By 2015, many countries will still not have reached the

Report
Teaching and
learning
Achieving quality for all
Name:
Event:
Location, date 2014
Key messages
 By 2015, many countries will still not
have reached the EFA goals.
 There is a global learning crisis that is
hitting the disadvantaged hardest.
 Good quality education can only be
achieved with good quality teachers.
 Global education goals after 2015
must track progress of the
marginalized.
 Post-2015 goals must include
specific targets to finance education.
EFA goals will not be reached by 2015
Goal 1: Early childhood care and education
 1 in 4 children under 5 suffer from stunting, because of
malnutrition.
 50% of young children have access to pre-primary
education, but only 17% in low income countries.
Goal 2: Universal primary education
 57 million children are out of school, half of whom live
in conflict-affected countries.
 In sub-Saharan Africa, only 23% of poor, rural girls
complete primary education.
EFA goals will not be reached by 2015
Goal 3: Youth and adult skills
 69 million adolescents are out of school.
 In low income countries, only 37% of adolescents
complete lower secondary education, and only 14% of
the poorest.
The number of adolescents out of school declined slowly
120
Out-of-school children
107
100
Out-of-school adolescents
101
81
80
73
Millions
69
60
57
40
South and West Asia
31
40
20 22
0
1999
Source: UIS database.
Sub-Saharan Africa
2001
2003
2005
2007
22
2009
2011
EFA goals will not be reached by 2015
Goal 4: Adult literacy
 774 million adults are illiterate, a decline of just 1% since
2000.
 Almost two-thirds of illiterate adults are women.
Goal 5: Gender parity and equality
There are fewer than 9 girls for every 10 boys:
 in 17 countries at primary level
 in 30 countries at secondary level.
By 2015, many countries will still not have reached the EFA goals
Percentage of countries projected to reach a benchmark for five EFA goals
by 2015
Source: Bruneforth (2013).
Failing to reach the marginalized
Fall in aid threatens education in the poorest countries
There is a financing gap of $26 billion per year
Yet, aid to basic education fell by 6% between 2010 and 2011
Constant 2011 US$ billions
8
6
4
2
3.0
3.3
3.6
2002
2003
2004
4.2
4.6
2005
2006
5.1
5.2
2007
2008
6.2
6.2
5.8
2009
2010
2011
0
Source: OECD-DAC (2013)
Only US$1.9 billion of basic
education aid was allocated
to low income countries in
2011.
Targets must be set so no one is left behind due to lack of resources
After 2015, financing targets should be set for
countries to allocate:
 at least 6% of GNP on education; only 41 had
reached this level by 2011
 at least 20% of their budget on education; only 25
had reached this level by 2011
Financing targets should also apply to aid donors so
that all funders are held to account for their promises.
Teaching and Learning: Achieving quality for all
250 million children are failing to learn the basics
Many children in the poorest countries are not learning the basics
The cost of the learning crisis
0
Central and West Africa
Southern and Eastern Africa
Latin America
Costa Rica
Uruguay
Chile
Argentina
Brazil
Colombia
Peru
Ecuador
Paraguay
Panama
El Salvador
Dominican Rep.
Nicaragua
Guatemala
Swaziland
Kenya
U. R. Tanzania
Zimbabwe
Lesotho
Namibia
Uganda
Malawi
Mozambique
Zambia
Burundi
Congo
Cameroon
Benin
Madagascar
Burkina Faso
Côte d'Ivoire
Mauritania
Senegal
Chad
Children of primary school age (%)
Poorer children learn less
Children completing primary school and achieving minimum learning
standards in mathematics, sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America
100
80
60
40
Rich
20
Poor
Poor quality education leaves a legacy of illiteracy
One-quarter of those aged 15 to 24 in poor countries are
unable to read a single sentence.
Four strategies for providing the best teachers
Strategy 1: Recruit the best candidates
Total primary teacher recruitment needed (millions)
6
5
4
Additional
teachers
All
other
60%
1.6 million
3
2
Replacement
for attrition
3.7 million
1
0
2011-2015
Source: UIS (2013)
SubSaharan
Africa
• 1.6 million additional teachers
are needed to achieve
universal primary education
by 2015
0.7
• On current trends, 29
countries will not even have
filled their primary school
teacher gap by 2030
• 5.1 million additional
teachers will be needed to
achieve universal lower
secondary education by
2030
POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS:
Policy-makers must attract
the best candidates to
teaching
 All trainees need, at a minimum, to have
completed secondary education with good grades.
