Slide 1

Report
The Impact of a Rapidly Changing Energy Economy in the
U.S. on Electric Power Grid Modernization, and the Role of
Advanced Grid Technologies for Future Energy Sustainability
University of Pittsburgh – Pitt Law
Energy Law and Policy Institute
The Rivers Club, Pittsburgh PA
August 1, 2013
Gregory F. Reed, Ph.D.
Director, Electric Power Initiative
Assoc. Director, Center for Energy
Assoc. Professor, Electrical & Computer Engineering
Swanson School of Engineering – University of Pittsburgh
Overview
Three Main Themes:
1 - The Rapidly Changing Energy Resource Portfolio in the
U.S. for Electricity Generation
2 - The Challenges Associated with Current Trends and
Future Projections in Generation Mix and Location on
Electric Power System Planning and Operations
3 - The Impact on the Critical Need for Modernization and
Expansion of the Electric Power Delivery Infrastructure
(i.e. the Power Grid) for Future Energy Sustainability
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U.S. Electricity Generation – Trends
2009
2010
2012
Coal: 37.4%
Natural Gas: 30.4%
Nuclear: 19%
Hydroelectric: 6.7%
Non-hydro Renewables: 5.4 %
Fuel Oil: 0.6%
2011
Sources: U.S. DOE Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Outlook Reports
3
U.S. Electricity Generation – Projections
Source:
2013 US DOE EIA
Early Release Projections
4
Challenges for the U.S. Power Grid
• Growing Constraints on Electrical Infrastructure
•
•
•
•
•
Continued growth in overall electrical demand
Transmission congestion in key areas of the country
‘Legacy’ century-old system and aging/antiquated AC equipment
De-commissioning of many ‘near-load’ generation (mainly fossil plants)
Rapidly changing electricity generation resource mix and plant locations
• Increased Penetration of Renewable Generation
• Statewide renewable portfolio standards
• Location of renewable supply vs. location of load centers
• Integrating non-dispatchable/intermittent resources reliably
• More Distributed Resources and DC loads
• High penetration of local generation (PV, etc.), within distribution networks
• Energy storage technology developments and applications
• Consumer and industrial loads are migrating toward DC systems:
• Data center equipment -- e.g., switches, servers, UPS, etc.
• Home computers, lighting, TVs, internet routers, cell phones, etc.
• Electronic motor drives, industrial automation equipment, EVs, etc.
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U.S. Existing Power Plants Map
http://www.npr.org/news/graphics/2009/apr/electric-grid/gridmap.swf
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U.S. Renewable Energy Map
Resource
Theoretical
Potential
Solar PV/CSP)
Wind
Geothermal
Water Power
Biopower
206,000 GW
(PV)
11,100GW
(CSP)
8,000 GW
(onshore)
2,200 GW
(offshore to 50
nm)
39 GW
(conventional)
520 GW (EGS)
4 GW
(co-produced)
140 GW
78 GW
Source:
US DOE National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL)
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North American Shale Gas Plays
Muskwa
Montney
Frederick
Brook
Bakken
Cody
Horton
Bluff
Since 2000,
32 ‘Plays’ –
an 8-fold
increase
since 1980
Utica
Gammon
Mowry
McClure
Green River/
Mancos/
Baxter
Antri
m
Niobrara
Pierre
Hermosa
Monterey
Lewis &
Mancos
Marcellus
Excello/
Mulky
Caney/
Palo Woodford
Duro
Barnett &
Woodford
New
Alba
ny
Fayetteville
Neal/
Floyd
Huro
n
Chattanooga
Conasauga
Barnet Haynesville/
Bossier
t
Eagle
Ford
Pearsall
Source: US DOE
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U.S. Electrical Transmission – EHV/UHV
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U.S. Transmission and Power Plants
• Outside of the Northeast
region, existing EHV and
UHV transmission
infrastructure is not as dense
as other regions comparably
• Many of the existing fossilbased plants identified in the
bottom figure will be retired
in the next 20 years,
resulting in var deficiencies
and creating voltage and
system instability, requiring
more power electronics
control (FACTS/DC)
• The two maps together
show that today, resources
are aligned with transmission
build-out (reflective of
historical population and
economic density)
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Context of Renewable/Clean Energy
Statements on Increased Renewable Energy Penetration
• DOE National Electric Transmission Congestion Study:
“…there is transmission congestion at present, but ‘significant’ increases in
congestion would result if large amounts of new generation resources were
to be developed without simultaneous development of associated
transmission capacity” (2006)
• DOE, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and
American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) joint Report:
“….transmission and integration into the U.S. electric system…”
is one main hurdle to establishing wind power on the grid
“….many challenges are inherent in building transmission systems to
accommodate wind and solar energy. If electric loads keep growing,
extensive new transmission will be required to connect new generation to
loads. ….true regardless of the power sources that dominate, whether they
are fossil fuels, wind, solar hydropower, etc.” (2008)
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National Transmission Needs for
Wind Integration by 2030 (2009 ref.)
