Use of Fertilizer Additives

Report

Nitrogen
› Not available
› NH3 is the devil

Phosphorus
› Not available
› Around for a long time
› Ortho P is better than Poly P

They can be added too
› N stabilizers/Inhibitors
› P stabilizers
› Low Salt and fungicides

Replacement off
› Coated
› Low salt/slow release
› Ortho P

Or in Blends
› Coated

Should be applied for a reason
› The is a problem
› Or potential to increase

Not just because
 Slow
Release
› Prevents immediate release into soil
where environment and biological’s have
impact.
 Coated
 Chemistry
 Inhibitors
› Prevent the biological activity that
impacts the Nitrogen Cycle
› Since early 60’s at least 15 substances
thoroughly researched

Coated Urea’s
› Sulfur Coat
› Polymer Coat

Urea/N Chemistries
› Isobutylidene diurea
› Ureaformaldehyde
› Urea-Triazone
› Methylene Urea
Advantage of these materials is that one application
may provide a uniform supply of N to the plants for
several weeks.
 S-coated urea (32-36 %N) breakdown of the S coat
(physical barrier) Moisture
 Polymer Coated Ureas ESN: Temp and Moist
 IBDU (isobutylidene diurea) is synthetic organic.
particle size, soil moisture content and pH.
 Urea-formaldehyde: microbial & temp
 Methylene di-urea -CoRoN, Dura_N: Microbial & temp
 Urea-Triazon- N-Pact, N-Sure: Moist & Microbial.

 LOOK
AT PERCENT SLOW RELEASE
 6 to 20%
 Release Patterns


ESN contains a urea granule nitrogen (N) within a micro-thin
polymer coating. This coating allows water within the soil to
move into the granule and dissolve the urea inside. The urea
solution then moves out through the coating into the soil
where it is available to the crop.
The rate at which the urea solution moves out through the
coating is determined by soil temperature and moisture. In
cool soils when the crop is growing slowly, N release is slow. As
the soil warms and crop growth increases, the granules
release N more quickly and steadily.
Yield and Protein Always equal to UAN
when used as a fertilizer source.
 Reduced amount of Tissue Damage
 Increased rate w/ seed possible.
Using 10-34-0

› Wheat < 30 lb N i.e. 25 gal/ac
› Canola <10 lb N i.e. 8 gal/ac
3 yr Average
Relative yield 100% is Producer
Standard.
125%
100%
1.16
1.00
1.18
1.16
1.21
1.18
1.02
0.80
75%
50%
25%
Received Humic
Acid with Top-dress
0%
No flag Quilt
leaf
Quilt + No flag Quilt
CoRoN leaf
Quilt + Kitchen Zero
CoRoN sink Fertility
Two Target
 Keep as Urea
 Keep as Ammonia

Wet Soil 70˚F
0
4
8
Wet Soil 35˚F
0
8
32
56
Dry Soil 70˚F
0
8
32
56
Rain1/2”
Sub Soil 70˚F
0
4
8
0
4
H2O:
Rain, Mist,
Dew,
Humidity, Soil
Moisture
NH3
(gas
)
(NH2)2
CO2
NH4
NH4
SOI
L
H2
O
NH4
NH4
SOIL

Urease Inhibition
› Basically prevents/slows urea’s conversion to
ammonia
› If ammonia (gas) is formed in absence of
moisture or soil surface it will be lost to the
atmosphere
H2O
(NH2)
2
CO2
SOIL

NBPT: Studied since the 80’s Agrotain
› 7 Day half life

(MIC) Maleic Itaconic Coploymer Ca
binding of nickel ions necessary for the
formation and function of the enzyme
Nutrisphere
› Published Results not positive

When less or not beneficial
› Incorporated
› Rain or irrigation of ½ “ or more
› Soil and air temp < 50
› Dry soil and Air
› Banding
› No rain expected for 14+ days
› UAN vs Urea

When more beneficial
› Surface applied
› No-till
› High humidity
› Light rains, heavy dews, mists
› Soil and air temp > 50
› Wet soil
› Soil with high pH >7.5 Lots of OH in soil
› Rain within 10 days

