as the Paix des
• Chapter 3 of the agreement created an “Adapted
Forestry Regime” with provisions for the improved
harmonization of forestry activities with the Cree
traditional way of life
• Provides for special management standards
including mosaic cutting and minimum forest cover
requirements, and areas of special interest for
wildlife, to maintain the habitat of key species such
as moose, beaver, fish and caribou
• Over 70,000 km² of
forestry development
• More than 2,000,000 m³
of wood harvested per
• +15,000 km of roads
• 5 Cree communities (125
traplines) affected by
• 16,000 non-Crees live in a
small number of
resource-based towns in
this area
Cree Land Use Mapping (CLUM) Project
• To record Cree land use and occupancy data
to serve as a means for integrating Cree
values and interests into the forestry
participation and planning process
• To further develop the research design,
methods, tools and capacity (local and
regional) to serve as a foundation for future
land use mapping initiatives in Eeyou Istchee
Project Team
Cree Regional Authority (CRA) core project team:
• Project manager
• Project researcher
• 2 GIS technicians
Cree communities (Nemaska, Waswanipi, OujéBougoumou, Mistissini, Waskaganish)
• 2 forestry (JWG members) staff from each of 5
Advisory team
• CRA staff with relevant expertise
• External consultants/land use mapping experts:
technical advice when needed
• Cree-Quebec Forestry Board: Advise and support
with forestry related components of project
Waswanipi Cree Model Forest (2004-2006)
– Intensive interviewing on small number of traplines
– Family Map and Conservation Value Map concept
– Ndoho Istchee methodology
CRA Land Use Mapping Project (2006)
– Family Map and Forest Planning Support Map
– CRA and forestry affected Cree Nations collaboration
Refining Methodology
• Living Proof (2009): Used Terry Tobias manual to assist in
fine tuning design and standardization of data collection
Data Collection
• Custom base maps produced by CRA GIS
technicians, scale 1:50:000
• Data collection manual and interview guides
were prepared by the CRA
• Mapping team: one lead
interviewer, one note taker, and
an interpreter when needed
• Interviews were conducted in
both Cree and English
Data Collection
Progress of interviews to date
• Interviews done on a trapline by trapline basis
• Interviews conducted with the Tallyman (family
hunting territory leader) and other land users
invited by the tallyman
Completed 65 interviews
Included 100 participants
Addressed 55 traplines
Mapped over 5500 features
(average 100 per trapline)
Product 1: Cree land use map
Cree Land use maps (or “Family Maps”)
Family Map Legend
• Contains all of the cultural data collected, with
written notes on the side providing more info for
each mapped feature.
Fixed Cultural Sites
Permanent Camp Site
Historic Site
Seasonal Camp/Tent Frame
Burial Site
• For use of tallymen and land users only
Access/Travel Route
Plane Landing
Historical Canoe Route
Access Road
Snowmobile Trail
• Used for internal trapline level planning by land
users, documenting family history, transmitting
knowledge to younger generations etc.
• Cree land use data can be used internally by the
CRA for analytical purposes and for protecting
Cree rights and interests. The confidential
information cannot be shared with 3rd parties
without the consent of the tallyman
Activities On The Land Berries
Goose Area
Fishing Site
Bear Area
Moose Yard
Beaver Area
Marten Area
Rabbit Area
Product 2: Cree Planning
Support Map
Cree Planning Support Maps
Provides information for forestry planning and
consultations. Does not include some data
that is highly sensitive/confidential or not
relevant for forestry planning
Digital version of planning support map data
will be made available by CRA to Government
forestry planners at the beginning of forestry
plan development to identify sectors where
there may be issues that need to be
Face to face meetings occur between forestry
planner and tallyman and forestry JWG
members to discuss forestry harmonization
Planning Support Map
Cree Land Use Map
Sensitive Riparian Area
Sensitive Riparian Area
Does not appear
Spawning Grounds
Duck Area
Goose Area
Fishing Site
Spawning Grounds
Forest Dwelling Caribou
Moose Corridor
Bear Area
Migratory Caribou Area
Moose Calving Ground
Moose Mating Area
Moose Yard
Sensitive Big Game Area
Sensitive Big Game Area
Sensitive Big Game Area
Sensitive Big Game Area
Sensitive Big Game Area
Sensitive Big Game Area
Sensitive Big Game Area
Sensitive Trapping and
Snaring Area
Sensitive Trapping and
Snaring Area
Sensitive Trapping and
Snaring Area
Sensitive Trapping and
Snaring Area
Beaver Area
Beaver Lodge
Lynx Area
Marten Area
Forestry consultation meeting
The confidentiality quandary: The Crees want to protect sensitive cultural sites from
the public by keeping their locations secret. However if cultural data are not shared
in public planning processes, these sites that are important to the Crees won’t be
recognized and protected.
The Quebec Ministry of Natural Resources (MNR) forestry planners will have access
to Cree Planning Support Map data in digital form through password protected, web
mapping service. Data is housed on CRA server. A confidentiality agreement will be
signed with the MNR to frame this
CLUM confidentiality regime also includes:
– Permission form, signed by tallyman and interviewees
– Confidentiality Agreements for:
• CRA staff
• Consultants
• Community level forestry JWG members
• Cree-Quebec Forestry Board staff
Next steps
• Digitization and processing of
interview data (by September 2013)
• Preparation land use and planning
support maps and validation with
tallymen (by November 2013)
• Training on use of maps and
confidentiality protocols (by December
Land use mapping:
Future needs
CLUM project is building the
foundation and capacity for future land
use mapping initiatives on the whole of
Eeyou Istchee
Could be useful for areas such as
mining, protected areas, wildlife
management, environmental and
social impact assessment
Important for future land use planning
processes, to be implemented through
a new regional Governance Agreement
signed with the Québec Government

similar documents