 There should be a good balance of male to female
teachers.
 Teachers from a diverse range of backgrounds need
to be attracted to the profession.
0
Source: UIS database.
Barbados
Dominica
Qatar
Kyrgyzstan
Guyana
Nicaragua
Solomon Is.
Belize
Liberia
Comoros
Lesotho
S.Tome/Principe
Nigeria
Equat. Guinea
Togo
Guinea
Ghana
Sudan (pre-secession)
Sierra Leone
Mozambique
Cameroon
Bangladesh
Senegal
Mali
Benin
Chad
Ethiopia
Guinea-Bissau
C. A. R.
Pupils per teacher
Strategy 2: Train all teachers well
In one out of three countries, less than three-quarters of
teachers are trained to national standards
160
Pupil/trained teacher ratio
140
Pupil/teacher ratio
120
100
80
60
40
20
POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS
Policy-makers must provide
good quality pre-service and
ongoing teacher education
 Teachers must have good subject knowledge.
 Teachers must be equipped to meet the needs of those from
disadvantaged backgrounds.
 Teachers need training in the use of assessment tools to detect
and address learning difficulties early.
 Teacher trainees should have classroom experience and new
teachers need support of mentors.
 Training must not stop once teachers are in the classroom.
 Teacher educators need training too.
Strategy 3: Allocate teachers to reach the disadvantaged
The unequal allocation of teachers is affected by four
main factors
1. Urban bias
2. Ethnicity and language
3. Gender
4. Subjects
POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS
Policy-makers must
allocate the best
teachers where they are
most needed
 Teachers should be provided with incentives to work
in remote areas
 Local recruitment of teachers helps to ensure
sufficient teachers are working in difficult areas
Strategy 4: Provide incentives to retain teachers
Teachers in some poor countries are not paid enough to live on
In Liberia, where a family needs at
least US$10 per day, teachers are paid
only US$6 a day.
C. A. R.
Liberia
Guinea Bissau
D.R. Congo
Madagascar
Zambia
Uganda
Mozambique
Comoros
Rwanda
Chad
Guinea
Sierra Leone
Gambia
Togo
Niger
Mali
Congo
S. Tome/Principe
Burundi
Cameroon
Burkina Faso
Malawi
Benin
Angola
Senegal
Cape Verde
Côte d'Ivoire
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Slovak Republic
Poland
U. R. Tanzania
Mauritania
Hungary
Estonia
Nigeria
Kenya
Mexico
Morocco
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Daily salary of a primary school teacher, 2011 PPP US$
Source: Pole de Dakar database; OECD (2013b).
Strategy 4: Provide incentives to retain teachers
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
Civil servant
Source: Pôle de Dakar database.
Contract
Mali
Niger
Cameroon
Benin
Chad
Guinea
Burkina Faso
Togo
Senegal
C.A.R
Congo
Madagascar
Guinea Bissau
Uganda
Gambia
Côte d'Ivoire
Burundi
Comoros
0
Malawi
10
Rwanda
Share of total primary teacher workforce (%)
Many West African countries have a teaching force made up
largely of people on short-term contracts
POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS:
Provide incentives to
retain the best teachers
 Teachers should be paid enough to meet at least their
basic needs, and offered the best possible working
conditions.
 Teachers also need an attractive career path that
rewards those who address diversity and support weak
students.
Strengthen teacher governance
Measures are needed to address teacher misconduct:
 to tackle gender-based violence
 to reduce teacher absenteeism
 to prevent teachers offering private tuition to their
own students.
Provide appropriate curriculum & assessment strategies
Policy-makers must ensure teachers are supported
by strategies that:
 Support learning from the earliest years delivered
at an appropriate pace
 Provide education in relevant languages
 Promote inclusion through the curriculum
 Provide accelerated second-chance programmes
 Identify and support low achievers with classroom
assessment
Make teachers part of the solution
www.efareport.unesco.org
Blog: efareport.wordpress.com
#teachlearn / @efareport

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