Nitrification Inhibition
› Basically prevents/slows ammonium’s
conversion to nitrate
› Ammonium(+) is immobile in the soil Nitrate(-)
is mobile. In high rainfall, irrigated, well
drained soil NO3 is easily lost.
› NO3 can be lost by leaching and
Denitrification
 Both Take WATER!!!!
Nitrapyrin- Registered Pesticide, studied
since the 60’s N-Serve, Instinct
 (MIC) Maleic Itaconic Coploymer Ca

binding of nickel ions necessary for the
formation and function of the enzyme
Nutrisphere
 DCD – Suppresses, does not kill
nitrosomas, Agro+, SuperU
 Ammonium-Thio-Sulfate: Low pH keep
NH4 from going to NH3, short lived.

When less or not beneficial
› Arid environments
› Well drained soils that allow infiltration but
have limited leaching

When more beneficial
› Tile Drainage
› Wet soils
› Irrigated fields
Chemically “Charged”
 Binds with Iron, Aluminum, Calcium

› Oklahoma Soils high in ALL of these.
› Average down state Ca, 6000lbs avail.

Phosphorus Fertilizer and the Soil
› Common commercial P fertilizers are highly
(≥90%) water soluble


In general, P in dry fertilizers such as 18-46-0 and 1152-0 P is orthophosphate.
P in common fluid fertilizers such as 10-34-0 and 7-21-7
is present as both orthophosphate & polyphosphate.
› Approximately 2/3 of the P is present in the Poly and The
remainder is Ortho
› Some fluids such as the 9-18-9 have all of the P as Ortho


The effect of both forms of P on crop production has
been evaluated in various field trials throughout the
Corn Belt.
The results from a study with corn in Nebraska are
summarized in the following table.
The effect of polyphosphate and
orthophosphate on corn yield Source: University of
Nebraska ave of 5 sites; low P test
P Source
P2O5 Applied polyphosphate orthophosphate
lb/acre
15
30
45
- - - - - - - -bu/acre - - - - - - - 124
124
134
134
142
142
24
You should not base choice of fertilizers
on orthophosphate or polyphosphate
claims.
 Buy the source that best fits your needs
and is the cheapest per lb of nutrient.

Avail®, which is marketed as a phosphate
enhancing product, contains the same
active ingredient as Nutrisphere. The Avail
activity is attributed to binding of calcium or
iron ions in the soil normally bind p.
 AI of Nutrisphere/Avail, the compound is
highly negatively charged and would tend
to bind with any compound with a positive
charge, not distinguishing one ion over
another.


Avail Studies in Wheat (Not Published)
› Arnall, 3 years 2 sites per year. No positive.

Agrotain in Wheat (Published)
› Arnall, No positive yield responses
› Edwards, 1 out of 2 yrs positive.

Slow release N’s. Wheat and Corn.
› Just as good as UAN or Urea.

NUE Sorghum (Not Published, ongoing)
› ESN, SUPERU, Agrotain
› Banded UAN in 2” x 2” UAN+Agrotain Plus &
UAN + Nutrisphere Caused Stand Problems.

Southern Water Group (On table)
AR, AL, FL, NM, NC, OK, TX

There were few differences due to N fertilizer sources or additives
for the soils, crops, or environmental conditions evaluated.
Nutrisphere®, Nitamin® and Agrotain® did not improve yields at
any location for any crop where tested. Pre-plant incorporated
ESN (as compared to urea) improved the corn yield at one site in
Arkansas. When tested at two sites in Arkansas, ESN improved
seedcotton yield at one site but produced yields equal to urea at
the second site.
Preplant incorporated ESN® performed better than urea on corn in
Arkansas and cotton in one of the two sites in Arkansas. The ESN®
performed similarly or worse than UAN solution or urea in Alabama
(corn), North Carolina (corn and wheat), Oklahoma (wheat) and
Texas (grain sorghum).


www.extensionnews.okstate.edu
Brian Arnall
373 Ag Hall
405-744-1722
[email protected]
Presentation available @
www.npk.okstate.edu
Twitter: @OSU_NPK
YouTube Channel: OSUNPK

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