### PPT

```Coupling-Aware Length-RatioMatching Routing for Capacitor
Kuan-Hsien Ho, Hung-Chih Ou, Yao-Wen Chang and Hui-Fang Tsao
National Taiwan University, Taiwan
DAC’13
Outline

Introduction

Problem Formulation

Routing Model and Algorithm Overview

Topology Overview

Detail Routing

Experimental Result
2
Introduction

The parasitic resistors and capacitors of interconnects
gradually dominate the performance, signal integrity, and
reliability of circuit designs [1].

The parasitic effects of interconnects on a layout with
multiple unit capacitors cannot be ignored because the
effects might change the capacitance ratio.

Capacitance-ratio mismatch in a switched-capacitor circuit
3
Introduction

Parasitic capacitance is highly correlated with wire length [13]

if the length ratio of interconnects of each capacitor can match
the desired capacitance ratio, the impact of parasitic
capacitance can be minimized.
4
Introduction
(A) Without length ratio
matching.
C1 : C2 : C3 : C4 : C5 = 2 : 6 : 7 : 7 : 8
(B) With length ratio matching
but no coupling
considerations.
(C) With both length
ratio5 matching and
coupling considerations.
Introduction
6
Problem Formulation

For two capacitor nets ni and nj ( j > i), ideally the length ratio equals
the desired capacitance ratio:
where the function L(ni) and Lu(ni) denote the respective length and
unit length of the capacitor net ni ( i.e., Lu(ni) = L(ni) / ki ).

C = {C1, C2, ...,Cm } be the set of m capacitors, and ki be the number
of unit capacitors in Ci ∈ C for 1 ≤ i ≤ m.

Capacitance ratio C1 : C2 : ... : Cm = k1 : k2 : ... : km.

A capacitor net ni of Ci ∈ C is an interconnect that connects all of the
unit capacitors of Ci and the pad of Ci.
7
Problem Formulation

Length-Ratio-Matching Routing Problem: Given a
capacitor set and a capacitor placement[6], route all of
the capacitor nets such that the length-ratio-matching
cost is minimized under the 100% routability guarantee
and no route or via intersects any unit capacitors
(tracks)
8
Problem Formulation

The length-ratio-matching cost function Φ(m) by the
difference of unit lengths between each pair of capacitor
nets as follows:
9
Routing Model and Algorithm
Overview
10
Routing Model and
Algorithm Overview

Determines the topologies of all
capacitor nets.

Each multi-pin net is
decomposed into a set of 2- pin
nets based on its topology.

Given a length ratio, a feasible
length interval is first
determined, and the minimum
feasible length is set as the
desired length for each
capacitor.
11
Routing Model and Algorithm
Overview
terminal tiles
space tiles
Routing graph modeling
Tile is modeled as a vertex and each
12
tiles
as an edge
Spanning-Graph Construction
and Congestion Estimation

Construct a spanning graph [5] for each capacitor net,
each spanning graph is an undirected connected graph
on the vertex set of the corresponding capacitor net.

propagated probability model is proposed, which
propagates probabilities tile by tile for a high accuracy,
and use the proposed model to estimate the congestion
for each edge of the spanning graph.
13
Spanning-Graph Construction
and Congestion Estimation
propagated probability model
14
Weight Computation and
Spanning-Tree Construction

In this step, we assign weights to all the edges in each
spanning graph and then construct a spanning tree on
the graph.

The edge weight we of each edge depends on
(1) wirelength weight wlength
(2) congestion weight wcong
15
Weight Computation and
Spanning-Tree Construction

Wirelength weight wlength is the Manhattan distance of the two
edge pins.

The congestion weight of an edge can be computed by
dynamic programming as follows.

wcong [cb, rb] is the minimum of the maximum congestions

bV[cb,rb] is the estimated congestion on the boundary between
t[cb, rb−1] and t[cb, rb]
16
among all possible monotonic paths from the source tile t[1, 1]
to t[cb, rb]
Weight Computation and
Spanning-Tree Construction

With the wirelength weight and congestion weight, we
define we as follows:

where Ntrack is the minimum number of tracks between two
adjacent unit capacitors in the vertical or the horizontal
direction.

To avoid congested areas during the construction of a
minimum spanning tree, the congestion map in the routing
graph needs to be updated once an edge is selected. 17
Coupling-aware SteinerPoint Insertion
18
Coupling-aware SteinerPoint Insertion

flexibility range of a Steiner point s


the difference of the upper and lower bounds of a 3-pin net
wirelength by inserting s
moving box of s

the bounding box of the three pins.
19
Coupling-aware SteinerPoint Insertion

Traverse a minimum spanning tree in a preorder
sequence.

The visited vertex and its parent both become the
children of the Steiner point, while the grandparent
becomes the parent of the Steiner point.
20
Coupling-aware SteinerPoint Insertion

shrinking cost

Difference of the product of (1) the sum of the flexibility
ranges and (2) the total area of the two moving boxes,
before and after moving a Steiner point.
21
Desired Wirelength
Determination

Determine the desired wirelength di (li ≤ di ≤ ui) for each
capacitor net ni to minimize Equation (1).

Normalize the length interval [ li, ui ] of each capacitor net ni,
to a unit length interval [ ˆli, ˆui ], where we divide the length
interval by ki, ˆli = li/ki and ˆui = ui / ki.
22
Desired Wirelength
Determination

expanding wirelength ei as (di − li )


the length that should be provided by moving the Steiner
points in their corresponding bounding boxes.
Distribute ei of ni to each Steiner point of ni, where the
necessary moving length Ms of each Steiner point s is set
as ei × (Imax/(ui − li)), where Imax is the maximum
wirelength increment of moving the Steiner point located
at the median inside the corresponding bounding box.
23
Desired Wirelength
Determination

Find a candidate position for each Steiner point for the next
stage, detailed routing.

Considering a Steiner point s in the grid-based model, we
can get a diamond whose radius is equal to Ms.

In order to satisfy Properties 1 and 2, we select the grids
which are
(1) on the diamond,
(2) in the corresponding bounding box,
(3) not on the location of any unit capacitor,
as the candidate grids of the Steiner point.

Once the Steiner point s is embedded in any candidate grid,
the total wirelength can be increased by Ms.
24
Routing Model and
Algorithm Overview

Detailed routing for wirelength
minimization is performed for
each 2-pin net to match the
coupling-aware desired length.
25
DETAILED ROUTING

Decompose each resulting tree into a set of 2-pin nets

Simultaneously determine the final positions of Steiner
points and minimize routing wirelength.

Assign a Steiner point to a routable candidate grid with
the least congestion and coupling according to the routed
nets and the routing topologies determined in the first
stage.

Then route all the 2-pin nets by maze routing while
minimizing the bend number and coupling noise.
26
EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
The test cases used in this experiments were modified from
27
the resulting capacitor placements of the work [6].
EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
Total cost
Total differences of unit
lengths between each
pair of capacitor nets,
as defined in Eq. (1).
Avg. cost
Dividing the total cost by
the number of different
pairs of capacitor nets.
The PCM method replaces our propagated probability
congestion estimation model by the probabilistic congestion
28
model which is widely used in previous works [7, 14].
Conclusion

An effective length-ratio-matching routing algorithm is