Ping Lang

Report
Implementation of
Ubiquitous Health Care
System for Active Measure of
Emergencies
Dong-Wook Jang, BokKeum Sun, Sang-Yeon Cho, Sergon Sohn and KwangRok Ham
Ping Lang
[email protected]
1
Content
• About the paper
–
–
–
–
–
Motivation
Solution
Design of Ubiquitous Health Care System
Experimental Results
Conclusion
• My point of views
• Comparison with other papers
2
Motivation
• Rapid development of ubiquitous technology
• People are expecting ubiquitous technology to
spread to every part of human life
• Increasing number of chronic disease, heart
disease and other new diseases
• Rising death number caused by these diseases
while lives can be saved if the emergences are
will coped
3
Solution
This paper implemented a Personal Health Care System
(PHCS) based on Ubiquitous Sensor Network (USN)
– Monitors patients’ condition continuously
– Ubiquitous Health Care System (UHCS)
 When emergency happens, sends a text message containing the
emergency code and location information to the caregiver and
hospital to get prompt first-aid treatment
4
Design of Ubiquitous Health Care System
----System Configuration
The structure of UHCS
• Personal Health Care Host
– Measures and analyzes data
about the patient
• Control Center
– Collects patients’ condition
data and stores them
• Ubiquitous hospital &
Caregiver
– Gets reports on patients’
conditions periodically and
takes prompt actions in
emergency
5
Design of UHCS
----Core part of UHCS: PHCH
Functional diagram of personal health care host
6
Design of UHCS
----Core part of UHCS: PHCH
• PHCH is built as an embedded system using Intel
Xscale CPU
 It receives data from each module and sends data to Control Center
• Electronic stethoscope module
 Records and processes patients’ heart sound and bowel sound using
an electronic stethoscope
• Wireless sensors
 Monitors patient condition using USN such as accelerometers and
vibration sensors
• Position tracking module (GPS)
 Collects patient location information
• Communication Module (CDMA)
 Send GPS information and patients’ emergency information to
hospital and caregivers
• RFID
 Stores and manages patients’ basic information in a RFID tag
7
Design of UHCS
---- Implementation of Electronic stethoscope
Module
• Electronic stethoscope is connected to PHCH by USB interface and the
signal is amplified over 15 times by using operational amplifier
• Noises are removed using a FIR filter
8
Design of UHCS
----Implementation of Patient state monitoring module
• Patient state monitoring module analyzes data obtained from the sensor
network including vibration sensor, acceleration/inclination sensor and
temperature sensor
• USN and PHCH communicate with each other through Zigbee
• The module detects emergency based on received data
Vibration sensor
Acceleration sensor
Temperature sensor Zigbee module
9
Design of UHCS
----Implementation Communication module
Communication routes for emergency test messages in ubiquitous environment
• In emergency, PHCH connects to the data line of a telecommunication carrier
through CDMA and sends a text message to the designated hospital.
10
Design of UHCS
----Emergency codes
• Due to the short text message limitation, some interpretation codes are
proposed to indicate specific situation of the patients.
11
Design of UHCS
----Control Center and Emergency Center of Hospital
• CC stores data of the patients sent from PHCH. Emergency center of hospital
receives the text messages, decodes the emergency interpretation codes and
informs people to take prompt actions.
12
Experimental Results for Ubiquitous e-Health System
----Emergency Monitoring
13
Experimental Results for Ubiquitous e-Health System
----Emergency Monitoring
Waveform of acceleration and
vibration sensors for normal
walking
Waveform of acceleration and
vibration sensors for convulsion
Waveform of acceleration and
vibration sensors for syncope
14
Experimental Results for Ubiquitous e-Health System
----Emergency Detection Based on Sensor Data
Back-propagation Network Learning
15
Back-propagation Network Learning
Two Key points of the model: 1. Sufficient input data
2. Training times
More units can pass more
information
Calculated output
- =e
The more input
units the more
sufficient input
data
Desired output
Reference: Beiye Liu Miao Hu ; Hai Li ; Zhi-Hong Mao ”Digital-assisted noise-eliminating training for memristor
crossbar-based analog neuromorphic computing engine” Design Automation Conference (DAC), 2013 50th ACM /
EDAC / IEEE
16
Experimental Results for Ubiquitous e-Health System
----Emergency Detection Based on Sensor Data
Back-propagation Network Learning
Assuming sufficient number
of units, the model can learn
for a continuous function
model
Calculated output
- =e
Patients’ state
received from
USN sensors
Desired output
17
Experimental Results for Ubiquitous e-Health System
----Emergency Detection Based on Sensor Data
Learning & Detection System Architecture
The parameter values of back-propagation network
18
Experimental Results for Ubiquitous e-Health System
----Emergency Detection Based on Sensor Data
Evaluations
• The recall ratio is not very high
• The precision is not 100% accuracy
• More optimized internal parameters through additional experiments are
needed
* Statistical measurement methods are introduced on next slide
19
Sensitivity and specificity
• Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures of the performance of a binary
classification test, also known in statistics as classification function.
