mechanical engineering

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MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
RAY ALVARADO, P.E.
Member, Mapua Alumni Association
Alberta Chapter
Presentation Breakdown
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INTRODUCTION
MECHANICAL
ENGINEERING
Acronyms
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CAE – Computer Aided Engineering
CAD – Computer Aided Design
FEA – Finite Element Analysis
CFD – Computational Fluid Dynamics
RCFA – Root Cause Failure Analysis
LNG – Liquefied Natural Gas
FCC – Fluid Catalytic Cracking, an oil refinery process
DCU – Delayed Coker Unit, an oil refinery process
S&T – Shell-and-Tube, type of heat exchanger
P&F – Plate-and-Frame, type of heat exchanger
NDE – Non-Destructive Examination
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
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MECHANICAL ENGINEERING in the oil-and-gas industry is
exclusively responsible for all large machinery and process
equipment, within a project or industrial facility.
Other industries may have different scopes of responsibility.
Usually, plant piping and pipelines are looked after by the Piping
Engineer or Pipeline Engineer – not the Mechanical Engineer.
Many of these equipment needs collaboration and shared
responsibilities with the Process Engineer and Controls Engineer.
Two broad classifications of machinery in oil-and-gas:
A) Rotating Equipment (Dynamic)
B) Stationary Equipment (Static)
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
Usual entry-level positions:
 Mechanical Design Engineer
 Mechanical Equipment Engineer
 Rotating Equipment Engineer
 Stationary Equipment Engineer
Minimum Skill Sets for a Junior Mechanical Engineer:
 Undergraduate degree in Mechanical Engineering, Chemical
Engineering, or related sub-discipline.
 Basic knowledge of Fluid Dynamics, Thermodynamics, HeatMass Transfer, Structural Mechanics, Strength of Materials, and
Machine Elements Design.
 Supplemental knowledge in Materials Science, Turbo-Machinery
Dynamics, Chemical Processes, and Welding Technology.
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
Important Deliverables:
 Equipment Data Sheets…..all rotating and stationary equipment,
including vendor drawings and diagrams.
 Sizing Calculations……fluid flow, heat loss, heat transfer,
pressure containment, combustion/stoichiometry, structural
supports, nozzle reinforcement, dynamic loading, FEA/CFD
analysis, emissions control, and materials selection.
 Procurement & Delivery Support……initial requisitioning,
technical evaluation, bids review, and purchase orders. Also
includes written certifications (metallurgy, casting/forging, welding
WPS/PQR, coating, transport/packaging) and shop tests (NDE,
specimen failure, water/air leak-strength, performance).
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
ROTATING EQUIPMENT
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
Pumps
Centrifugal pump, horizontal, single
stage….most common rotating equipment
Positive-displacement
(reciprocating) pump
Centrifugal pump,
vertical, multi-stage
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
Pump Jacks, an industry icon
Cross-section of
sucker rod assembly
Or “donkey heads”, are special
positive-displacement pumps
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
Compressors, Reciprocating
Detail of double-acting
piston head assembly
Reciprocating compressor,
multi-stage, on skid with auxiliaries
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
Compressors, Centrifugal
Cutaway of centrifugal
compressor, multi-stage
Cutaway of centrifugal
compressor, single-stage
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
Compressors, Axial and Screw Type
Axial compressor with casing
opened, showing rotating
and stationary blades
Screw (lobe) type
compressor
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
Gas Turbines, Compressor-Turbine Unit
Cross-section of an industrial
gas turbine assembly
Gas turbine and auxiliaries
on self-contained module
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
Steam Turbines
Steam turbine operating
principle, with rotating
and stationary blades
Cutaway of typical
steam turbine prime
mover, multi-stage
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
Miscellaneous Rotating Machinery
Turbo-Expander assembly
Diesel engine
prime mover set
Centrifugal
Fan assembly
Axial fan
assembly
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
STATIONARY EQUIPMENT
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
Pressure Vessels, for temporary storage of liquid or gas
Horizontal pressure
vessels
Spherical
pressure
vessels
Vertical
pressure
vessels
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
Process Reactors, FCC (Catalytic, Exothermic)
Cyclone internals
of reactor vessel
Catalytic cracker and regenerator
Vessels, part of FCC process unit
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
Distillation Columns, Packed or Trayed (Internals Type)
Spider
Distributor
Packed
Section
Trayed
Section
Bubble
Trays
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
Heat Exchangers
Direct-Contact
(Barometric)
Condenser
Shell-and-Tube
Exchanger
Plate-and-Frame
Exchanger
Fin-Fan Air Cooler
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
Fired Heaters (Fire Tube, Water Tube, Process Furnaces)
Cutaway of heater
(fire tube)
Catalytic furnace for Reformer
process unit
Packaged boiler
(water tube)
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
Storage Tanks (crude oil, liquid products, liquefied vapor)
Cutaway of a typical
floating roof tank
Fixed (cone) roof tanks
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
Storage Tanks, LNG refrigerated tank
LNG tanker with
cryogenic sphere tanks
Cross-section of LNG tank,
showing special construction
and low-temp insulation
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
Miscellaneous Stationary Equipment
Box-Type Cooling Tower
Absorption
Refrigeration Unit
Ejector Assembly, mainly
for creating vacuum
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
Miscellaneous Stationary Equipment, Flare Stack
Detail of alloy
steel tip with
auxiliary piping
Emergency flaring at upset conditions
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
Mechanical Engineering and Beyond:
 Advances in Equipment Reliability Prediction……PC-based computer assistance
leads to greater accuracies in Root Cause Failure (RCF) results, statistical data
gathering, parts metallurgy, and virtual machinery testing.
 Emphasis on Equipment Efficiency and Environmental Friendliness…….use of lowimpact feedstock/fuels, by-products reduction, emissions control, waste
recovery, and high-speed balancing precision.
 More Inter-Disciplinary Collaboration…….gone were the days of stand-alone
engineering practice. To perform his/her task, it’s unavoidable for the nextgeneration Mechanical Engineer not to interface with the Process Engineer,
Electrical Engineer, Chief Metallurgist, and/or Civil Engineer.
 FEA/CFD Multi-Physics to the Mainstream……with stunning 3D graphics, highly
interactive results, and more powerful simulation capabilities, engineering
calculations can now be performed simultaneously e.g. structural, fluid flow,
vibration, combustion, heat loss/heat transfer, and non-linear transients.
 Highly Specialized Sub-Disciplines.......because Mechanical Engineering has
broad coverage, one can choose to become a Pressure Vessel Engineer, Heat
Transfer Engineer, Pump Engineer, Tank Engineer, or Compressor Engineer.
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
Failure Prediction & Machine Component Analysis
Predictive collapse of pressure
vessel subjected to vacuum
Failure analysis and
deformation of large
machinery skid
Failure
analysis of
fan blade
assembly
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
CFD & Multi-Physics Analysis
Multi-physics analysis
(fluid flow + thermal) of
shell-and-tube exchanger
Predictive conditions
(fluid flow + thermal)
of gas ejector
Forced air impingement
(fluid flow + thermal) on
tube of fin-fan cooler

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