Source: 2009 National Electric Transmission Congestion Study (NETCS2009)
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Power Electronics Technology Impact
Power Electronics Technologies Impact and Growth:
• U.S. Dept. of Energy, Office of Electricity Delivery &
Energy Reliability Report (March, 2010):
“Presently 30% of all electric power generated uses power
electronics technologies somewhere between the point of
generation and end-use. By 2030, 80% of all electric power
will flow through power electronics”
• Reed, et.al. DOE NETL SGA Report (June, 2011):
“Advances in power electronics technologies and systems will
be critical to improve electric power flow control, effectively
integrate renewable and non-dispatched energy generation
resources, implement energy storage solutions and distributed
generation, and support an expanding market for plug-in hybrid
electric vehicles”
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A New Era is Emerging in Power Systems
• Grid Technologies for the Future
• A need to expand and modernize the existing legacy infrastructure
• Matching end-use requirements (more DC loads) with delivery technologies
(hybrid AC / DC systems) and evolving generation (more DC supply)
• Integrating ‘smart grid’ concepts for enhanced control, communications,
protection, automation, and security
• The Role of Advanced Power Electronics Grid Technologies
• Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS)
• Improves the performance of existing AC systems and supports the
deficiency of ‘var’ capacity lost from near-load plant decommissioning
• High Voltage Direct Current Systems (HVDC)
• Advantages over traditional AC solutions or certain applications
(mainly for bulk transmission delivery)
• Medium Voltage Direct Current Systems (MVDC)
• Offers the potential to bridge the gap and develop better efficiencies
between supply and demand
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New Age War of the Currents: AC vs DC
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U.S. Transmission Investments
• History and Present Market Environment
• Under-investment in Transmission & Distribution from 1970’s thru 1999
• Reduced R&D and erosion of grid capacity/reliability margins
• Increasing investment trend from 1999 through present
Source: Edison Electric Institute (EEI)
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Hybrid DC/AC Super Grid Concepts
HV DC/AC Super-Grid Concept for Efficient Integration of Energy Resources and Power Delivery
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HVDC Solutions
HVDC: High Voltage DC Transmission Systems:
• More power can be transmitted more efficiently over long
distances by applying HVDC, and is less costly for
underground installation
• HVDC lines can carry 2 to 5 times the capacity of an AC line
of similar voltage, over the same right of way
• Interconnection of two AC systems, where AC lines would not
be possible due to stability problems or both systems having
different nominal frequencies
• HVDC transmission is necessary for underwater power
transfer if the cables are longer than 50km
• Power flow can be controlled rapidly and accurately
• Higher reliability and greater resiliency to disturbances
• Offers a solution to a ‘national strategy’ for grid modernization
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HVDC Solutions
DC Transmission and Back-to-Back Link Configurations
CONVERTER
STATION
THYRISTOR
VALVE HALL
DC
Transmission
Lines
AC
Network
(A)
~ or ~
AC
Network
(B)
BtB DC-Link
Converter
Station A
Converter
Station B
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The Pittsburgh Region’s Role
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Opportunities
Collaboration of Policy/Law and Engineering/Technology
• Policymakers/Lawyers and Engineers/Technologists must be
at the table ‘together’ to develop thoughtful and efficient
solutions to the challenges ahead
• A true understanding and appreciation by policymakers
related to technology considerations on new policies and laws
(and vice-versa) needs to be part of the dialogue
• There is tremendous potential benefit for our region related to
everything from resource extraction and utilization to
technology development and manufacturing ... for the overall
reliable, safe, economic, efficient, and sustainable supply and
operation of electric power and energy systems
• National leadership in economic development, job growth,
ingenuity, and partnership
• Exciting and dynamic futures for young Americans!
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Thank You
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