• Sensitivity (also called the true positive rate, or the recall rate in some fields) measures
the proportion of actual positives which are correctly identified as such
•
Specificity measures the proportion of negatives which are correctly identified as such
• For example: A study evaluating a new test that screens people for a disease. Each person taking
the test either has or does not have the disease. The test outcome can be positive (predicting that
the person has the disease) or negative (predicting that the person does not have the disease).
True positive: Sick people correctly diagnosed as sick
False positive: Healthy people incorrectly identified as sick
True negative: Healthy people correctly identified as healthy
False negative: Sick people incorrectly identified as healthy
Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sensitivity_and_specificity
H. Witten and E Framk, "Data Mining: Practical Machine Learning Tools and Techniques with Java
Implementations", Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 1999.
20
Experimental Results for Ubiquitous e-Health System
----Emergency Detection Based on Sensor Data
Evaluations
True Positive:
Emergency happens
and detected
False Positive: No
emergency happens
but fake emergency
detected
False Negative: Emergencies happens but
detected as no emergency
• The recall ratio is low
• The precision is not 100% accuracy
• More optimized internal parameters through additional experiments are
needed
21
Experimental Results for Ubiquitous e-Health System
----Communication Protocol
• Text messages are sent to the emergency center via the wireless
mobile network using CDMA air interface
• Messages includes GPS information of the PHCH which is carried by
the patients
Communication protocol between CDMA communication module
in PHCH and emergency center in hospital
22
Conclusion
• The paper present a study discussed a ubiquitous health care
system using USN, GPS, CDMA and RFID modules
• With the system, a hospital can diagnose patients’ condition
remotely by using and electronic stethoscope and transmitting
patients’ heart, chest and bowel sound.
• Using USN, the system can detect chronic disease patients’
emergencies such as syncope and convulsion.
• Experimental results are delivered.
23
My point of view
Superiorities of this paper:
 Using Back-propagation Network Learning to detect the emergency situation is
more accurate and scientific
 Using vibration sensor to detect convulsions is creative
 Using both acceleration sensor and vibration sensor enhanced the accuracy
Weakness
 Power consumption about the Personal Health Care Host (carried by the
patients) is not mentioned
 USB connection between the embedded system and E-stethoscope is not very
practical
 The emergency codes are totally not useful or helpful
 The accuracy about the false positive (test cases are not well covered)
24
Experimental Results for Ubiquitous e-Health System
----Emergency Monitoring
Waveform of acceleration and
vibration sensors for normal
walking
Waveform of acceleration and
vibration sensors for convulsion
Waveform of acceleration and
vibration sensors for syncope
25
Comparison with other papers
Good ideas from other paper:
 Using an independent host to collect data from sensors and do the emergency
detection to solve the power consumption problem
 Using heart-rate sensor rather than electronic stethoscope to be more convenient
for patients to wear
 Using both outdoor and indoor location to get the position of a patient
 Add more sensors (gravity vector & magnetic field vector)to detect more
emergency situations, eg. fall-down issue
 Having a camera in the system to have detailed info about the emergency situation
Y
 Using wifi to transfer data when wifi signal is detected
X
Z
Normal condition
X
Z
Y
Y
Y
Z
Fall condition I
Fall condition II
X
Z
X
Fall condition III
26
Reference
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sensitivity_and_specificity
• H. Witten and E Framk, "Data Mining: Practical Machine Learning Tools and
Techniques with Java Implementations", Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 1999.
• Beiye Liu; Miao Hu ; Hai Li ; Zhi-Hong Mao “Digital-assisted noise-eliminating
training for memristor crossbar-based analog neuromorphic computing engine”
Design Automation Conference (DAC), 2013 50th ACM / EDAC / IEEE
•
Baiyi Chen; Chengliu Li; Zhi-Hong Mao “Designing a wearable computer for
lifestyle evaluation” Bioengineering Conference (NEBEC), 2012 38th Annual
Northeast
• Ryu Gyeong-sang, “Development Trend and Prospect of Ubiquitous Society,”
Ubiquitous Research Series No. 1, National Information Society Agency, p3,
2006

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